Skip to main content

Full text of "Annual report of the State Board of Health of the State of Rhode Island, for the year ending .."

See other formats


8ERJAI 



Columbia <HnitJer^ftp 

iniijeCttpofiJtagcrk 

College of ipfjpgtrians; anb burgeon* 
Hibrarp 




c 
S 1 






CQ 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 
Columbia University Libraries 



http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportofst1889rhod 



Twelfth Annual Report 



State Board of Health, 



STATE OF RHODE ISLAND, 

For the Year ending December 31, 1889, 

AND INCLUDING THE REPORT UPON TIIE REGISTRATION OP 

BIRTHS, MARRIAGES AND DEATHS IN I 




PROVI HENCE : 
E L. TB i: l. M a N A s ( . >. . - r a T l. r B i n i 
1890. 



MEMBERS 

OF THE 

Rhode Island State Board of Health. 

December 31, 1889. 



Post Office Address. 

HENRY E. TURNER, M. D, Chairman Newport Newport County. 

SAMUEL M. GRAY, C. E Providence Providence Co. 

ALBERT G. SPRAGUE, M. D River Point Kent County. 

ALVIN H. ECCLESTON, M. D Wood River Junc. Washington Co. 

PAUL S. REDPIELD, M. D Providence Providence Co. 

HENRY S. SWAN, M. D Bristol Bristol County. 

CHARLES H. FISHER, M. D., ex officio and Secretary. .Providence Providence Co. 



GENERAL CONTENTS. 



GENERAL IiF. PORT. 

Report of the Secretary. 

Health in the Towns, 18* 

eeport8 of medicai correspondents— prevalence 
of Acute Diseases in the Towns. 

Reports of Town- Clerks en Relation to Sanitary 
Improvements cn the Town-. 

Reports of Health Officers. 

Tables of Comparative Prevalence of Diseases, 
Six Fears. 

Meteorology. 

Water Works i\ Rhode Island. 

Sanitary Condition op Watch Bill, R. I. 

Disposal of Sewage or Isolated Country Hoi 

Public Statutes, Chapter 83. 

Additions to the Library. 

[ndex. 



260609 



INTRODUCTORY. 



GENERAL REPORT. 



To the Honorable the General Assembly: 

In behalf of the State Board of Eealth, the Twelfth Annual Report 
of the Board is herewith respectfully presented in compliance with 
the Public Statutes. 

The report is for the year ending December 31, 1889. 

It is with great satisfaction that the board can allude at this time 
to the fact of an increasing recognition, on the part of the people, of 
the importance of health and of the means of preserving it, as indis- 
pensable requirements for the enjoyment of private and personal 
happiness, and for the best moral welfare and fullest material pros- 
perity of the State. 

The fact of the gradual progress and decided advance in the sani- 
tary sentiments of the general public, is evinced by the action of the 
various town authorities, (who usually have the people behind them), 
in the enactment of sanitary ordinances, with increasing stringency 
and better enforcement from year to year ; by the demands of the 
people for pure or good water, as shown by the eager inquiries as to 
the means of obtain m en t by water works and otherwise ; by the more 
universal demand for the abatement of nuisances believed to be preju- 
dicial to health ; by the more general practice, in most of the com- 
pact localities, of the prompt removal of garbage and house refuse ; 
by the largely increased number who seek after and read the various 
sanitary publications of the day ; by the greater attention to persona] 
cleanliness, as shown by the larger purchase ami larger inquiry as to 
appliances for household ablutions; and by greater attention to drain- 
age and other methods of the disposal of household and other sewage. 

The public conception of the value of health, and the means of 
preservation, is undeniably much higher at the present time than it 
was ten years ago. 



2 V STAjrK j>(>Ani) '.of: if KAi/hr. [1889. 

PEBs(5lfinpji , .<5B T^e |board. 

The term of membership of Henry W. Eose, M. D., of Westerly, 
having expired by limitation on the first of July, 1889, Gov. H. W. 
Ladd appointed Herbert J. Pomroy, M. D., of AVesterly, as his suc- 
cessor. Dr. Pomroy having removed from the State before the end 
of the year, the Governor appointed Alvan H. Eccleston, M. D., of 
Eichmond, to fill the vacancy, and the appointment was approved by 
the State Senate at the January Session of the General Assembly, 
1890. 

Otherwise, during the year 1889, the personnel of the board 
remained the same as at the time of making the last report. 

WORK OF THE BOARD. 

It is not deemed essential to report in this connection, in detail, 
the work performed by the secretary as the executive officer, under 
the direction or with the approval of the board during the year 1889, 
as such report would add largely to the size of the volume, and as the 
particulars of such work have been fully considered at the different 
meetings of the board during the year. 

At the meetings the object has been to take cognizance of the inter- 
ests of life and health among the citizens of the State ; to provide for 
investigation into the causes of disease when deemed to be advisable ; 
to take such measures for the prevention of disease in man and beast 
as circumstances seemed to require and the power and means at com- 
mand of the board would allow. 

The proceedings of the board have been, in relation to the above, 
the condition of the water supply of villages and shore resorts ; the 
removal or abatement of public nuisances believed to be detrimental 
to health, wherever found ; the proper drainage of compact collec- 
tions of houses as to sink and laundry water ; the disposal, in such 
compact localities, of the house refuse and excreta of whatever kind 
liable to putrefactive decomposition ; the measures needful to be 
taken to prevent the transmission or spread of contagious diseases, 
from exposure to the emanation from the dead bodies of such as have 
died from such diseases ; the distribution of tracts and circulars in 
localities where contagious diseases break out, urging isolation of the 
sick and other methods of restriction of the disease ; the collection of 
vital statistics ; the adulterations of articles entering into the com- 
position of food and drink ; the means needful in the discharge of 



1889.] secretary's report. 3 

the duties imposed by the Public Statutes in the Cattle Commission 
department ; and such other questions, having sanitary relations, as 
from time to time seemed to require attention. 

The work of the secretary has been almost wholly within the lines 
above indicated. But notwithstanding the present advanced sanitary 
sentiment in many localities, the question is occasionally asked : 
" What is the good of all this oversight and sanitary administration?" 
Let us see. I quote the Registrar-General of England. " He points 
out that, according to the newest English life table, the children 
born in England in any one year have now divided among them 
' nearly two million years of life ' more than would have been the 
case thirty-five years ago. In England and Wales the annual mor- 
tality per 1,000,000 of population has been as follows : In 1861-5, 
22,595 ; in 1806-70, 22,430 ; in 1871-5, 21,975 ; in 1876-80, 20,817 ; 
and in 1881-5, 19,310. Comparing the first period and the last, the 
difference is 3,285 per 1,000,000, and taking the population at 
30,000,000, the total annual saving is about 100,000 lives. And if 
for every death there are twenty cases of sickness, then wo have 
2,000,000 less cases of sickness than in the first period. Interesting 
calculations have been often made on this subject, and especially by 
that father of sanitation, Mr. Edwin Chadwick, who, happily, is still 
with us, a witness of the greatness of the success that has attended 
his life's work. You can count the cost of each case of sickness, of 
lost work, of doctors' bills, and so on, and also the monetary value 
of each of the 100,000 lives saved. And you can put all this as in- 
come against the interest on the money spent in sanitary improve- 
ments — in water works, sewerage works, vaccination grants, officials' 
salaries, etc. And even on this lowest ground — on this merely com- 
mercial basis — we find that cleanliness, which is next to godliness, 
resembles godliness itself in being 'great gain.' But we can take a 
vastly higher standpoint. We also are laborers in the great field of 
moral reform. In this field there are many groups employed, each 
pursuing its own line, and each — ay, even the sanitarian — possibly 
apt to attach too much importance to his own particular department. 
The teetotaller holds that if intemperance were driven out of the land, 
then would follow education, cleanliness and religion. And, doubt- 
less he is right. The educationist holds that if man's intellect were 
duly trained it would lead him to avoid alcohol, to avoid dirt, and to 
avoid immorality ! Doubtless he too is right. The religionist holds 
that if man ran he taught his duty to his Gfod, he will do it also to 



4 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

himself and to his fellow-man, and that education, cleanliness, and 
temperance will be the fruits of his religion. Again I say, doubtless 
he is right. And the sanitarian holds that if a man is provided with 
pure air, good food, and healthy exercise, he will then be in a bodily 
condition, which will produce no craving for the stimulus of alcohol, 
which will open his intellect to all the influences of education, and 
which will make him better able to receive and to appreciate the 
truths of religion. For, throughout our life, all good things are 
woven together, and thus it comes that the prosaic and ofttimes 
unattractive work of the sanitarian has in it an abounding helpfulness 
that overflows into every corner of man's being, and makes for his 
intellectual and his moral as well as for his physical welfare." 

SANITARY INSPECTION OF TOWNS. 

The secretary personally made sanitary inspections of the hotels 
and larger boarding houses in all the shore towns where such inspec- 
tions were requested by the health officers of the same, reports of 
which have been made to the Board. He had also visited several 
other towns during the warm season, inspecting nuisances suspected 
of being dangerous to health, either in company with the health officer 
or alone, giving advice in relation to methods of abatement when 
necessary ; had traversed numerous villages, large and small, in the 
State, inspecting the quality of the water in most general use, and 
the sources of supply; the drainage of the houses and disposal of 
night soil and other organic filth. Suggestions as to urgently needed 
changes were made to individuals, corporations or town authorities, 
as the circumstances seemed to require. In most instances the sug- 
gestions were kindly received and in a large number were fully, or to 
a considerable extent, carried out, not unfrequently under the super- 
vision of the town health officer. Occasionally a report to the town 
council was required and peremptory orders issued. 

WATER SUPPLIES. 

The statement that a pure water supply, or a supply of water un- 
contaminated with any deleterious material, is absolutely essential to 
ihe preservation of health, will not be contradicted. It is a fact 
however to be deplored, that so large a proportion (though much less 
than a few years ago) of the water used for domestic purposes and 
especially for drinking, is not free from impure constituents. There 



1889.] secretary's report. 5 

is, however, a very general, earnest and gratifying inquiry as to the 

means of procuring good water on the part of the citizens of the 
, and the report upon the water works in the State, on sub- 
sequent pages, will be a source of information to many. 

SEWERAGE. 

The questions of public and private plans and systems of sewerage 
are largely and necessarily occupying public attention. The city of 
Providence (although in possession of a limited and temporary 
system that has been of inestimable value) began during the last part 
of the year, the construction of a very elaborate and complete system 
with disposal by precipitation. 

The design is, that by extensions as needed, it will take care of the 
sewage of a population of 300,000 or perhaps 400,000. 

Other cities, and some of the larger towns, have temporary systems 
and some are agitating systems more complete. 

JUSPOSAL OF GARBAGE, KM . 

The frequent removal of garbage, including swill and other house 
refuse from the premises when accumulating in the cities and many 
of the compact villages, is provided for by municipal ordinances. 
The disposition of such material varies in the different localities. It 
has been fed to cattle and hogs in out of the way places in the country 
towns, which method of disposal it can, with great satisfaction be 
said, is " becoming smaller by degrees and beautifully less." 

It is also carried into the country from some towns for composting 
and ploughing in. It has not been found of great value as a fertilizer. 

It has also been carried out to sea and fed to the fishes. Evidence 
is furnished that a considerable part of fresh sewage and garbage is 
lily devoured by fishes. As to the quality of such fish as Com- 
pared with swill fed beef and pork, evidence is not attainable. 

Destruction by fire is undoubtedly the disposal par excellence. 

Crematories have been in operation during the year in Providence 
city and Newport city. The work of the crematory in Providence 
shows evidence of assured success. The crematory in Newport has 
been less successful, at least in point of economy. 

VITAL STATISTI' 

It may seem quite Unnecessary to say that by the annual collection 
and record of births, marriage* and thaths, the State is apprised of 



6 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

the gain or loss in, not only its most important, but its absolutely 
indispensable constituent — that is, the population. 

By a record of diseases and mortality, it is also apprised of the gain 
or loss in that essential element that constitutes the value of the 
population — that is, public health. 

A large excess of births over the deaths is understood to indicate 
not only an increase of the population, but a high degree of physical 
vigor, healthf ulness, enterprise, courage and extended length of life. 
A lessened birth-rate and increased death-rate is the ominous sign of 
a decadence, not ouly of the bodily vigor of the people, but of the 
national strength, prosperity and power. 

By an annual census of births and deaths, the State or country 
can ascertain, in a considerable measure, its reserve of sturdy 
individuals and its probable rise or decline, and be prepared to 
promote the one or avert the other. It is also known that a record 
of births, marriages and deaths is indispensable in the tracing of the 
lines of genealogy or lineage, in the proof of regular descent, and in 
the establishment of right to entailments and ordinary inheritance. 

But vital statistics have come in modern times to subserve much 
more extended uses. When collected, classified, arranged and col- 
lated in tables, they become the basis of much scientific study. In 
addition to their original application relative to civil and national 
life, in affording evidence of legal consanguinity ; the prevailing pub- 
lic spirit and the moral tone of the social relations and disposition for 
associated interest, as shown by the marriage statistics and legitimate 
birth-rates ; there are also other very important industrial, corporate 
and sanitary relations. 

They furnish the data for determining the expectations of life 
at different ages, and are therefore the basis of life insurance, benefi- 
cial and annuity associations. 

They furnish to medical science information of the highest value in 
regard to the relations of disease to locality, climate, sex, season, race, 
and the variations of the public health from year to year under dif- 
ferent topographical and meteorogical conditions. To the sanitarian 
they are indispensable. 

The report upon the registration of vital statistics for the year 
1888, was prepared during 1889, and contains several tables addi- 
tional to the previous report, which were deemed needful to illustrate 
some special illustration and make the work more complete. 

The collation, arrangement, classification and tabulation, recpiired 
the placing of about 1,600,000 figures in the notation of the various 
items of fact. 



1889.] secretary's report. 7 

transportation of the dead. 

The occasional contraction of contagious disease from a dead body, 
in transit or at destination, and the sometimes epidemic and largely 
fatal prevalence of the same as a result, has been a matter of con- 
siderable concern to the public. In view of this fact the National 
Association of General Baggage Agents proposed the formulation by 
State Boards of Health, by modification of their own or otherwise, of 
a set of rules which should prevent such dire accidents. The follow- 
ing communication was therefore forwarded to the association, as 
expressing the sentiments and opinion of the Rhode Island Board : 

To the National Association of General Baggage Agents: 

The State Board of Health of the State of Rhode Island, in response to your 
request, recommend tbe following rules in relation to the transportation of tbe 
bodies of the dead : 

1. Tbe transportation of tbe bodies of persons dead of Small Pox, Asiatic 
Cbolera, Typhus Fever or Yellow Fever, is absolutely forbidden. 

2. The bodies of those who have died of Diphtheria, Scarlet Fever, Typhoid 
Fever, Erysipelas, Measles, and other contagions, infectious, or communicable 
diseases must be wrapped in a sheet ihorougbly saturated with a strong solution 
of chloride of zinc, or chloride of lime, in the proportion of one-half pound of 
either chloride to a gallon of water ; or a strong solution of not less than two 
per cent, of the bi-chloride of mercury, and enclosed in a strong, tight wooden 
box. 

3. In crtSes of contagious, infectious, or communicable diseases, tbe body 
must not be accompanied by attached articles or coverings which, (unless pre- 
viously disinfected), have been exposed to the infection of the disease. And in 
addition to a permit from the Board of Health, or other medical or legal author- 
ily, baggage agents will require an affidavit from the shipping undertaker, Mat- 
ing how body has been prepared, and kind of coffin used, which must be in con- 
formity with rule 2, and that the health officer or other legal authority of the 
locality, to which the body is consigned, has h id such timely notice of the hour 
of its arrival within his jurisdiction as will enable him to supervise its reception. 

4 Tbe bodies of persons recently dead of diseases that are not contagious, 
infectious or communicable, may be received for transportation when encased 
in a sound coffin or metallic case, and enclosed iu a strong wood* n box wen rely 
fattened so it may in' safely handled. 

5. Every dead body must be accompanied by a person in charge who must 
be provided with a ticket, and also with a pi runt, as provided in rule 3, giving 
permission for the removal, and showing name of deceased, cause of death, and 
whether of a contagious or infectious nature. 

G Tbe permit from a Board of Health, health officer, or other authority, 
must be issued iu duplicate, the original to accompauy body to destination, 



8 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

the duplicate copy will be retained by the agent at the initial point and sent to 
the General Baggage Agent. 

7. It is intended that no dead body shall be moved which may be (he means 
of spreading disease ; therefore, all disinterred bodies, dead from any disease or 
cause, will be treated as infectious and dangerous to public health, and will not 
be accepted for transportation unless enclosed in a new wooden box, made air 
tight if possible, and said removal has been approved by the State Board of 
Health, or the consent of the health officer or other legal authority of the locality 
to which the corpse is consigned, has first been obtained. 

In submitting these rules for consideration, it is not assumed that they are per- 
fect, but are recommendations which, in our opinion, will be in the interests of 
the public health, and at the same time not unnecessarily burdensome and expen- 
sive to the public. 

It has previously been suggested that it was obvious, that infectious or com- 
municable diseases follow more quickly the lines of communication, being 
spread by the movements of the people ; and as the railroads are the principal 
medium of communication among the people, the trunk lines spanning the con- 
tinent, bringing to our doors inhabitants from all parts of the county, it is patent 
to all that local rules, be they ever so rigid, can afford but partial protection, 
and as the bodies of the dead are transported iu the same cars and among the 
baggage containing the wearing apparel of the passengers, the necessity for 
some effective rules, which will apply the same in all the States, is the more 
apparent. It seems that this can be accomplished, and our cooperation to that 
end will be cordially given. 

We believe it is a good policy to have a list of specified dangerous diseases 
that should not be carried, as in rule 1. 

In preparing bodies for shipment, it is not necessary that the cavities be injected 
if prepared otherwise as in rule 2, although such preparation skilfully accom- 
plished would be of some advantage. Embalming as usually performed, is of 
doubtful value. And when well performed the expense need not necessarily be 
above ten dollars. 

The expense of so-called air tight zinc, copper, lead lined or iron coffins or 
caskets would be entirely prohibitory on the part of many people, and at times 
because of distance from procurement, very difficult if not entirely impossible to 
obtain at any expense, and very seldom, if of any additional safety to rule 2. 

There is no standard by which undertakers in Rhode Island are graded to 
ascertain whether competent or not before being allowed to practice the art of 
embalming. We think each State should require every undertaker to take out 
a license and pass examination before a competent board of examiners before he 
is allowed to prepare a dead body for shipment. 

There is no penalty in this Slate for making false affidavit or issuing false cer- 
tificate, either as to cause of death or as to the preparation of a body for trans- 
portation, except as for a misdemeanor at common law. Legislation should 
give the necessary protection. 

It is desirable that all permits for the removal of dead bodies be issued by 
Boards of Health, healih officers or other competent legal authority, and this 
can be done in all cases even in small towns or country districts. 



1889.] secretary's report. 9 

It is also desirable that a nearly uniform style of removal permits be used, to 
insure definite and necessary information, to enable persons to transport dead 
bodies through several States without danger of being stopped at some inter- 
mediate point. Samples of permits used in this State included. 

By order of the Board, 

CHAS. H. FISHER, Secretary. 

OFFICE WORK. 

An account of the current office work in detail would obviously, 
because of its varied character, extend a report to an unwonted 
length. Allusion has already been made as to the enormous amount 
of work required in the preparation of the reports on the vital statis- 
tics. 

Briefly, all changes in the laws having relation to the duties of 
physicians, town clerks and undertakers, which occur nearly every 
year, are written out and explained, as they may have application to 
either of the occupations — GOO persons or more in all, with blanks for 
each, changed to meet the requirements of law ; the prompt and con- 
tinued forwarding of a supply of other blanks as needed to town and 
city clerks for monthly and annual returns of deaths, and of births 
and marriages ; blanks for an account of improvements of a sanitary 
character in the towns and of new sanitary ordinances ; also, to phy- 
sicians for monthly report of prevalent diseases, distributed monthly, 
and for physicians returns of cause of death to town and city clerks, 
and for annual general returns ; also to clergymen the blank certifi- 
cates of marriage ; and to undertakers the blanks for returns of 
death to town and city clerks, aud blanks for undertaker's notice to 
physicians ; also, to health officers for annual returns of duties 
attended to and work accomplished. 

Other circulars are written and distributed to various town officials 
and other parties, having duties under the laws in relation to public 
health and the vital statistics of the State, reminding them of those 
duties, suggesting methods of performance and urging their prompt 
discharge. 

Distribution is made, when occasion requires, of the tracts for the 
" Prevention of Typhoid Fever" and " Prevention of Scarlet Fever," 
the ''Manual" prepared for the use of health officers, the "Nomen- 
clature" of diseases for the use of physicians, and the posters, 
'* Treatment of the Drowned," when called for. In some of the pub- 

2 



10 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

lie schools the rules of the latter are committed to memory by the 
senior class and recitations thereof given every week. 

A record of the investigations of cases of contagious diseases of 
domestic animals, the date, the name of the owner, the location, the 
characteristics of the disease and other notes. (See Report of the 
Cattle Commission department.) 

The publication of the Monthly Bulletin has been continued 
through the year, for which the secretary has written 94 articles, long 
and short ; has prepared 12 summaries of deaths, with sex, parentage 
and ages ; 24 pages of oauses of deaths and number, with comments 
and percentages ; and 24 pages of meteorological observations and 
summaries. Supervision is also given to printing, correcting proofs, 
addressing, wrapping, mailing and other methods of distribution of 
copies. The Monthly now reaches over 1,000 of the teachers in the 
public schools of the State. 

There were 1,268 letters written by the secretary during the year, 
about 150 of which were to parties in different States and countries, 
in reply to inquiries for various kinds of information. 

The number of blanks necessarily sent out for returns and reports 
from different officials and professions, and at different times during 
the year, for purposes within the province and duties of the Board, 
exceeded 20,000. 

The report upon "Tuberculosis among the neat-cattle in the State," 
and the preparation of the Eleventh Report of the Board, comprising 
177 pages, including Tuberculosis, were among the duties and work 
of the secretary during the year, in addition to the preparation of the 
Report on vital statistics comprising 220 pages, or about 400 pages of 
printed reports in all, and about 130 pages of original matter for the 
Monthly Bulletin. 

cattle commission. 

Differing from other States, the Cattle Commission of Rhode 
Island is vested in the State Board of Health. The duties in this 
department consume a large amount of time. For the purpose of 
securing an economical administration of the duties incumbent in 
this department, the secretary has personally performed a consider- t 
able part of the veterinary work. 

Some part of 168 days was occupied by him during 1889, in the in- 
vestigation and examination of cases of domestic animals, having or 
suspected of having contagious or infectious diseases. 



1889.] secretary's report. 11 

The cases included glanders and farcy, tuberculosis, cow pox, 
swine plague and various other diseases, having some symptoms in 
common with contagious diseases. 

GLANDERS. 

Of 114 cases of suspected glanders or farcy, 78 were confirmed and 
destroyed. Some of the cases were visited two, three or more times. 
156 different animals, equine, bovine and porcine came under investi- 
gation during the year. 

1,424 horses were inspected by the secretary during the year, com- 
prising team, market, railway, hack, express, carriage and other 
horses in the city, the country and at the State Fair. 

TUBERCULOSIS. 

The large prevalence of tuberculosis among the bovine animals of 
the State makes the subject a question of very grave importance, 
inasmuch as the consensus of medical opinion is to the effect that the 
disease is identical in its specific cause with phthisis pulmonalis, or 
tubercular consumption in mankind, and that the disease may be 
communicated from bovine animals to mankind by reason of the 
specific virus — the tubercle bacillus — transmitted by ingestion of the 
meat or milk. 

The following in respect to such transmission, from Dr. Robert 
Koch, a privy councillor in the tjerman empire, the first to demon- 
strate, eight years ago, the exact relation of tuberculosis to a specific 
bacillus as its cause, and who is by universal acknowledgment one of 
the foremost biologists in the world, will be of interest in this con- 
nection : 

The second principal sourse for the tuberculous bacilli, namely, tuberculosis 
of the domestic animals, appears not to have anything like the importance of 
the phthisic sputum 1 . The animals, as is well known, produce no sputum, so 
that during their life no tuberculous bacilli get from them into the outer world 
by means of the respiratory passages. Also in the excrement of tuberculous 
animals tuberculous bacilli appear to be only exceptionally present. On the 
contrary, it is a fact that the milk of tuberculous animals can cause infection. 
With the exception of this one way, therefore, the tuberculous virus can only 
have effect after the death of the animal, and can only cause infection by the 
eating of the meat. Aside from the probably only rarely occurring cases of 
direct infection, which can follow from coming in contact with tuberculous 
parts of the flesh of little wounds and exoriatiODS of the >kin, the reception of 

1 Human. 



12 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

the infectious material will result in this case only by means of the organs of 
digestion, and in accordance with this the first appearances of the disease must 
first show themselves here. But now primary tuberculosis of the intestines is 
not at all frequent in proportion to primary lung tuberculosis — indeed, a 
decidedly rare affection. From this it is to be concluded, that the infection in 
question does not often occur from eating the flesh of tuberculous animals. 
Probably it would occur frequently if the visibly diseased parts of the flesh were 
not put aside, as is usually the case, and if as is almost invariably the case, the 
meat were not eaten cooked. Also especially it must be considered that the 
tuberculosis eatable animals, especially the perlsucht 1 of cattle, remains more or 
less localized, so that after all only the use of the tuberculously altered lungs, 
glands, etc., would be dangerous. That, nevertheless, the infection from the 
intestinal canal is indeed possible, is proved by the frequent cases of secondary 
intestinal tuberculosis of consumptives, which must be attributed to the swal- 
lowing of their own sputa. It is, to be sure, strange that, although it is to be 
supposed, that every consumptive swallows more or less of the tuberculous 
bacilli-bearing secretion from his lungs, nevertheless intestinal abscesses are not 
to be found in all. I explain this in the following manner: In the first place, 
the intestines appear to offer a still more unfavorable point of attack for the 
slowly growing tuberculous bacilli than the lungs. But further, the feeding- 
attempts with anthrax bacilli and their spores, have taught that anthrax bacilli, 
which contain no spores, are destroyed in the stomach, while the spores of these 
bacilli are able to pass through the stomach unharmed. On that account only, 
spore-bearing substances can cause infection from the intestinal canal. The 
tuberculous bacilli will conduct themselves most probably in this regard, like 
the anthrax-bacilli, and only in case they are provided with spores will cause 
tuberculosis of the intestines, provided they do not go through the intestinal 
canal too quickly to render their germinating and establishing themselves at 
any point of the mucous membrane of the intestines possible. Just the same 
holds, of course, for the danger of an infection from tuberculous meat, and 
this circumstance may explain the relatively rare infection from the use of such 
meat. 

The same conditions hold for infection from the milk of cows suffering from 
perlsucht 1 . Before all things, if infection is to take place it is necessary that the 
milk contain tuberculous bacilli. But this appears only to be the case when the 
milk-glands themselves are tuberculously diseased. But since perlsucht-knots 
do not often occur in the udder, the milk of perlsucht cows will often possess no 
infectious properties. This explains immediately the contradictions in the 
statements of the various authors, who have made feeding attempts with milk 
from cows suffering from perlsucht. The one set maintain that they have 
gained positive results, and their statements are of such a sort that it is impos- 
sible to doubt the correctness of their observations. The others, on the contrary, 
could obtain no infection in the animals experimented with. This result is also 
correct. The positive results were then obtained from milk which accidentally 
contained tuberculous bacilli, the negative with milk which was free from 
bacilli. 

1 Bovine tuberculosis. 



1889.] SECRETARY'S REPORT. 13 

If infection from tuberculous domestic animals in general does not appear to 
be frequent, it must by no means be under-rated. Perlsucht of cattle and the 
caseous changes in the lymph-glands of pigs are of so frequent occurrence that 
they deserve close attention. If, now, we follow the tuberculous bacilli which 
have got into the lungs by inhalation, into the skin by wounds, into the intest- 
inal canal by swallowing, in their further conduct in the body, we see that they 
often remain for a longtime — sometimes even permanently— in the place of their 
first establishment. From herds 1 of epithelioid cells they form little knots which 
enclose giant cells, and regularly from the centre out, fall victims to coagulation- 
necrosis. The appearances which are conditioned upon the gradual growth of 
such a herd, and the regressive changes which always keep step with it, have 
been described in detail in a former section. The first sign of the spreading of 
the tuberculous process into the neighboring region is the formation of similar 
knots in the neighborhood of the primary herd. The way, also, in which the 
migration of the bacilli from the first herd to the place where the secondary 
knots arise, is to be conceived, I have also already suggested. The following 
appears to me to be the simplest explanation of this proceeding. The tubercul- 
ous bacilli, since they possess no motion of their own, can only be moved along 
by elements possessing the power of motion, or by currents of liquid. But 
since the tuberculous knots have no vasal- and one cannot see how other liquids, 
which are in motion can get into the tuberculous herd and sweep away bacilli 
from them, nothing remains but the wandering cells, which according to 
experience, act the same part in other disease-producing bacteria, which those 
elements perform, that provide for the transport of the bacilli. The cell, laden 
with a bacillus only goes on until, under the influence of the parasite, it loses its 
power of motion. On the spot where the cell came to a stand-still a new 
tuberculous knot must arise. In this manner groups of tubercles form, which 
melt, perish, and cause destruction in the well known manner. 

With the supposition that the wandering cells may be the bearers of the 
bacilli, we see in the most natural manner the connection with the farther 
excursions which the tuberculosis bacilli make in the body in almost all cases. 
When the wandering cell moves in the tissue-passages and must rely on its own 
power of motion, then the distance which it travels is only a short one and the 
newly arising infectious herd must lie in the neighborhood of the point of de- 
parture. But as soon as the wandering cells move in the lymph-vessel and the 
lymph-stream comes to their help in their movement, then they travel greater 
distances, as is seen not seldom, in the tubercles spreading themselves out in 
the course of the lymph-vessels. But very often then the tuberculous bacilli 
arc swept away still farther in the lymph-vessels and led into the nearest lymph- 
glands, where in like manner as in the first place of infection they call forth the 
formation of knots and caseous degeneration. The changes conditioned upon 
this in the gland-tissue appear usually to hinder a further progress of the bacilli 
by the way of lymph-passages. But by this no insurmountable barrier is p] 
in the way of the progress of the bacilli. They can, under special conditions, 
get into the stream of the blood. This happens when, as Ponfick has shown, 
the tuberculosis attacks the thoracic duct, and reaches the interior of the same ; 



1 Cullcctiuns or clusters. 2 Outlet or iulet vessel. 



14 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

the tuberculous bacilli are then led direct from the lymph-stream into the blood- 
stream. 

The relation is similar between the tuberculosis of animals, above all of 
perlsucht, and tuberculosis in man. These also must, on account of the iden- 
tity of the parasites on which they are conditioned, be held to be identical with 
human tuberculosis in spite of the differences in the anatomical behavior and in 
their clinical course. It has, to be sure, been stated, especially with reference 
to perlsucht, that the transmission of this disease to man has not yet been cer- 
tainly proved. On the other hand the following may be said : On account of 
the very slow development of the disease, the place and time of the infection 
and therewith the source of the same can no longer be confidently stated, when 
the first plain symptoms appear. On this account in the frequent inhalation- 
tuberculosis the mode of infection can be determined in a scientific manner only 
in comparatively few cases. Still less will this be possible in the much rarer 
cases of intestinal tuberculosis arising from the use of flesh or milk of cattle 
suffering from perlsucht, because here the uncertainty is heightened by the easily 
possible confusion with other much more frequent kinds of infection. It is there- 
fore very questionable whether ever a case of human tuberculosis can without 
criticism be attributed to the use of the meat or milk of tuberculous animals. 
But if one thinks, that to the most various sorts of animals (cats, rabbits, guinea 
pigs, field mice) by inoculation with masses of perlsucht and the pure cultures 
gained from them, a disease can be generated with the greatest regularity which 
anatomically is exactly like the disease caused by inoculation with tuberculous 
masses, and which kills the animals with the same certainty as the last, then it 
is not to be expected that man should be an exception to this disease-poison. If 
in the course of further investigations again a difference between the perlsucht 
and the tuberculous bacilli should show itself, which would compel us to con- 
sider the same as only near relations, we should even then have all cause to 
hold the perlsucht bacilli as suspicious in the highest degree. From the hygienic 
standpoint the same measures must be taken against it as against the infection 
through tuberculous bacilli, so long as it is not proved that man can bring perl- 
sucht bacilli in contact with skin-wounds without danger, that he can inhale 
the same or bring their spores into his intestinal canal without becoming tuber- 
culous. 

So far as is known to this department, the disease among cattle has 
not increased in number of cases in Rhode Island during the past 
year. There is, however, no probability that the number has de- 
creased in any large measure, although the knowledge of the means 
by which the disease may be lessened or prevented, is much more 
largely disseminated than at any previous time. 

The Report upon Tuberculosis, a 38 page pamphlet, prepared by 
the Secretary by request, and presented to the General Assembly at 
the January Session of 1889, has been quite freely distributed 



1889.] secretary's report. 15 

throughout the State. The final pages of that report may very prop- 
erly be re-printed in this connection : 

CONCLUSIONS. 

A consideration of the opinions of eminent veterinarians presented in the 
foregoing pages, and the results of personal inquiry and personal observations, 
seem to warrant the following propositions : 

a. Tuberculosis is the most extensively distributed and most destructive 
disease now extant upon the earth. 

b. Mankind and the lower animals are alike the victims of the disease. 

c. Mankind and the brute creation are alike more largely susceptible to, and 
proportionately more frequently the victims of, the disease, under the circum- 
stances of advanced civilization. 

d. Tuberculosis is communicable from animal to animal and from the lower 
animals to mankind, and vice versa, under all conditions of existence. 

e. The disease is communicable from animals to man usually by means of 
uncooked or partially cooked flesh and milk ; from man to animals by the 
ingestion of the sputum of a consumptive person. 

/. Tuberculosis is communicated from one animal to another by means of 
the ingestion of milk, or of the sputum or expectoration of an animal so dis- 
eased, or may be transmitted by heredity, and possibly by the inhalation of the 
breath of an animal affected with pulmonary tuberculosis. 

g. A tuberculous animal, if introduced into a herd of healthy cattle, will 
often affect the whole herd sooner or later. 

h. A healthy animal introduced into a herd of tuberculous cattle, will, usu- 
ally, sooner or later, become affected with the same disease. 

i. Tuberculosis may therefore be hereditary or infectious. The progeny of 
animals, so diseased, will sometimes show an incipient development at the time 
of birth, and at varying periods of a few weeks or months thereafter. 

j. The specific cause or agent, (the bacillus tuberculosis), may remain dor- 
mant in the progeny of tuberculous animals for several years under circumstan- 
ces and surroundings favorable to the best health and most vigorous functional 
activity of the animal. 

k. Close confinement in a very warm atmosphere, imperfect ventilation, lack 
of proper exercise in (lie open air, too early and too frequent breeding, the inter- 
breeding of animals hereditarily predisposed, and too free use of stimulating or 
fermenting food, the forcing methods for the greatest production of milk, 
deprivation of B Sufficient amount of healthful food ; in short, whatever lowers 
the tone of the vital powers, promotes tho development of tuberculosis. 

I. Usually the first noticeable symptoms are, a short dry cough, (in occasional 
cases no cough occurs uutill the disease has reached an advanced stage), a short- 
ness of breathing upon being hurried, tendency to premature birth or early 
dropping of offspring, swelling of the joints attended with lameness, nympho- 
mania in cows ; but an early positive diagnosis is in many cases impracticable 
in the living animal. 



1G STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

m. A positive diagnosis can be reached in the more advanced stages of the 
disease, when tubercular matter can be obtained and the inoculation of healthy 
animals therewith be resorted to. 

n. In the later stages the rational symptoms, loss of flesh, unthriftiness of 
appearance, diminution and thinning of the milk, difficult breathing attended 
with cough, and especially if there is present any enlargement or tenderness of 
the udder, will declare the disease ; and the milk of such animals can not be 
used with safety. 

o. Upon the appearance of the earliest symptoms of tuberculosis every cattle 
owner, for the public safety and his personal interest, should secure an examin- 
ation of the animal by a competent veterinarian, and if the case is suspicious 
only, the animal should be isolated until a positive diagnosis can be made. 

p. When an animal has been found affected with confirmed tuberculosis, 
public safety requires that such animal should be destroyed, and that those ani- 
mals exposed to its infection, should be quarantined and watched. 

q. The presence of tuberculosis among the bovine animals of Rhode Island, 
is a menace to the public health and prosperity of the State, and the General 
Assembly should provide compensation for the owners of such cattle as are 
destroyed to prevent the spread of such disease, not only among cattle but 
among the citizens of the State. 

r. Facts already known seem to warrant the assumption, that not less than 
five in every one hundred of the milch cows in the State, above five years of age, 
are affected in some degree with tuberculosis. 

s. The disease is much less liable to be communicated during the earlier 
stages, either by the milk or otherwise, the liability at all times depending 
largely upon the part of the body in which or upon which the tubercles are 
situated. 

t. Immunity from the infection of tuberculosis through the use of flesh as 
food, may be secured by thorough cooking ; and the milk of cows, by a half 
haur's boiling, may also be made safe for use as food. 

Respectfully submitted, 

CHAS. H. FISHER, Secretary. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT. 



HEALTH IN THE TOWNS. 



1889 



HEALTH OF TOWNS. 



physicians- i;i:i'oi;t>. 



In order to present, from year to year, a connected history of the 
comparative prevalence of zymotic and other important diseases, and 
especially of epidemics, it has seemed necessary that there should be 
given an account of the diseases occurring in the different towns dur- 
ing each year, that is, as to amount of general sickness, the kinds, 
relative number compared with other years, general severity, season 
of occurrence, and locality of special prevalence ; and also other facte 
in relation to the sanitary sentiment of the communities, and sus- 
pected sources of ill health. 

Therefore, as in previous years, the plan of soliciting from the reg- 
ular medical correspondents of the Hoard, and other physicians, a 
report at the commencement of each year, covering, in a general way, 
the whole of the preceding year, in relation to the amount of sick- 
ness of all kinds, the prevalence of particular diseases, and the sani- 
tary conditions and movements in their respective localities, has been 
continued, and the circular presented on the following page sent 
therefor : 



20 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 



Office of Secretary of the State Board of Health. 

Providence, Jan. 1, 1890. 

The Secretary of the State Board of Health desires to obtain from respectable 
physicians, actively engaged in the practice of their profession, in every section 
of the State, an Annual Report covering the whole twelve months preceding the 
above date. 

The following questions will indicate the information sought, and the general 
plan of such report ; but correspondents need not be confined to precise replies 
to the questions presented, all the freedom being allowable of such modifications 
and additions as the circumstances or peculiarities of each locality may seem to 
warrant. 

These annual reports are desired for the purpose of presenting the status of the 
public health, and the sanitary conditions and sentiment existing in the different 
sections of the State, during the year 1889, in the Twelfth Annual Report of the 
State Board of Health. 

They should be returned to the Secretary of the Board by the second week in 
February. 

Any additional postage stamps needed to cover postage on more extended con- 
sideration of the topics suggested, or any other topic having relation to the public 
health, will be immediately refunded on the receipt of papers. 



QUESTIONS. 

1. Name of physician. 

2. Name of town and circuit. 

3. Taking sickness of all kinds, has there been more or less than usual in 
your circuit the past year? How much? 

4. Which of the following zymotic diseases have prevailed in your circuit 
during the past year? Please state when sporadic and when epidemic, whether 
mild, average or severe, and in what months they occurred, and in what lo- 
calities. 



1889.] 



secretary's report. 



21 



Sporadic 


Degree 


or 


of 


Epidemic. 


Severity, 



Months. Locality. 



a. Cholera Infantum. 

b. Croup. 

C. Diarrhoea and Dysentery. 

d. Diphtheria. 

e. Fever, Malarial. 

f. Fever, Typhoid. 

g. Measles. 
h. Scarlatina. 
i. Small Pox. 

j. Whooping Cough. 

5. Any other zymotic disease epidemic. 



OTHER DISEASES NOT SPECIALLY ZYMOTIC. 

Also, please state what degree of prevalence, whether large, average or 6mall, 
and if above average, in what months was the large occurrence of the following 
named diseases. State degree of prevalence, and time of occurrence, under the 
headings following : 



Degree of 

PuEYALENCE. 



Months. 



k. Brain, Inflammation and Congestion of. 



1. Bronchitis, Acute. 



22 STATE BOARD OF HEALTfl, [1889* 

m. Meningitis, Cerebro Spinal, Sporadic. 

u. Pneumonia. 

o. Rheumatism. 

p. Stomach, Acute Diseases of. 

6. What diseases, not classed as zymotics, have had unusually large preva- 
lence during the past year ? 

7. What diseases have been attended with unusual fatality ? 

8. Have any circumstances occurred within your observation or knowledge 
that seemed to indicate that Scarlet Fever, Diphtheria, or Typhoid Fever had 
been taken or communicated from one person to another ? A full history of 
known facts, in detail, should be given. Such history need not be confined to 
any particular year. State on separate sheet. 

9. Has there been, in your opinion, any advance in public sentiment, or views 
of individuals, in your circuit, in regard to the importance of sanitary surround- 
ings, or any increased interest in means of preventing diseases? State what 
reasons for belief. 

Very respectfully, 

Chas. H. Fisher, 

Sec. of State Board of Health. 

The following extract from the Public Statutes, in relation to the 
duties of town and local boards of health, and practicing physicians, 
was also appended : 

Public Statutes, Chapter 83. 

Sec 6. The secretary of the said board shall make inquiry, from time to 
time, of the clerks of town and local boards of health, and practicing physi- 
cians, in relation to the prevalence of any disease, or knowledge of any known 
or generally believed source of disease, or causes of general ill health, and also 
in relation to the proceedings of the said boards of health, in respect to acts for 
the promotion and protection of the public health, and also in relation to dis- 
eases among domestic animals in their several towns and localities respectively, 



1889.] secretary's report. 23 

and the said clerks of town and local boards of health, and the said PRACTICING 
physicians shall give such information, in reply to said inquiries, of such facts 
and circumstances as shall have come to their knowledge. 

REPLIES. 

The reports, on the following pages, received from local corres- 
pondents and others of the medical profession in the several cities, 
towns and villages of the State, will give a good representation of 
the general status of the public health during the year 1889, as to 
the presence or absence of epidemics or endemics, or large preva- 
lence of important or unusual diseases in the several locations, the 
sanitary conditions and improvements, if any, in their several cir- 
cuits, and other suggestions in response to the preceding circular : 



ANNUAL REPORTS OF MEDICAL CORRESPONDENTS. 



BRISTOL COUNTY. 



2. Bristol. 

:3. Taking sickness of all kinds, the general amount has heen probably 25 per 
cent, less than usual. 

Diseases have prevailed as follows : 
Cholera Infantum. Scarcely any. 

Diarrhoea and Dysentery. Sporadic. Mild. August and September. 
Fever, Malarial. None indigenous. 

Fever, Typhoid. Sporadic. Mild. September and October. 
Whooping Cough. Epidemic. Average severity. July, August, September. 
No diseases confined to any particular localities. 

5. No zymotic disease epidemic, except Whooping cough. 

Bronchitis, Acute. Average prevalence. February, March, April. 
Pneumonia. Small prevalence. May and October. 
Rheumatism. Small prevalence. August. 
Stomach, Acute Diseases of. Very few. 

6. No disease had unusually large prevalence during the year, except Whoop- 
ing Cough. 

7. No diseases have been attended with unusual fatality. 

9. As to any advance in public sentiment, or views of individuals, in regard 
to increased interest in means of preventing diseases, I learn, from conversation 
with private persons, that there is an increasing appreciation of the importance 
of good sanitary surroundings. One street in this town sewered by private 
parties. 

10. I know of no source of ill health in my circuit, other than the close ap- 
proximation of wells to privy vaults, cesspools, etc. 

H. S. Swan, M. D. 

2. Warren, Barrington. 

3. Taking sickness of all kinds, there has been 25 per cent, more than usual 
in my circuit, during the past year. 



1889.] secretary's report. 25 

4. The following zymotic diseases have prevailed : 

Cholera Infantum. Sporadic. Mild. Summer. No. Warren. 
. Croup. Much less than usual 

Diarrhoea and Dysentery. Sporadic. Mild. Summer. Not localized. 

Diphtheria. Sporadic. Mild. Fall. Not localized. 

Fever, Malarial. Sporadic. Milder. Fall and spring. Not localized. None 
in Warren. 

Fever, Typhoid. Sporadic. Severe. Fall. Manufacturing blocks. 

Measles. Sporadic. Severe. Fall. General. 

5. No zymotic disease epidemic. 

Diseases not zymotic : 

Brain, Inflammation and Congestion of. Mild. Occasional. 

Bronchitis, Acute. Excessive amount. Winter. 

Pneumonia. Rather above the usual amount. 

Rheumatism. Leas than former years. 

G. No other diseases had unusually large prevalence. 

7. No diseases attended with unusual fatality. 

9. A health officer, appointed by the town council, has been an efficient aid 
in doing away with unsanitary conditions. 

10. No generally believed source of ill health in my circuit. 

^ G. L. Chtjrch, M. D. 



KENT COUNTY. 

2. Coventry and Warwick, River Point and Vicinity. 

3. There has been about the average amount of sickness, taking all kinds. 
Less during the summer months. 

4. The following zymotic diseases have prevailed daring the year : 
Cholera Infantum. About the usual amount. Summer. 

Croup. A few cases. 

Diarrhoea and Dysentery. Usual amount. Fall and summer. 

Diphtheria. Less than usual. 

Fever, Malarial. Less. 

Fever, Typhoid. About the same as last year. 

Measles. Epidemic. Summer and fall. Warwick. 

Scarlatina. Not so much as lasl year. 

Whooping cough. Quite prevalent. Early in the year. 

5. No other zymotic disease epidemic. 



26 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

Other diseases : 

Bronchitis, Acute. Usual amount. .Cool months. 

Pneumonia. Usual amount. 

Rheumatism. Increase during summer and fall. 

6. Influenza (la Grippe) commenced the last two weeks in December, and at- 
tacked nearly two thirds of the inhabitants through the Pawtuxet Valley. The 
disease itself was not fatal in its character, but its effects were quite serious. The 
epidemic at the present time is abating rapidly (January 27, '90). 

9. Some advance in public sentiment has been made in regard to the impor- 
tance of sanitary surroundings. Complaints are continually being made in re- 
gard to cesspools and vaults, and the owners show commendable activity in 
abating the nuisances. 

10. No generally believed source of ill health in this circuit. 

A. G. SriiAGUE, M. D. 

2. Coventry and portions of adjoining towns. 

3. Taking sickness of all kinds, the general amount during the past year, with 
me, has been more than the average. 

4. The following zymotic diseases have prevailed : 
Cholera Infantum. Sporadic. Average. June. Quidnick. 
Croup. Sporadic. Severe. February. Washington. 

Diarrhoea and Dysentery. Sporadic. Mild. July, August and September. 
In villages. *■ 

Diphtheria. Sporadic. Average. October, September. Anthony and Wash- 
ington. 

Fever, Malarial. None, except visitors from abroad, occasionally. 

Fever, Typhoid. Sporadic. Average. August and September. Washing- 
ton. One case only, but a genuine one. Every precaution taken to prevent its 
spreading. (Continued 34 days.) 

Measles. None, except the German variety, which was epidemic in the spring 
and summer months throughout this vicinity. 

Scarlatina. Sporadic on Weaver Hill, where it went from Washington, in 
spring of 1888. Subsided through summer months. Broke out anew in the fall 
of 1888. Then subsided again. But in October, 1889, appeared again on north 
side of the hill, in an isolated house where none of the inmates had exposure of 
any kind whatsoever that could be learned. Whole family had it thoroughly 
and made good recoveries. No admission to house was allowed, and there have 
been no new cases. 

Whooping Cough. None. 

5. No zymotic disease epidemic. 

Other diseases : 

Brain, Inflammation and Congestion of. An occasional case throughout the 
year. 



1889.] retary's report. 27 

Bronchitis, Acute. Large prevalence. October and November. 

Pneumonia. Large prevalence at Noose Neck Hill, in March and April. More 
than average, in October, November, December, throughout the circuit. 

Rheumatism. About the average. Some severe cases. 

Stomach, Acute, diseases of. But few cases, in summer. 

G. Bronchitis and Pneumonia had a rather large prevalence during the past 
year. 

7. No diseases have been attended with unusual fatality. 

8. As to circumstances within my observation or knowledge that seemed to 
indicate that Scarlet Fever, Diphtheria and Typhoid Fever had been taken or 
communicated from one person to another, I have long been satisfied thai they 
are communicable. Have plenty of evidences, but QO new kind of evidence 
worth repealing. 

9. As to any advance in public sentiment in regard to increased interest iu 
means of preventing disease, I may say I hope there has been, but improvement 
goes very slowly. 

10. No generally believed source of ill health in this circuit, but some i 
of ill constructed sink drains do probably cause disease. 

F. B. Smith, M. D. 

2. East Greenwich and Pants of Warwick and Noktii Kingstown. 
:;. There has been the usual amount of general sickness during the last year. 
The following zymotic diseases have prevailed : 

Cholera Infantum. Sporadic. Generally mild. Summer and autumn. Vil- 
lage, mostly. 

Croup. Sporadic. Severe. Spring. Village, mostly. 
Diarrhoea and Dysentery. Sporadic. Not severe. 
Diphtheria. Sporadic. Mild. 

Fever, Typhoid. Sporadic. Mild. Autumn. Village and country. 
Measles. Sporadic. Mild. December. Country. 

Scarlatina. Sporadic. Not many cases, but BOme severe and fatal. Septem- 
ber, October. Village. 

Other diseases not zymotic : 

Bronchitis. Acute. Quite prevalent. November and December. 
Pneumonia. Occasional cases all through the year. 
Rheumatism. Not much. 

6. Organic Disease of Heart, with resultant effusiou. 

8. Scarlet Fever, as it has prevailed this year, has been in families, not -plead- 
ing outside, although no great precautions were taken to prevent it. 
0. Not very much advance in Banitary Bentiment observable. 
10. No especial source of ill health known. 

J. II. Bldridob, M. D. 



28 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [1889. 

2. Warwick and Coventry. 

3. Taking sickness of all kinds, the general amount has been rather less than 
usual during the past year. 

4. The following zymotic diseases have prevailed : 
Cholera Infantum. Sporadic. Mild. Summer. 

Diarrhoea and Dysentery. Sporadic. Severe. November, December. 

Diphtheria. Sporadic. Mild. 

Fever, Malarial. Small number. Mild. 

Fever, Typhoid. Few cases. Mild. 

Measles. Epidemic. Mild. November and December. 

Whooping Cough. Epidemic. Severe. September. 

5. Influenza or La Grippe. Epidemic. December. Mild. 

Other diseases : 

Pneumonia. No unusual number. 

Rheumatism. About as usual. 

6. No other diseases had unusually large prevalence during the year. 

7. None attended with unusual fatality. 

9. I see no advance in public sentiment, or views of individuals, in regard to 
the importance of sanitary surroundings. 

10. No generally believed source of ill health in my circuit. 

J. Winsor, M. D. 

NEWPORT COUNTY. 

2. Newport, Middletown and Jamestown. 

3. The general amount of sickness, including all kinds during the past year, 
about the average, with less zymotic disease, 48 deaths having occurred, against, 
I think, 68 last year. 

4. The following zymotic diseases have prevailed during the year. 
Cholera Infantum. Sporadic. Moderate. July, August, September. Prin- 
cipally in thickly settled and poor localities. 

Croup. Less than usual. 

Diarrhoea and Dysentery. Dysentery almost epidemic. Severe. September. 
All about the city, but principally in unsanitary localities. 

Diphtheria. Less than usual. Spring months. 

Fever, Malarial, alone. 

Fever, Typhoid. Less than usual, except that 13 cases, causing five deaths, 
came from U. S. T. S. New Hampshire. Average severity. August, September 
and October. 23 cases originating in the city, from all quarters. 

Measles. Three cases only in city reported ; two of them were imported. 
Mild. 



1889.] secretary's report. 29 

Scarlatina. 16 cases only, with one death. Mild. 
Whooping Cough. Small number. 

5. No zymotic disease epidemic, except a very unusual amount of dysentery 
in the late summer ; probably caused by the extreme moisture ; constant rain. 

Other diseases : 

Brain, Inflammation and Congestion of. Average number. 

Bronchitis, Acute. Usual amount. Cool months. 

Pneumonia. Average. Spring mouths. 

Rheumatism. Average. Mostly spring months. 

Stomach, Acute Diseases of. Average number. 

6. No disease had unusually large prevalence during the year, except dysen- 
tery. 

7. None attended with unusual fatality. 

8. In regard to facts that seemed to indicate that Scarlet Fever, Diphtheria, 
and Typhoid Fever are communicable from one person to another, do not doubt 
communicability of Scarlet Fever and Diphtheria, and think Typhoid Fever con- 
tagious, but not to the degree that the others are. 

9. Believe a constant advance is made in the belief in the necessity for local 
boards of health, and in the acquiescence to their demands. 

10. No well known or generally believed source of ill health in this city. 

H. E. Turner, M. D. 



2. Tiverton. 

3. Taking sickness of all kinds, the general amount has been about as usual 
during the past year. 

4. The following zymotic diseases have prevailed : 

Diarrhoea and Dysentery. Sporadic. Severe. August. 

Diphtheria Sporadic. Mild. October. 

Fever, Malarial. Sporadic. Mild. August. 

Fever, Typhoid. Sporadic. Mild. September. 

Measles. Sporadic. Mild. May. 

Scarlatina. Sporadic. Mild. April. No particular locality. 

5. No zymotic disease epidemic. 

6. No diseases had unusually large prevalence during the year. 

7. None attended with unusual fatality. 

0. H. Yale, M. D. 



30 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

PROVIDENCE COUNTY. 

2. Cumberland and Lincoln, Lonsdale and vicinity. 

3. Including sickness of all kinds, the general amount has been rather less 
than usual during the past year. 

4. The following zymotic diseases have prevailed during the year : 
Cholera Infantum. Sporadic. Mild. Summer. Villages. 

Croup. Sporadic. Severe. Autumn, Villages. Chiefly associated with 
Diphtheria. 

Diarrhoea and Dysentery. Sporadic. Average. Summer and Autumn. 

Diphtheria. Epidemic. Mild. Autumn. Lonsdale. Marked cases of the 
disease covering tonsils and often extending beyond ; but, except when Croup 
supervened, very answerable to treatment. 

Fever, Malarial. Epidemic. Mild. April to November. Everywhere. Less 
Intermittent Fever than last year ; less last year than in 1887, when the disease 
in Lonsdale and Berkeley reached its height. 

Fever, Typhoid. Sporadic. Prolonged. Summer and Autumn. Village and 
country. 
Measles. Sporadic. Mild. Winter. Village and country. 
Scarlatina. Sporadic. Mild. 
Whooping Cough. Epidemic. Severe. Autumn. Berkeley. 

5. Epidemic Influenza began in December. At first scattered cases, soon fol- 
lowed by a multitude, amounting in all to a majority of the population. Cases 
in adults more protracted than in children as a rule. Indications of contagious- 
ness. 

Other diseases : 

Bronchitis, Acute. About as usual. 

Pneumonia. Spring and earl}'' summer. Seemingly epidemic. All Croupous 
Pneumonia, especially in children. Few fatal. 

6. Of diseases that had unusually large prevalence, see question letters, d, 1, 
j, and question 5. 

7. No unusual fatality. 

L. F. C. Garvin, M. D. 

2. Valley Falls, Lincoln and Cumberland. 

3. Taking sickness of all kinds during the past year, there was about the 
average amount. 

4. Zymotic diseases prevailed as below during the year : 
Cholera Infautum. Sporadic. Mild. Summer. 

Diarrhoea and Dysentery. Sporadic. Mild. Summer and Fall. 
Diphtheria. Sporadic. Mild. 

Fever, Malarial. Sporadic. Mild. April to November. 
Fever, Typhoid. Sporadic. Mild. October. 



1889.] secretary's report. 

Whooping Cough. Sporadic. Mild. November and December. 
Influenza. Epidemic. December. 

Other diseases : 

Bronchitis, Acute. Moderate prevalence. March, April, October and No- 
vember. 

Pneumonia. Moderate prevalence. February and March. 

Rheumatism. Moderate prevalence. March, April and May. 

Btomach, Acute diseases of. Small prevalence. October and November. 

0. No diseases had unusually large prevalence during the past year except 
the Influenza, 

7. No unusual fatality. 

8. Nothing new occurred within my observation that seemed to indicate that 
Scarlet Fever, Diphtheria, or Typhoid Fever had been taken or communii 
from one person to another. 

9. No apparent advance in public sentiment in my circuit, in regard to in- 
creased interest in means of preventing diseases. 

10. Have no knowledge of any generally believed source of ill-health in my 
circuit. 

C. B. Hunks, M. I). 

2. Glockstek and vicinity. 

3. Taking sickness of all kinds, there has beeu the usual amount in this cir- 
cuit during the past year. 

4. The following zymotic diseases have prevailed during the year : 
Cholera Infantum. Sporadic. Severe. Summer. Near Mapleville 
Croup. Sporadic. Severe. November. In a small cabin in the w Is, 

three miles west of the village of Chepachet. 

Diarrhoea and Dysentery. Sporadic. Average severity. Summer and Fall. 

Diphtheria. Sporadic. Average severity. Throughout year. Outside the 
village. 

Fever, Malarial. None but imported cases. 

Fever, Typhoid. Sporadic. Mild. September and October. 

Measles. Epidemic. Mild. November and December. Around Ilarmonv. 

Whooping Cough. Epidemic. Average severity. January to October. 
Cbepachet and vicinity. 

5. " La Grippe" or Influenza. December. 

Other diseases : 

Brain, Inflammation and Congestion of. Small prevalence. December. 
Bronchitis, Acute. Average prevalence. Throughout year. 
Pneumonia. Small prevalence. Bc^iuning and close of year. 



32 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

Rheumatism. Small prevalence. All seasons. 
Stomach, Acute diseases of. Small prevalence. 

6. No diseases had unusually large prevalence except as stated above. 

7. No diseases attended with unusual fatality. 

8. Nothing new that seemed to indicate that Scarlet Fever, Diphtheria, or 
Typhoid Fever had been taken or communicated from one person to another. 

9. Do not see any advance in public sentiment in regard to the importance of 
sanitary surroundings. 

10. No known special source of ill-health in this circuit. 

G. A. Hakhis, M. D. 

2. Smitiifield, Gkeenville Circuit and parts of adjoining towns. 

3. Taking sickness of all kinds, there has been at least one-third more sick- 
ness than usual during the past year in my circuit. 

4. The following zymotic diseases have prevailed during the year : 
Cholera Infantum. Very little. Sporadic. Average severity. Usual season. 
Croup. Few cases. Sporadic. Severe. Fall. 

Diarrhoea and Dysentery. Diarrhoea — very prevalent nearly every Summer 
and Fall month. Dysentery — Epidemic. Very severe. August and Sep- 
tember. 

Diphtheria. Very little. Average severity. Spring. 

Fever, Malarial. Not so much as last year. Average. Summer and Fall. 

Measles. Epidemic. Severe. Fall and Winter. 

Whooping Cough. Average. Mild severity. 

5. No other zymotic disease epidemic, with the exception of the prevailing 
epidemic of so called Influenza, or "Grippe," which has visited nearly every 
family in my circuit, and in very many cases been very severe. December. 

Other diseases : 

Brain. Inflammation and Congestion of. Average number and severity. 
Spring and Fall. 

Bronchitis, Acute. Large number. Average. Spring and Fall. 

Pneumonia. Small number. Average. Fall. 

Rheumatism, Acute. Average number. Quite severe. Summer. 

Stomach, Acute diseases of. Average number and severity. Summer and 
Fall. 

6. No other diseases have had unusually large prevalence. 

7. No diseases have been attended with unusual fatality. 

8. No noticeable advance in public sentiment in regard to means of prevent- 
ing disease. 



1889.] secretary's report. 33 

10. No generally believed source of ill-health in this circuit, with the excep- 
tion of the drains and vaults connected with the tenement houses of the manu- 
facturing companies in nearly every village in the town. They were in bad 
condition during the warm months. 

E. A. B.vllou, M. D. 

2. Scituate and surrounding towns. 

3. Including sickness of all kinds, the general amount lias been about an 
average in my circuit during the past year. 

4. Zymotic diseases have prevailed as follows during the year : 
Cholera Infantum Sporadic. Average severity. Summer. 
Croup. Sporadic. Very little. Spring. 

Diarrhoea and Dysentery. Usual amount. Summer and Fall. 

Diphtheria. Sporadic. Quite severe. Different dates. 

Fever, Malarial. Small amount. Warm season. 

Fever, Typhoid. Less than usual. Fall. 

Measles. Hardly any. 

Scarlatina. None. 

Whooping Cough. Moderate number. 

.'5. No zymotic disease epidemic. 

other diseases : 

Brain, inflammation and Congestion of. Two cases only. 

Bronchitis, Acute. Prevailed largely in the Spring. 

Pneumonia. .More than usual. Winter and Spring. 

Rheumatism. Average number. All seasons. 

Stomach, Acute diseases of. Average number. All seasous. 

6. No diseases had unusually large prevalence. 

7. No unusual fatality. 

9. Advance in public sentiment in regard to the importance of sanitary sur- 
roundings not very noticeable. Several nuisances were abated, however, by the 
authorities. 

10. No particular known source of ill health in my circuit. 

W. J. Smith. M I). 

2. Scituate and Fostek, various villages. 

:!. Taking sickness of all kinds, there has been about ten percent, increase 
(luring tin- year. 

4. The following zymotic diseases have prevailed during the year : 
Cholera Infantum Sporadic. Average severity. July, August and Septem 
ber. Rockland and villages in Scituate. 

Croup. Sporadic. Average severity. January. Rockland. 



34 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1880. 

Diarrhoea and Dysentery. Sporadic. Average severity. Fall and Winter 
months. Chopnist and vicinity. 

Diphtheria. Sporadic. Average severity. Winter months. Chopnist. 

Fever, Malarial. Sporadic. Average severity. May. Chopnist. 

Fever, Typhoid. Sporadic. Average severity. November and December. 
Rockland and Chopnist. 

Measles. Epidemic. Severe. September, October and November. Rock- 
land, Ponagansett, Clayville and Chopnist. 

Scarlatina. None. 

Whooping Cough. Epidemic. Average. September, October and Novem- 
ber. Rockland. 

5. Russian Influenza. Severe. 30th of December. Chopnist, Rockland, 
Ponagansett, Richmond, Hopkins' Mills, Clayville. I had 70 cases between 
December 30th, 1889, to January 13th, 1890. 

Other diseases : 

There was a large number of cases of Scabies in Rockland and Hopkins' Mills 
during April, M'iy, June and July. 

Of Inflammation of Brain. A few cases. 

Bronchitis, Acute. More than average number of cases. March, April, 
November and December. 

Pneumonia. Fully an average number of cases. November and December. 

Rheumatism. Average number of cases. November, December, March and 
April. 

Stomach, Acute diseases of. An average number of cases. July, August and 
September. 

6. An unusual number of cases of Jaundice in Rockland and vicinity. 
?. No unusual fatality. 

8. No new or striking facts have occurred in my circuit to prove the com- 
municability of Diphtheria, Scarlet Fever or Typhoid Fever, by means of a 
contagion. 

9. I believe there is an advance in public sentiment in regard to sanitation. 

10. I do not know of any known or generally believed source of ill-health in 
my circuit. 

B. Arnold, M. D. 

2. Providence City. 

3. With sickness of all kinds, the general amount has been about an average 
during the past year. 

4. The following zymotic diseases have prevailed, as stated, during the year : 
Cholera Infantum. Sporadic cases. Usual type. Summer. 

Croup. Occasional. Average. Cool season. 

Diarrhoea and Dysentery. Less than usual. Summer and Fall. 



1889.] SECRETARY^ REPORT. 35 

Diphtheria. Sporadic. Average prevalence. Cooler months. 

Fever, Malarial. No increase. Sporadic. Bummer and Fall. 

Fever, Typhoid. Sporadic. Much less than in 1888. 

Measles. Large prevalence. Autumn months. 

Scarlatina. Very small prevalence. Winter and Fall. 

Whooping Cough. Large numher. All through the year. Severe as a rule. 

5. The Inllucn/.a, almost epidemic ; after December '.20, mild. 

Other diseases : 

Brain, Inflammation and Congestion of. Occasional through the year. 
Bronchitis, Acute. Large prevalence. Wilder and Spring. 
Pneumonia. Very large prevalence. Winter and Spring. 
Rheumatism. Bather more prevalent than usual. All seasons. 
Stomach, Acute diseases of. Average number. Mostly in Summer. 

6. No diseases have had unusually large prevalence except as stated. 

7. No unusual fatality. 

8. No unusual circumstances occurred that seemed to indicate that Scarlet 
Fever or Diphtheria had been communicated fr< m one person to another. 

9. There is evidently an advance in public sentiment and in views of indi- 
viduals, in this city, in regard to the importance of sanitary surroundings. 

P. S. Rrdoteld, M. D. 

2. Phovidencb. 

3. Including sickness of all kinds, the general amount has been about as 
usual during the past year. 

4. Important zymotic diseases have prevailed during the year, as follows : 
Cholera Infantum. Sporadic. Average severity. General. 

Croup. Usual number of cases. 

Diarrhoea and Dysentery. Sporadic. Average number and type. 

Diphtheria. Occasional cases during Winter and Spring. 

Fever, Malarial. Fevers, during the Summer and Fall, frequently were of 
malarial character. 

Fever, Typhoid. Less number of Typhoid than in the previous year. 

Measles. Of increasing prevalence during the year. Epidemic in November 
and December. 

Scarlatina. Few cases only. 

Whooping Cough. Prevalent and of unusual severity. 

5. Influenza became epidemic during the last week of the year. 

other diseases : 

Bronchitis, Acute. Very prevalent, especially in February. March. April, 
November and December. 



3G STATE BOATID OF HEALTH. [1889. 

Pneumonia. Quite prevalent. January to May. 
Rheumatism. Average number. All seasons. 

6. No diseases, except as noticed, had unusual large prevalence during the 
year. 

7. No very unusual fatality. 

8. Nothing new that seemed to indicate that Scarlet Fever or Diphtheria had 
been communicated from one person to another. 

G. D. IIersey, M. D. 

2. Woonsocket and vicinity. 

3. With sickness of all kinds, the general amount has been more than usual 
dining the past year. 

4. Zymotic diseases have prevailed during the year, as follows : 
Croup. Average number. Average severity. Cool months. 
Diarrhoea and Dysentery. Average number. Average severity. 
Diphtheria. Epidemic. Mild. 

Fever, Malarial. Less number. Mild. All about. 
Fever, Typhoid. Average number. Mdd. 
Measles. Average number. Mild. 
Scarlatina. Epidemic. Mild. 
Whooping Cough. Epidemic. Mild. 

5. No other zymotic disease epidemic. 

Other diseases : 

Bronchitis, Acute. Average number. Spring. 
Pneumonia. Average number. Fall. 
Rheumatism. Average number. All times of year. 

6. No other diseases had unusually large prevalence. 

7. Pneumonia has been attended with unusual fatality. 

8. Repeated circumstances have occurred within my observation that seemed 
to indicate that Scarlet Fever and Diphtheria had been communicated from one 

person to another. 

9. There is an evident advance in public sentiment in regard to the impor- 
tance of sanitary surroundings and interest in means of preventing diseases. 

G. W. Jenckes, M. D. 

WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

2. Ciiakt.estown and Richmond. 

3. About an average of sickness of all kinds in the general amount during 
the year. 

4. The following zymotic diseases have prevailed during the year : 



1889.] secretary's REPORT. 37 

Diarrhoea. Sporadic. Average. July and August. General. 

Diphtheria. See note appended.* 

Fever, Typhoid. Sporadic. Mild. September and October. Carolina and 
vicinity. 

Scarlatina. Epidemic. Severe. December. Carolina. 

Whooping Cough. Epidemic. Mild. October and November. Kenyon'fl 
Mills. 

5. No other zymotic disease epidemic. 

Other diseases : 

Bronchitis, Acute. Small number. October and November. 

Pneumonia. Small number. December. 

Rheumatism. Average. February and March. 

6. No other diseases had unusually large prevalence. 

7. No unusual fatality. 

8. Circumstances continually occur within my observation that seem to indi- 
cate that Scarlet Fever and Diphtheria had been communicated from one person 
to another. 

9. Think there is a better knowledge and application of sanitary laws. 

10. No generally believed source of ill health in my circuit. 

A. A. Saunders, M. D. 

2. Sourn Kingstown. 

3. Including sickness of all kinds, the general amount has been about an 
average during the past year. 

4. The following zymotic diseases have prevailed : 
Cholera Infantum. Sporadic. Average severity. Summer. 
Diarrluea and Dysentery. Sporadic, Average. Summer and Autumn. 
Diphtheria. Heard of several. Fatal. November. Usquepaugh. 
Fever, Malarial. Sporadic. Mild. All the year. 

Fever, Typhoid. Epidemic, almost, Quite severe. Autumn and early Win- 
ter. Peacedale and Wakefield. 

5. No other zymotic disease epidemic. 



* December 2, 1889, Willie McQee, aged three years, w a* taken with convulsions, and soon devel- 
oped a severe form of scarlet fever and diphtheria, running its usual course and terminating favor- 
ably. Dpon the tifth day aftei the attack, the mother was taken with diphtheria, and the following 
day the grandmother With the same, both having a severe form of it. They were the only i' 
exposed, aa perfect isolation bad been maintained. At tins time the grandfather came to care for 
them having, In the meantime, sent for a daughter in lioston— and upon the fourth day, he was 
taken with diphtheria— same severe form. The daughter arrived the clay after her father went 
to the rescue, and in four or live days was stricken with seal let fever and diphtheria, having a very 
severe time. The father of the child (who bad not bees at home) arrived after ail had partially 
recovered, and be also bad ■ mild diphtheria. The cases extended over a period of live weeks, nil 
fully recovered, and to well isolated that no other cases have occurred. There bad not been 
of scarlet fever in this village in several years, and no diphtheria for several months. 



38 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1880. 

Other diseases t 

Bronchitis, Acute. Above average. Spring and Autumn. 

Pneumonia. Average number. Cool season. 

Rheumatism. Average number. Early Spring and November. 

Stomach, Acute diseases of. Average number. 

6. Excepting Typhoid Fever, no diseases had unusual large prevalence dur- 
ing the year. 

7. No unusual fatality. 

9. In regard to any advance in public sentiment as to the importance of 
sanitary surroundings, can only say that possibly the general community of 
Wakefield and Peacedale are awakening to need of sewerage, owing to intro- 
duction of water works. Sewer system is planned and begun at Narragansett 
Pier, but not a good system. 

10. Lack of proper sewer arrangements in Peacedale and Wakefield causes 
an unusual amount of Typhoid Fever and, perhaps, Cholera Infantum and 
Dysentery. 

P. K. Taylok, M. D. 

2. SouTn Kingstown. 

3. Taking sickness of all kinds, the general amount has been more than usual 
in my circuit during the past year. 

4. The following zymotic diseases have prevailed during the year : 
Cholera Infantum. Sporadic. Average severity. Summer. 
Croup. Sporadic. Average severity. Cool season. 

Diarrhoea and Dysentery. Sporadic. Average severity. 

Diphtheria. Numerous sporadic cases. 

Fever, Malarial. Some cases. 

Fever, Typhoid. Considerable. Sporadic. Mild. No particular season. 

5. No disease epidemic except La Grippe. December. Wakefield. 

Other diseases : 

Brain, Inflammation and Congestion of. Small. 

La Grippe or Bronchitis, Acute. Large. December. 

Pneumonia. Average prevalence. Cool season. 

Rheumatism. Average prevalence. Through the year. 

Stomach, Acute diseases of. Average prevalence. Summer. 

6. No diseases had unusually large prevalence. 

7. No unusual fatality. 

8. Am familiar with several cases of Diphtheria, which were sporadic ; i. e., 
every child had it in the family, and none elsewhere. 

10. Do not know of any particular source of ill-health. 

J. E. Pekry, M. D. 



1889.] secretary's report. 39 

2. North Kinostowx. 

3. Of all kinds of sickness, the general amount has been about an average 
daring the year. 

4. The following zymotic diseases have prevailed during the year : 
Cholera Infantum. Sporadic. Mild. September and October. 
Croup. Sporadic. Mild. Cold months. 

Diarrhoea and Dysentery. Sporadic. Average severity. Summer and Fall. 

Fever, Typhoid. Sporadic. Mild. Fall. 

Measles. A few mild cases, confined to the families where they occurred. 
Were from outside infection. 

Whooping Cough. Epidemic of average severity during Winter and Spring 
months of 1889, in most of the villages of the town. 

5. No other zymotic disease epidemic. 

Other diseases : 

Bronchitis, Acute. Average amount. Usual severity. Cool season. 
Pneumonia. Average number of cases. Usual severity. Cool season. 
Rheumatism. Less than usual. 

6. No diseases not mentioned had unusually large prevalence. 

7. No unusual fatality. 

9. As to any advance in public sentiment in regard to the importance of 
sanitary surroundings, there is nothing of especial note. I think, however, 
that people generally are becoming better informed on sanitary subjects, and 
progress is being quietly and constantly made. 

10. No generally believed source of ill health. 

C. E. Maryott, M. D. 

2. Southern part of HOPKINTON, northern part of WsBTJERLY. 

3. I should think the general amount of sickness had been about an average 
for the year ; the spring and winter months less ; fall and summer with more. 

4. The following zymotic diseases have prevailed during the year : 
Cholera Infantum. None to my knowledge ; some reported during July and 

August, hut more probably gastro-inlestinal catarrh, as the duration of BiCB 
was from three to live weeks ; general recovery. 

Croup. Sporadic. Mild. March, April and November. Ashaway and Pot- 
ter inn. 
Diarrhoea and Dysentery. Epidemic. Mild. July and August Potter Hill. 

Diphtheria. Sporadic. Mild. All through the year. No particular locality. 
•■•■■r. Malarial. Sporadic. Average. Bummer and Fall. Mostly Imported 
cases. 

Fever, Typhoid. Sporadic. Average. November and December. Middle 

of town. 



40 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

Measles. Epidemic. Severe. Spring and Summer. Ashaway and Potter 
Hill. 

Scarlatina. Sporadic. Mild. All through the year. No particular locality. 

Whooping Cough. A few cases during late Summer and Fall, in eastern part 
of town. 

5. Mumps. Severe. Summer and Fall. Ashaway and vicinity. 

Other diseases : 

Bronchitis, Acute. Large number. Spring and Fall. 

Pneumonia. Small number. April, May and June. 

Rheumatism. Large number. Spring and Summer. 

G. No diseases not named had unusually large prevalence during the year. 

7. No unusual fatality. 

9. Owing to the perversity of our Town Council, the town has been without 
a Health Officer for the greater part of the year, but they did finally appoint a 
layman. In one case that came to my knowledge, a man was almost a whole 
year in getting a most dangerous nuisance abated. 

A. B. Briggs, M. D. 

2. Westerly. 

3. Taking sickness of all kinds, the general amount was about an average 
during the past year. 

Cholera Infantum. Scarcely any. 
Diarrhoea and Dysentery. No more than usual. 
Fever, Typhoid. Sporadic. Less than average. Fall. 
No zymotic disease epidemic. 

Other diseases : 

Bronchitis, Acute. Small prevalence. Spring. 
Pneumonia. Small prevalence. Winter and Spring. 
Rheumatism. Small prevalence. All the year. 

6. No diseases had unsually large prevalence during the year. 

7. No unusual fatality. 

8. I have investigated two cases of scarlet fever in a family, the house of 
which had the reputation of two former outbreaks, the last occurring five years 
after the second, Thorough fumigation and cleansing had been pursued. 
About two weeks previous to the last outbreak, a closet, built of ceiling boards, 
was removed from one side of a room to the other, when one of the above cases 
occurred. The question is, were the germs of scarlet fever concealed in the 
grooves of the boards that length of time and remain active. 

10. No generally believed source of ill-health in this town. 

H. W. Rose, M. D. 



TOWN SANITATION 



REPORTS FROM TOWNS, 

JN RELATION TO SANITARY [MPfiOVEMENT, II' 



A complete animal report of a State Board of Health properly 
includes an account of the measures taken each year hy municipal 
authorities, corporations or individuals, for the promotion of the 
health of the communities under their respective supervision or con- 
trol. In order, therefore, to ascertain the facts in relation to such 
measures, and for the purpose of presentation in this Report, as in 
the reports heretofore issued, and in the continuance of the design 
to keep well informed of all proceedings throughout the State, on the 
part of town or city councils, or any form of municipal authority, in 
the appointment of health officers or boards of health, in the direc- 
tion of improvements which have in view and seem to promise the 
promotion of public health; by the abatement of nuisances; the 
removal of unsanitary conditions and surroundings ; or by the intro- 
duction of water for general use ; or construction of sewers ; or the 
establishment of other public works, which may not only be of great 
public utility and convenience, but also serve in some measure, large 
or small, in the prevention of disease, the Secretary has. as hereto- 
fore, solicited replies from the town and city clerks of the several 
towns and cities, or other municipal officers, in answer to (piestions 
proposed in a circular sent for that purpose. 

It is designed and hoped that a connected history may thereby be 
secured of all sanitary improvements of a public character in all parts 
of the State, from year to year, and the gradual awakening of the 
citizens of the different towns to the necessity of sanitary public 
measures shown ; and also whatever intelligent appreciation of such 
necessity, and whatever public spirit in existence in the towns there 
may be, as manifested by the readiness with which needed sanitary 

measures are adopted. 

The following is the form of circular sent at close of the year 
1 SS9 : 



44 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 



CIRCULAR No. 108. 

Office of Secretary of the State Board of Health, 

48 Weybosset Street, 
Providence, R. I., Jan. 1, 1890. 
To the Town Clerk: 

It is, by statute law, made the duty of the Secretary of the State Board of 
Health to make inquiries of town or city clerks, or of the clerks of local boards 
of health, in regard to the general health and sanitary condition of the towns, 
and also in regard to measures taken for the improvement of the same. 

The law reads as follows : 



PniiLic Statutes, Chapter 83. 

Sec 6. The Secretary of the said Board shall make inquiry, from time to 
time, of the clerks of town and local boards of health, and practicing physi- 
cians, in relation to the prevalence of any disease, or knowledge of any known 
or generally believed source of disease, or causes of general ill-health, and also 
in relation to the proceedings of the said boards of health, in respect to acts for 
the promotion and protection of the public health, and also in relation to dis- 
eases among domestic animals, in their several towns and localities, respectively; 
and the said clerks of town and local boards of health, and said practicing phy- 
sicians, shall give such information, in reply to said inquiries, of such facts and 
circumstances as have come to their knowledge. 



The Secretary therefore respectfully makes the follow iny inquiries: 

1. Has any work for the promotion of public health been contemplated or 
completed in your town by the town authorities, or by private enterprise, during 
the year ? If any, please state what. 



2. If by introduction or extension of water service for general use, please 
state what proportion of the population, by estimation, was supplied with the 
same at the end of the year.' 51 " 



*If not known by the person replying, please state where or of whom such information may be 
obtained. 



1889.] ,;i:TAKy's REPORT. I"> 

:). If by sewage, state what the aggregate length ot sewers, by estimation or 
otherwise, and about what proportion of the population had drainage connec- 
tion with them at the end of the year.* 



4. If by new ordinances in abatement of nuisances, or in improvement in 
heating or ventilating public buildings, halls, school houses, &C., or by drainage, 
or by compelling the removal of excreta, garbage, house refuse, &c, or for any 
sanitary purpose, please give terms and date of enactment of such town ordi- 
nance, or send copy of same, also state how far, to your best knowledge, all the 
sanitary ordinances have been enforced. Copies of town ordinances especially 
desired. 



5. Has your town any legal board of health beside the town council? If so, 
please give the names of the olhcers of the same. 



P>. Please give the names of the health officers of your town. 



7. Has gratuitous vaccination been provided in your town during the past 
year ? What proportion of the population was vaccinated, according to your 
last knowledge ? 



8. Have undertakers promptly sent in their returns of death V Please give 
nanus of any who do not. (Sec Public Statutes, Chap 85, Sec. 1.) 



Respectfully. 

CIIAS. II. FISHER, 

See. State Board of Health. 



N. B. — The town or other clerk should charge a remunerative fee for replying 

to the above circular, and present to the town council or board of health, it being 
a service required by law. 



*If not known by the person replying, please state where or of wbom such Information maybe 
obtained. 



4G STATE BOARD OP HEALTH. [1889. 



REPORTS FROM TOWN CLERKS 

In relation to the prevalence of disease, and to municipal proceedings 

in regard to public sanitary improvements, the 

promotion of public health, etc. 

BRISTOL COUNTY. 

BAR.RINGTON. 

1. No new work for the promotion of public health by the town authorities 
during the year. 

2. Some extension of water service for private use, supplied from Bristol and 
Warren water works. 

3. No public sewerage. 

4. No new ordinances in abatement of nuisances, or for any sanitary pur- 
pose. 

5. No legal board of health beside the town council. 

6. No health officers appointed. 

7. No gratuitous vaccination provided during the year. 

8. Undertakers have promptly sent in their returns of death. 

M. H. Wood, Town Clerk. 

BRISTOL. 

1. No new work for the promotion of public health by the town authorities, 
or by private enterprise, during the year, excepting the building of a sewer, about 
half a mile in length, by private parties. 

2. By the extension of water service for general use, about one-third of the 
population are now supplied. 

3. About half a mile of new sewers have been constructed during the last 
year, as above stated. 

4. By action of the town council, three public buildings have been connected 
with new sewers. 

5. No board of health beside the town council. 

6. Health Officer, George H. Peck. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has been provided during the past year. The 
Superintendent of Schools attended to the matter very promptly. 

8. Undertakers have promptly sent in their returns of deaths. 

H. F. Bennett, Toion Clerk. 



1889.] SECRETARY^ REPORT. 47 

WARRKN. 

1. The health officer has carefully inspected premises in the compact part of 
the town. 

2. There has been a slight increase in tlie water service during the year. 

3. There has been no sewer constructed during the year. 

4. No new ordinances were adopted having relation to public health. 

5. The council is the legal board of health. 
G. Health Officer, J. M. Smith. 

7. No gratuitous vaccination was provided during the past year. 

8. Undertakers have promptly sent in their returns of death. 

Ciiaules B. MASON, Town Clerk. 



KENT COUNTY. 

COVENTRY. 

1. No work for the promotion of public health, except a more general care 
for the cesspools and house drainage. 

2. Introduction of water service for general use contemplated for Anthony 
and Quidnick villages. 

3. No sewerage. 

4. Nothing new in abatement of nuisances, or for any sanitary purpose, ex- 
cept as above. 

5. Board of Health, John Winsor, M. D., G. Louis Wood, M. D., Charles 
L. Ormsbee, M. D. F and F. B. Smith, M. D. 

6. Health officers, same as board of health. 

7. «No gratuitous vaccination provided during the past year. 

8. Generally, undertakers have promptly sent in their returns of death. 

S. W. Griffin, Town < 

EAST GREENWICH. 

1. No particular work for the promotion of public health contemplated by 
the town authorities. 

'2. By extension of water service for general use, do not know what propor- 
tion of the population was supplied with the same at the end of the year. 

3. No public sewerage. 

I. No new ordinances in abatement of nuisances or for any sanitary purpose. 

5. Board of health, the ^wn council. 

G. Health Officer, James LI. Eldridge, M. I). 



48 STATE BOARD OK HEALTH. [1880. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination was provided during Hie past year. Mostly scholars 
in public schools. 

8. Undertakers have promptly sent in their returns of death. 

E. Stanhope, Town Clerk. 

WEST GREENWICH. 

Nothing new for the promotion of public health. 

No water service for general use. 

No public sewerage. 

Board of health, the town council. 

Health Officers, the town council. 

No gratuitous vaccination provided during the past year. 

Returns of death have been sent in very promptly, so far as I know. 

W. N. Sweet, Town Clerk. 

WARWICK. 

1. No particular work for the promotion of public health by the town 
authorities. 

2. Phenix Water Co.'s reservoir dam broken down by overflowing. South 
western section of town to be supplied by Warwick and Coventry Water Co. 

3. No public sewerage. 

4. No action in particular in abatement of nuisances, or for any sanitary 
purpose. 

5. Board of health, the town council. 

6. Health Officer, Dr. Albert G. Sprague. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination was provided during the past year. As to propor- 
tion of the population vaccinated, Dr. J. B. Hanaford, Apponaug, has this data. 

8. Undertakers have promptly sent in their returns of death. 

J. S. Lockwood, Town Clerk. 

NEWPORT COUNTY. 

JAMESTOWN. 

1. Main sewer through the thickly settled portion of the town completed. 

2. Water service for general use not yet introduced. 

3. About one mile of sewer built. 

4. No new ordinances in abatement of nuisauces, or for any sanitary purpose, 
except as stated. 

5. Board of health, the town council. , 

6. Health Officer, Abbott Chandler. 



1889.] secretary's report. 49 

?. Gratuitous vaccination not provided during the past year. 
8. Undertakers have promptly sent in their returns of death. 

Chas. E. Weeden, Town Clerk. 

LITTLE COMPTON. 

1. No work for the promotion of puhlic health by the town authorities dur- 
ing Hit' year. 

2. We have no water service for general use. 

3. No public sewerage. 

4. There have been no new ordinances during the past year for any sanitary 
] impose. 

5. No legal board of health beside the town council. 
G. No appointment of health officer. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has not been provided in this' town during the past 
year. 

8. Generally, undertakers have promptly sent in their returns of death. 

F. R. Bkownell, Town Clerk. 

MIDDLETOWN. 

1. No particular work has been begun in Middletown during the year 1889, 
designed for the promotion or improvement of the sanitary condition of its in- 
habitants. 

2. There was no introduction or extension of water service for general use 
during the year 1889. 

3. Nothing was done in the matter of sewerage. Middletown is not densely 
populated and do urgent necessity exists for the construction of a system of 

ige. 

4. The town council have had under consideration a general sanitary c< 
hut failure to agree upon some of the details thereof, has thus far prevented its 
adoption. 

r>. The town council is the only authorized hoard of health in Middletown. 

(i. John Peck ham is Health Officer, and lie bas given time and diligent atten- 
tion to ! epidemic ami contagious diseases and taken proper and effectual 
means to prevent their Bpread, 

7. The town council did not provide for the free vaccination of the inhab- 
itants of Middletown during 1 - 

8. Undertakers for the last two years have been very punctual in forwarding 

returns of deaths to the town clerk, and the returns are. in mosl instances, full 
and COmpll le. 

Ai.hkut L. Chase, Town Clerk. 
7 



50 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

SANITARY COD!-* OF THE TOWN OK MIDDLETOWN, R. L RULES AND REGULA- 
TIONS OF THE BOARD OF HEALTH OF MIDDLETOWN, IN RELATION TO CON- 
TAGIOUS DISEASES AND THE PRESEHVATION OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 

[Adopted January 20, 1890.] 

The following recited Rules and Regulations made by the Town Council of 
the town of Middletown, acting as a Board of Health in and for said town, in 
pursuance of law, are hereby declared to be the act of said board and shall take 
effect from and after the twentieth day of January, 1890 : 

Rule I. Every physician having knowledge of the existence of any case of 
cholera, yellow fever, typhus fever, typhoid fever, cerebrospinal meningitis, 
diphtheria, small pox, scarlet fever, measles, intermittent fever, or of any other 
contagious, infectious or epidemic diseases within the town of Middletown, 
shall immediately make report thereof in writing to the Health Officer of said 
town, who shall forthwith take all necessary measures to prevent the spread 
thereof. 

Rule II. Any physician who shall be furnished with a copy of this code, 
and shall neglect or refuse to comply with the requirements of the first rule 
hereof, shall be fined not less than two, nor more than ten dollars, for each day 
of such neglect, after having knowledge of the existence of any of the diseases 
enumerated therein. 

Rule III. No person living in a family where there is a case of either of the 
diseases enumerated in the first rule of this code, shall attend any school, 
church, or public meeting, nor shall any teacher of a public school knowingly 
admit any such person thereto, until the Health Officer shall furnish such person 
with a certificate that the danger of contagion or infection has passed, and that 
the dwelling-house where such person lives has been properly fumigated. 

Rule IV. The certificate mentioned in the preceding rule shall not be fur- 
nished until after the elapse of time sufficient, in the judgment of a reputable 
physician, to show there will be no further cases, and that the peril of contagion 
has passed. 

Rule V. No person having whooping cough, mumps, or chicken pox, shall 
attend any school or public meeting until complete recovery. 

Rule VI. No undertaker shall conduct or allow to be conducted, public 
funeral ceremonies over the body of any person dying of auj r of the diseases 
enumerated in the first rule of this code without special permission from the 
Health Officer or Town Council, and any undertaker violating the provisions of 
this rule, shall be fined ten dollars for each offence. 

Rule VII. The body of every human being buried within the municipal 
limits of this town, shall be so buried that the top of the coffin or receptacle 
containing said body shall be at least three feet below the usual surface of the 
ground where buried. Whoever buries or inters a body at a less depth without 
special permission from the Board of Health, shall be fined ten dollars for every 
such offence. 

*This code was adopted after the report of the town clerk was made. 



1889.] RETA.BY*S REPORT. 51 

Rule VIII. The Health Officer shall complain of and prosecute to final judg- 
ment, all violations of the rules of this code, and sh ill be entitled to one-half of 
all the fines recovered by virtue hereof, and the other half he shall pa}- into the 
town treasury. 

A true copy from the record. 

Attest: Albert L Chase, Council Clerk. 

NEW BHOREHAM. 

1. Nothing for the promotion of public health by the town authorities. 

2. No introduction or extension of water service for general use. 
:;. No public sewerage. 

4. No new ordinances in abatement of nuisances or for any sanitary purpose. 

5. The only legal hoard of health, the town council. 

6. Health Officer, Berberl S. Millikin. 

8. Undertakers have promptly suit in their returns of death. 

A. N. Rose, Town Clerk. 

PORTSMOl III. 

1. No work for the promotion of public health in particular. 

2. No water service for general use in 'he town. 

3. No public sewers. 

4. No new ordinances in abatement of nuisances or for any sanitary pur] 

5. No legal board of health beside the town council. 
No health officer appointed. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination not provided during ar. 

8. As far as I know, undertakers have been quite prompt. 

Philip 15. Chase, Town Clerk. 

I 1 VIIKI'O.N. 

1. No particular work for the promotion of public health contemplated by 
the town authorities during the year. 

2. No water service for general use. 

3. No sewerage. 

4 No new ordinances in abatement of nuisances or for any sanitary purpose. 
5. Board of health, the town council. 

(5. Health Officers, Peleg I). Humphrey, Samuel E. Borden, Christopher 
Manchester. Austin Walker and Fernando A. WilCQZ 

7. Dr. Yale has been engaged to furnish gratuitous vaccination. Work not 

completed. 



52 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

8. ~ Generally, Undertakers have promptly sent in their returns of death. I do 
not recall the name of any delinquent. 

J. T. Cook, Town Clerk. 

NEWPORT CITY. 

1. Water services have been extended and sewers built by municipal action. 
A cremator has been put in operation whereby the city garbage has been dis- 
posed of by reducing to ashes. 

2. See extract from Inaugural of Mayor Coggeshall, appended. 

3. See same as above. 

5. Newport city has a Board of Health. Members 1889, C. F. Barker, M. 
D., President ; Francis H. Rankin, M. D., Secretary; Henry E. Turner, Jr., 
Executive Officer. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has been provided. 

8. Undertakers have promptly sent in their returns of deaths. 

The following extracts from the Inaugural Address, Jan. Cth, 1890, of Hon. 
Thomas Coggeshall, Mayor of Newport city, are pertinent in this connection : 

BOARD OF HEALTH. 

In multifarious ways the Board of Health guards the well-being of our city, 
watchful at all times of the highest interest of our people and zealously remind- 
ing the City Council, particularly the Board of Aldermen, of possible or prob- 
able danger to the health of Newport. Their statistical record is of exceeding 
value. Measured by the death rate of other cities and towns, we may properly 
be grateful to this board for years of fidelity to their responsible duties. We 
owe it to our permanent and temporary population alike to accept in sanitary 
matters the advice of this intelligent and wisely conducted board, always our 
prudent advisers. For a long period the Board of Health urged the Board of 
Aldermen to provide a method for the better disposition of garbage, etc. Dur- 
ing the year just past the appeal was earnestly made, resulting in the building 
of the cremator on the city wharf. The committee entrusted with its construct- 
ion reported it to have been properly built, and that the incineration of the gar- 
bage was satisfactory. The possible non-conformity to a feature of the contract 
has not yet been adjusted. When the contract is determined to have been com- 
plied with in its building, its cost must be paid from the city treasury. 

The purity and abundance of the water supply is a material source of the 
prosperity of this city. A provision of the contract whereby, when the popula- 
tion of Newport is twenty-five thousand, the cost to the city shall be increased 
is a matter that your attention is called to, for it may be soon anticipated. 

SEWERS. 

Sewerage is now recognized as the very important element of health. The 
system adopted, and successfully tested, demands that further and extensive 
connections shall be made. Many sewers are too small and in portions of the 



1889.] secretary's report. 53 

city at too low grade ; thereby sewage and storm water do not run to the over- 
flow. The surface water should be provided for, llie topography of the land 
determining where the overflow should run, not always Bafe to be lei into the 
main sewer. Examination in the minutest detail should be made of every pari 
of our sewage system. The districts near Wellington avenue should have atten- 
tion ; health in many places near it is in peril. It would he the true policy to 
determine an enlargement of the city's drainage and place it before the people, 
asking for the needed appropriation by bonds payable in thirty or even fifty 
at a low rate of interest. 
Work during the year has been done on Channing avenue, a small portion of 
Gibb's avenue, East Bowery street, a portion of Chastelleux avenue, Webster 
and Friendship streets, a portion of Beech street, Ocean avenue, Kay street from 
Mann avenue to Howard avenue, Second, North, Third and Freebody streets. 
The main sewer has been extended up Lawrence avenue ; pipe sewers have been 
laid in Dean avenue, Edward and Bridge streets. The street commissioner will 
recommend that the Wellington avenue overflow be built ; that Coasters Harbor 
quarry be abandoned ; that a new quarry of better material be purchased or 
leased ; that new curbs be laid in Kay street, Bellevue avenue and Washington 
square, and that Long wharf and the pavement in South Thames street be put 
in order. 



The parks of our city arc an elevating, helpful and healthy influence; they 
have been kept in excellent order during the year. I am grateful that my 
recommendation concerning Morton Park was regarded. With it- development 
that section of our city, which has long deserved and needed a park, will be 
provided with an enduring evidence of the generosity of our former beloved 
townsman, Vice-President Morion. I renew my recommendation of last year, 
thai the area of land at the junction of Thames and Farewell streets be pur- 
chased, to be called the Kllery Park, in honor of thai pal riot, William Ellery, a 
Bigner of the Declaration of Independence, our Congressman and the Chief Jus- 
tice of our Slate. I recommend thai asphalt, stone or granitoid walks be placed 
in Touro Park. Of Fort Greene, I would make that area a park where the citi- 
zens may look upon the delightful entrance to our harbor, risking the very 
remote probability of the War Department evei reclaiming it. The outlay for 
grading, strengthening the walks and for seats will not probably exceed $1,800. 
There are funds held in trust by the city from which money may be drawn for 
the adornment of our parks. 

PROVIDENCE COI N IV. 

Ill KKII.i.VII.I.K. 

1. Nothing new for the promotion of public health contemplated by the 

town authorities. 

2. Xo water service for general use. Private parlies Ink of introducing 
water lor general use. 

:i. No sewerage. 



54 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

4. No new'ordinances for sanitary purposes. 

5. No legal board of health beside the town council. 

6. Health Officer, Herbert P. Mowry. 

7. During the past year a physician was appointed to vaccinate school chil- 
dren, and perhaps one hundred children were inoculated. 

8. Undertakers quite promptly have sent in their returns of death. 

A. Mo wry, Town Clerk. 

CRANSTON. 

1. No work for the promotion of public health by the town authorities dur- 
ing the year. 

2. Some extension of water service, but do not know how much. 

3. No public sewers. 

4. No new ordinances for any sanitary purpose. 

5. Board of health, the town council. 

6. Health Officers, Dr. F. W. Bradbury, John Bigbee, Town Sergeant. 

7. No gratuitous vaccination provided during the past year. 

D. D. Waterman, Town Clerk. 

CUMBERLAND. 

1. Nothing new for the promotion of public health has been contemplated 
hy the town authorities. 

2. For extension of water service for general use, in southwestern part of 
town, see Pawtucket Water Works Report. 

3 No public sewers. 

4. No new ordinances have been passed in abatement of nuisances or for any 
sanitary purpose. 

5. No legal board of health beside the town council. 

6. Health Officer, Dr. L. F. C. Garvin. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has not been provided during the past year. 

8. Undertakers have promptly sent in their returns of death. 

P. F. Kinion, Town Clerk. 

EAST PROVIDENCE. 

1. No new work for the promotion of public health contemplated by the 
town authorities. 

2. See note appended,* also Report Pawtucket Water Commissioners. 

* Dr. C. H. FisnEB,— Dear Sir : Yours received. On July 1st, 1889, there had been 557 services 
put in, probably there have been 25 put in since. I have no means of knowing accurately until the 
time of making up our annual report, about the first of July. 

Very truly yours, Alfred Griswold, Supt. 



1889.] ; I \ ry's report. 

3. Cannot give the aggregate length of Bowers, or what proportion of the 

population have drainage connection with them. 

4. No new ordinances for sanitary purposes. Bee Report 1888. 

5. Board of health, the town council. 

6. Health Officer, Mason B. Wood. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has been provided during the past year for the 
public school children. 

8. Undertakers have promptly sent in their returns of death. 

T. A. Sweetland, Tot/on Clerk. 



1. No work for the promotion of public health contemplated by the town 
authorities during the year. 

2. Have no water service for general use. 

3. No public sewerage. 

4. No new ordinances in abatement of nuisances or for any sanitary pun 

5. Board of health, the town council. 

6. Health Officer, Henry Arnold, M. D. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination was provided a few years since, but not the past 
year. 

8. Undertakers have promptly sent in their returns of death. 

E. D. Lyon, Town Clerk. 

GLOCESTER. 

1. Nothing new for the promotion of public health. 

2. No water service for general use. 

3. No public sewers. 

4. There have been no new ordinances passed by the town council. 

5. Board of health, the town council. 
<;. Health Officer, George A. Lee. 

7. Only a few cases of vaccination known during the pasl year. 

8. Undertakers have promptly Bent in their returns of death. 

0. \V. Farnom, Ttnon Clerk. 

.lolINs TON. 

1. No work for the promotion of public health except free vaccination. 

0. By extension of water service for general use. the proportion of the pop- 
ulation, by estimation, supplied with the same at the end of the year was prob- 
ably three fourths of that in Ohnvville and vicinity. 

3. No public sew rage. 



56' STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

4. No new ordinances in abatement of nuisances. ' The town has a contract 
with A. E. Field & Son for the removal of swill and garbage from the compact 
part of the town until June 1st, 1890. 

5. Board of Health, Thomas C. Lawton, M. 1)., Charles A. Barnard, M. D., 
Frank A. Payan, M. D. , Martin Mann. 

6. Health Officers, as above. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has been ordered, but not yet completed. 

8. So far as I know, undertakers have promptly sent in their returns of 
death. 

W. F. King, Town Clerk. 



2. Considerable extension of water service for general use. Cannot state 
what proportion of the population was supplied with the same at the end of the 
year. 

3. About one mile of sewers constructed. 

4. No new ordinances for any sanitary purpose. 

5. Board of heallh, the town council. 

6. Healtli Officer, Thomas F. Quigley. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination was provided during the past year. No return yet 
of number. 

8. Undertakers have promptly sent in their returns of death. 

E. B. Smith, Town Clerk. 

NORTH PROVIDENCE. 

1. Nothing unusual for the promotion of public health contemplated by the 
town authorities. 

2. Reservoir completed on Fruit Hill. Water introduced in Lymansville. 

3. No public sewerage. 

4. Nothing new in abatement of nuisances or for any sanitary purpose. 

5. The legal board of health, tbe town council. 

6. Health Officer, Sanfoid E. Kinnecom. 

7. No gratuitous vaccination provided during the past year. 

8. Undertakers have sent in their returns of death with fair promptness. 

T. H. Angell, Town Clerk. 

NORTH SMITHFIELD. 

1. No particular work for the promotion of public health by the town au- 
thorities. 

2. No public water service for general use. Water was introduced into a 
portion of the village of Forestdale by private parties, and corporations have 
given increased sanitary attention to villages. 



1889.] secretary's report. 57 

3. No public sewers. 

4. Ordinances in abatement of nuisances not changed. 

5. Board of health, the town council. 

6. Health Officer, Joshua Wardle. 

7. No gratuitous vaccination was provided during the past year. 

8. No undertakers located in town. 

Byron A. Andrews, Town Clerk. 

PAWTUCKET. 

1. Ordinances in relation to public health quite fairly enforced. 

2. By extension of water service the proportion of the population now sup- 
plied, probably about two thirds, (17,000). See Report of Water Commissioners 
and Superintendent of Water Works, appended. 

3. See Report of Board of Sewer Commissioners, appended. 

5. The Board of Aldermen. 

6. Health Officer, George H. Stanley, M. D. 

7. Vaccination was provided. 

8. Undertakers have promptly sent in their returns. 

EXTRACT FROM THE REPORT OF TIIE SEWER COMMISSIONERS. 

The survey of the Moshassuck river water shed is nearly finished. We are 
now able to outline a system of sewerage for that district. 

The question of disposal of the sewage was very fully discussed in our report 
of 1887, page 17 (o 26, inclusive. We can add but little to what was then writ- 
ten, further than the experiments made by tin; Massachusetts State Board of 
Health, at the Experimental Station at Lawrence, in filtering sewage, as 
described in their report of 1889, proves conclusively that intermittent down- 
ward filtration, which may or may not be combined with broadcast irrigation, 
is the only practical method of sewage disposal where sewage cannot be turned 
into very large bodies of water. 

We again report there are* "but two ways for the city of Pawtueket to dis- 
pose of its sewage. One to pump the sewage on to Seekonk Plains and care for 
it with that of the Blackstone river sewers by filtration. The other will lie by 
an arrangement with the city of Providence whereby they will take the sewage 
at the city line and care for it with their own sewage at Field's Point." 

Although favoring filtration, to hasten work and have more than one way by 
which to dispose of the sewage, we recommended in our reply to the Committee 
as follows : 

f " We would recommend thai authority be obtained from the General Assem- 
bly at its next session, to acquire by purchase or otherwise, the righl of way to 



» Report 1887, page 17. 
t Pnge 6. 

8 



58 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

build muin drains or common sewers, to secure land for sewerage works, irriga- 
tion fields or filtration beds, and for authority to contract with the city of Provi- 
dence for connection with their system of sewers." 

SYSTEM OP SEWERAGE. 

The greater part of the section known as the West avenue district is high 
above the river, but it is swampy, the subsoil being a hardpan impervious to 
water. A part of Cat Swamp lies in this district. The water from the brook 
that rises in Cat Swamp and flows through this district must be cared for. This 
water, with the grade available, will fill a twelve inch pipe ; it often more than 
fills the twenty-four inch pipe now in use. 

In building sewers through this district, the springs that feed the brook will 
gradually be drained, and the water taken off at a lower level by the sewers. If 
allowed to flow in the sewers with household wastes, this clean water becomes 
sewage and must be cared for as sewage at a price per thousand gallons. If 
allowed to flow through separate pipes, or through sewers used for storm water 
only, it can be turned into the Moshassuck river. 

For this district we recommend that the main sewer be built on a double sys- 
tem, that is, household waste in one pipe, storm and ground water in a large 
sewer, the smaller sewer to be connected with the larger by storm overflow con- 
nections. 

The drainage of this district by the above system, not only lowers the ground 
water and opens up a very valuable tract of land for building purposes, but will 
remove a very prolific source of malaria and typhoid fever germs. 

The greater part of the section north of West avenue district is dry. The 
ground water, as indicated by wells, is from ten to thirty-five feet below the 
surface. The wet parts are close to the river, and can, by an inexpensive sys- 
tem of land tiles, be drained. 

We recommend for the Moshassuck river water shed, excepting the West ave- 
nue district as above, the same system of sewerage as is used and has proved 
satisfactory in the Blackstone river water shed, i. e., a restricted combined 
system. 

COURSE OF MAIN SEWERS. 

The Moshassuck river, from Mineral Spring avenue in Pawlucket to the 
Philip Allen Print Works in Providence, during the summer months, is a very 
small river and flows through flat, swampy land, the flow being very sluggish. 

Sand and silt will get into the sewers through the catch basin and thence into 
the river, causing injury to property owners below, unless special works be 
built at the out fall of the storm sewers. 

Immediate relief must be had from storm water at the junction of Lonsdale 
avenue and Main street. 

In our report of 1887 we say, * " Water at this point has and will continue 
to cause trouble until sewers are built in this district." 

Already claims to the amount of five thousand ($5,000) dollars hava been 
made, as compensation for injury caused by storm water at this point. 

* Page 17. 



1889.] secretary's report. 59 

As soon as the necessary right of way can be secured a main sewer should be 
built. The sewer should be used for storm water only, until such time as the 
sewage can be treated or disposed of. 

The main sewer for the West avenue district will be built from the Moshas- 
suck river to Main street, through Main street and West avenue to Jefferson 
avenue. 

A main branch should be built through Trenton street, crossing Pawtucket 
avenue and continue through Trenton and other streets to Pidge avenue ; from 
this point the further course of the main sewer will be determined somewhat 
by the use made in the future of the land immediately south of Pidge avenue. 

A second main branch will be through Moulton street to Pawtucket avenue. 

Whitman street should be extended to Moulton street and West avenue, and a 
main branch sewer laid through this extension to Wayland avenue. 

Mineral Spring avenue and the main streets to the north extend direct from 
the divide of the water shed of the Moshassuek and Blackstone rivers to the 
Mosliassuck river. The main sewers will follow the same course. 

An intercepting sewer will be built from or near the northerly boundary line 
of the city of Providence, northerly, to the southerly boundary line of the town 
of Lincoln. 

This sewer must follow the general course of the river to Mineral Spring 
avenue ; from Mineral Spring avenue it will be built ou or parallel with the 
road bed of the Moshassuek Valley Railroad. 

This sewer need not be birilt all at one time, but it must keep pace with the 
building of main sewers in this district. 

Under no consideration should the sewage from any pari of this district be 
discharged into the Blackstone canal or the Moshassuek river. 

The intercepting sewer will collect the sewage (dry weather How) from all the 
sewers in Pawtucket that are in the Moshassuek river water shed, ami cany it 
to the line of the city of Providence where it can be discharged by gravitation 
into the sewers of the city of Providence, or be pumped for filtration on to See- 
konk Plains. 

The land at this point is well adapted lor a pumping .station and settling 
tanks. 

In view of the resolutions passed by the City Council and the expressed views 
of citizens, residents of this district, we believe the time is at hand when some 
action must be taken in building sewers and disposing of the household and 
manufacturers' waste of this district. 

We therefore recommend that, as soon as the necessary authority is obtained 
from the General Assembly, the Hoard of Sewer Commissioners be empowered 
to contract with the city of Providence (if satisfactory arrangements can be 
made) to care for the sewage of the city of Pawtucket ; also, that they be em- 
powered to procure, by purchase or otherwise, land on Seekonk Plains for filter 
beds and irrigation fields. 

If a contract is made with the city of Providence to care for the sewage of the 
city of Pawtucket, it will be from four to live years before their system of sew- 
erage and sewage disposal is so far completed that they can take and care for 
the sewage of Pawtucket 



60 STATE BOAKD OP HEALTH. [1889. 

In the meantime, a portion of the land purchased (fifty-five acres) by the old 
town of North Providence of Asa Pike, can be used for filter beds to filter the 
sewage. This use of the land will not cause a nuisance, or in any way injure 
the land for future use. If the land is to be used for a park after the filter beds 
are abandoned, it will be decidedly benefited by the sewage. 

If a contract is not made with the city of Providence, and it is decided to 
care for the sewage by filtration, the sewage can be disposed of on the Pike land, 
as above, until the necessary land is secured on Seekonk Plains, and the filter 
beds built. 

It will be advisable, however, to secure the land for the permanent filter beds 
as soon as possible, as this land can be used to dispose of the sewage by broad- 
cast irrigation as soon as the pipe is laid to convey the sewage to it, even before 
the filter beds are built, thus saving the expense of temporary filter beds. 

FLUSH TANKS. 

Ten automatic flush tanks (Rogers Field new pattern) have been built during 
the past year, making the total number forty-two (42). Thirty-four (34) are in 
operation, the other eight have been put in lately and are not connected with 
the water works. The tanks in use continue to work perfectly ; they keep the 
sewers to which they are attached clean, and have cost nothing for repairs. 

We are more fully convinced the longer we use flush tanks, that they are a 
necessity in a system of sewerage like that in use in Pawtucket ; also, that it is 
the cheapest, and, in fact, the only way of keeping sewers clean. 

CATCH BASINS. 

There have been built and connected with the sewers twenty-three (23) catch 
basins, making the total number two hundred and sixty-four, and with gutter 
grates, two hundred and seventy-nine After the catch basins are built, they 
are cleaned and cared for by the Highway Department. The work is paid for 
by the Sewer Department. 

The whole principle of allowing one department to do work, and requiring 
another department to approve and pay the bills for work which they did not 
order, over which they have no control and know not whether it has been done 
or not, is entirely wrong. 

If the Highway Department is to clean the basins the expense should be 
charged to the regular appropriation for maintenance of highways, or a special 
appropriation for cleaning catch basins should be made and placed in the hands 
of the Commissioner of Highways. 

The appropriation for cleaning catch basins should be one thousand ($1,000) 
dollars. 

Sewers have been constructed through 18 streets during 1889. 

From December 1, 1888, to December 1, 1889, there has been built 10,713 feet 
of pipe sewers and 1,444 feet of brick sewer3, a total of 12,157 f eet = 2WV 
miles. 

The total length of brick sewers =■= 2 t Vt miles, of salt glazed pipe sewers = 
10 T 5 o 6 o miles. There are 397 feet of iron pipe sewer and l,289 T Vo feet of cement 
pipe overflow. A total of 13 T VV miles. 



1889.] secretary's report. f)l 

Since December 1. 1888, there have been 140 connections made with the sew- 
ers, connecting 148 houses, 8 manufactories and one public park. 

The total number of connections with the sewers, is 604. Number of build- 
ings, 88 1. 

There will be needed for maintenance and care of sewers, including cleaning 
catch basins, seven thousand ($7,000) dollars. 

l-\ v Shove, \ Board of 

Fked. W. Easton, [■ Sewer 

William P. BIoronbt, ) Commissioners. 

A. K. Sweet, Engineer and Superintendent. 

EXTRACTS PROM THE REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF WATER WORKS. 

No material change has been made on the works except the placing of two 90 
horse power water wheels in Station No. 2, where we had two smaller wheels 
aggregating 125 horse power. The increased amount of water pumped by (hem 
shows the advantage of having suitable wheels. The cost of replacing them 
was $1,465.08. The amount of water pumped was 297,820,006 gallons, almost 
one-fourth of all the water used, by the wheels alone. It will be seen by the 
engineer's report that the engine at this station has run only forty days during 
the whole year, pumping ."h, '.204. 800 gallons. 

It affords me great pleasure to refer to the trial of the fire hydrants on Sep 
tember 19, 1889, when the Chief Engineer of the Fire Department was invited 
to play seventy fire streams at once, and which was successfully accomplished, 
holding eighty pounds pressure during the time the test was made. The test 
was made on the twenty-inch force main, three and one half miles long, leading 
from the pumps through the centre of the city to the storage reservoir on the 
heights, at an elevation of 801 feet above tide-water. Four thousand ami forty 
feet of this main was used, and the streams were taken from nine six-waved and 
eight tWO-wayed hydrants. Six Edison recording gauges were placed on (he 
line, located so as to give the best results of the loss of pressure. The cards are 
to be seen at the office, showing with what nicety and precision they exemplify 
ami verify the pressure. By the use of these gauges we were enabled to stale 
facts which we should have been unable to do without them. 1 desire to say 
that they not only verify the pressure on the mains, but detect leaks and the 
opening of hydrants, or any heavy draught of water for legitimate or illegiti- 
mate purposes. 

No well conducted water works can afford to be without recording gauges, 
and, when properly located, they will in my opinion pay for themselves within 
one year. We challenge any water works in the United States to play seventy 
one inch fire streams through fifty feet of hose, and maintain eighty pounds 
pressure during the trial, the pressure to be verified by recording gauges placed 
in Buitable position on the line of pipe. 

The future extension of the works will be governed by the growth of the city, 
ami, as is well known, the growth of our city is equal to any in New England 
of similar population. 

It will be seen that appropriations will be required to accommodate the neces- 
sities demanded, and I may say that the larger the works the greater the demand 



62 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

for extensions. The demand for extensions of mains and new services during 
the past year has been fully up to our anticipations, and can be seen by perusing 
the statements further along in this report. I know of no reason why the same 
demand will not exist for the year to come. 

It is also very gratifying to note the increase in revenue during the year. The 
practical working of the meters still maintain the good results which have here- 
tofore been stated, and the confidence in them is fully verified by the constant 
and increasing demand to have the benefits they produce over the faucet rates. 
This is shown by the unusual large number which have been called for the past 
year, being 260 meters out of 299 services. 

It is gratifying to know that consumers are becoming satisfied that the meter 
cannot register against them. It is only now and then an exceptional case 
where we have complaint made, and that is universally where they neglect to 
keep their fixtures in proper repair, and allow leaks to exist in water closets or 
tanks where the overflow into the sewer or cesspool cannot readily be seen. 

It will be observed that the duty of the No. 1 engine is very much less than 
during previous years, owing to the fact that having reinforced our pumping 
capacity by the introduction last year of the six million pump it has not been 
required to run so continuously to produce the needed supply of water. It has 
pumped 290,927,553 gallons. 

We have also during the past year been experimenting with soft coal, coal 
dust, also washed pea and other kinds of coal at less cost, to compare the rela- 
tive results, and the conclusion we have come to is to let well enough alone and 
to use the same kind of coal we have used in former years, as the loss on duty 
more than equals the cost of coal. It is very gratifying to know that during the 
past year Professor J. E. Denton of Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, 
New Jersey, has made an exhaustive test of the duty of No 1, or better known 
as the Corliss High Duty Pump, and he fully verifies all previous statements 
made by this department, even to last year when the engine made the unprece- 
dented duty of 124,512,184 foot pounds for the whole year, pumping 899,052,732 
gallons of water, or working 338 days of 22 hours and 22 minutes per day. An 
appendix containing Prof. Denton's test will accompany this report. 

The new engine at No. 3 Station has performed its work during the year to 
the satisfaction of all concerned, and bids fair with age to be a successful com- 
petitor for honors with the No. 1, as anticipated by its designer and builder, the 
late lamented George H. Corliss. 

This engine has run 249 days, pumping 651,260,659 gallons, or about one-half 
of the needed supply. 

During the year the works have been extended. Total length of mains, 106+ 
miles. 

HYDRANTS SET AS FOLLOWS : 

Total, 12 for year, added to 795 as per last year's report, making a total of 807 
on the works. 

APPLICATIONS. 

Applications for water have been made as follows : 



1889.] secretary's report. 63 

In Pawtueket . 101 

In Central Falls Division 57 

In Lonsdale and Valley Falls Division 30 

In East Providence Division .. 48 

In Asbton Division 

Total for year 299 

SERVICES. 

10; services have been made in Pawtucket. 
57 " " " " Central Falls. 

30 " " " " Lonsdale and Valley Falls Division. 

45 " " East Providence Division. 

6 " " " " Asbton Division. 

299 total for the year. 
5061 number of services now in use. 



Two-hundred and sixty-six services have been supplied with meters during 
the year. 

3,274 metered services now in use. 

RECEIPTS. 

For water in Pawtucket $07,131 43 

For water in Lonsdale and Valley Falls Division 15,498 66 

For water in East Providence Division 7.608 00 

For water in Central Falls Division 13,604 54 

For water in Asbton Division 531 92 



$104,37.-) 15 



MAINTENANCE EXPENSES. 

Rebates paid $7,187 89 

Interest transfer 02,52187 

Maintenance, repairs, etc 34,166 17 

Balance on hand 499 93 



$104,87") 86 



RECEIPTS FOR WATER TO DATE. 

Total amount, received from Oct. 1, 1878, to Dec. 1, 1889 $781,826 89 

Of this amount, $218,107.07 has been expended for maintenance. 

Whole cost of works to date $1,555,880 64 

Amount of Blnking fund due to the water works account $240,000 00 



64 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 



EXTRACTS FROM REPORT OP CHIEF ENGINEER. 
NUMBER ONE STATION. 

Pumping expenses for the year ending November 30, 1889 : 
287,169 lbs. of coal, at $5.35 per ton of 2,000 lbs 



354,545 lbs. of coal, at 4.88 per ton of 2,000 lbs 

22,820 lbs. of dust, at 1.75 per ton of 2,000 lbs 

17,350 lbs. Cumberland, at $4.25 per ton of 2,000 lbs. 

Repairs on engine 

Repairs on boilers 

Oil, waste and packing 

Gas 

Sundries 

Salaries of engineers and firemen 



$768 


17 


850 


08 


19 


96 


36 


86 


42 


65 


43 


39 


128 


75 


141 


:;<) 


58 


52 


2,062 


87 


$4,152 


-15 


290,927.553 


$14 27 


0.0528 


453 


36 


1224.61 


1 


94 



Total number of gallons pumped . 

Cost of raising 1,000,000 gallons into reservoir 

Cost of raising 1,000,000 gallons one foot high 

Average number of gallons pumped per pound of coal 

Average number of gallons raised 100 feet per pound of coal . . 

Total number of days pumping 

Average pumping time per day 12h. 34m. 

NUMBER TWO STATION. 

Pumping expenses for the year ending November 30, 1889 : 

Steam Potcer. 

77,003 lbs. coal, at $5.35 per ton of 2,000 lbs $205 98 

87,610 lbs. coal, at 4.88 per ton of 2,000 lbs 213 76 

Repairs 104 76 

Oil, waste, packing, etc 1 10 57 

Salaries of engineers and firemen 303 44 

$938 51 

Total number of gallons pumped 57,204,850 

Cost of raising 1,000,000 gallons into reservoir $16.46 

Cost of raising 1,000,000 gallons one foot high 0.0617 

Total number of days pumping 40 

Average pumping time per day llh. 15m. 

Water Power. 

20,550 lbs. coal, at $4.25 per ton of 2,000 lbs $43 67 

14,700 lbs. coal, at 1.75 per ton of 2,000 lbs 12 87 

13,240 lbs. coal, at 4.00 per ton of 2,000 lbs 26 48 



1889.] secretary's report. 65 

10,744 lbs. coal, at $3.50 per ton of 2,000 lbs $18 80 

13,478 lbs. coal, at 4.88 per ton of 2,000 lbs 32 88 

Repairs 40 95 

Oil, waste, packing, etc 85 99 

Salaries 1,482 22 



$1,093 86 



Total number of gallons pumped 297,829,000 

Cost of raising 1,000,000 gallons into reservoir $5.68 

Cost of raising 1,000.000 gallons one foot bigb 0.0211 

Total number of days pumping '291 

Average time per day 14b. 52m. 

NUMBER TITREE STATION. 

Pumping expenses for tbe year ending November 30, 1889 : 

696,320 lbs. coal, at $5.35 per ton of 2,000 lbs $1,862 r,r> 

34,100 lbs. coal, at 1.75 per ton of 2,000 lbs 29 83 

18,630 lbs. coal, at 4.25 per ton of 2,000 lbs :;:i :,s 

799,484 lbs. coal, at 4.88 per ton of 2,000 lbs 1,950 74 

50,805 lbs. coal, at 3.50 per ton of 2,000 lbs 88 90 

Oil, waste and packing. 263 01 

Sundries 163 25 

Salaries of engineers and firemen 2,417 88 

$6,815 84 

Total number of gallons pumped 651,260,659 

Cost of raising 1,000,000 gallons into reservoir $10 46 

Cost of raising 1,000,000 gallons one foot bigb 0.0375 

Average number of gallons pumped per pound of coal 41^.5:'. 

Average number of gallons raised 100 feet per pound of coal 1,165.52 

Total number of days pumping 249 

Total pumping time per day 10b. 53m. 

NUMBERS ONE, TWO AND THREE STATIONS. 

Total number of gallons pumped 1,297,222,068 

Cost of raising 1,000,000 gallons into reservoir $10.48 

Cost of raising 1,000,000 gallons one foot bigb 0.0382 

Average daily consumption of water in United States gallons 3,554,033 

John H. Walker, Chief Engiru 

In conclusion I wisb to say (witb pardonable pride) tbat having been con- 
nected with tbe works for the past eleven years, the first as one of the Water 
Commissioners to complete tbe original plan as contemplated by the town of 
Pawtucket, it nffords me great pleasure to be able to present to your honorable 

8 



66 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

body and the taxpayers the results. Having superintended the construction of 
new pumping stations, dams and reservoirs, also the laying of some seventy 
miles of mains, with a mode of nitration of all our water equal to any ; having 
seen the revenue increase from $16,000 per year to $104,000, and it having been 
able to pay the whole maintenance and interest account for the past eight years 
without any taxation from the people, it is with pleasure I congratulate you on 
the result. 

We have made large expenditures in anticipating the wants in the near future, 
but in doing so we have placed ourselves in a position that assures us in case of 
serious fire we are able to successfully cope with it. Many towns and cities do 
not take the hydrant service into account in building their works, but Paw- 
tucket has, and all extensions which have been made are looking to the efficiency 
of our system for extinguishing fire. During the past year ten six-wayed 
hydrants have been placed in the thickly settled part of the city, in place of eight 
two-wayed, where large and extensive blocks have been built, for the better 
protection of the same, and as the works increase ii should be the aim of those 
in charge to always have in view the efficiency of our water works in case of 
serious fire. During the past year the outside demands for fire protection have 
been amply supplied, and I venture to say that no city of our size can be foi\nd 
where the fire protection extends to the extreme parts of the city as it does here. 
This should induce capitalists and manufacturers to locate in our city (and I am 
happy to say that it has in several cases during the past year), and when it be- 
comes known that we have a better fire protection, with an efficient fire depart, 
ment, with a standing water pressure of 65 to 120 pounds to the square inch on 
the mains, whereby we can inject into any boiler without the aid of an injector, 
the city will reap from the seed it has sown in building her water works looking 
to future wants. From the revenue we shall be able to pay all maintenance and 
interest accounts for the year to come, and can recommend a transfer of $10,000 
into the sinking fund. 

Edwin Darling, Superintendent. 



Lucius B. Darling, ) Wni*m 

Robert D. Mason, [ Com ll% ners 
Olney Arnold, ) ^ommtagioners. 



providence city. 

1. Various ordinances, orders and resolutions, having relation to the promo- 
tion of the public health, were made and passed by the authorities of the city 
during 1889, the most important of which, and doubtless without exception the 
most important in the history of the city, was the order for the commencement 
of the improved system of sewerage, planned by S. M. Gray, City Engineer, 
and member of the State Board of Health. 

2. The extension of water service for household use, the fire department and 
the various industries, has been very large. The Fruit Hill reservoir has been 
completed and water turned on. See appended extracts from Second Inaugural 
Address of Hon. H. R. Barker, Mayor, the Report of the City Engineer and 
the Report of the Department of Public Works. 

3. See reports as indicated above. 



1889.] secretary's report. 6? 

4. No new ordinances having particular relation to the public health, except 
as Mated above. 

5. The board of aldermen constituted the board of health. 

G. Charles V. Chapin, M. D. Superintendent of Health ; Gardner T. Swarts, 
M. D., Medical Inspector; John S. Rogers, Sanitary Inspector; Charlc- 11. 
Leonard, M. D., Chief of Vaccinating Staff. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has been provided during the year. See Report of 
Health Officer. 

8. Undertakers have promptly sent in their returns of death. 

EXTRACTS FROM MATOB BARKER'S INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 
WATER WOKKS. 

By the construction of the Fruit Hill reservoir the system of water supply for 
this city is practically completed. The reservoir was filled in December last, 
and now supplies the water for the high service districts, which have formerly 
been supplied by direct pumping by the engines at the Hope reservoir. Here- 
after the engines at the Hope station will not be run continually, but only as 
often as it may be necessary to keep the high service reservoir at Fruit Hill ap- 
proximately full, and opportunity will be given for making such changes in this 
pumping apparatus us will materially reduce the expenses of operation. 

The elevations of the two highest points in the high service districts supplied 
from this reservoir are 202 and 201 feet above mean high tide, the former being 
upon Tin Top Hill, so called, and the other near the intersection of Smith street 
with the city line, the static head a! which will be about 73 feet, while the entire 
area of both high service districts will have an average static head of from 92 
to 193 feet, dependent upon the elevation of the ground. It has also been ar- 
ranged that a main pipe can be laid from the 24-inch main, connecting with the 
Fruit Hill reservoir, which will transmit to the business centre of the city for 
fire purposes a static head of about 262 feet, thus furnishing an independent 
supply of water in case of an extensive conflagration within that district. 

A large area in the neighborhood of Mount Pleasant, which is situated within 
the high service limits, is still supplied with water from the low service, and as 
the pressure in this locality is inadequate both for lire and domestic purposes, 
steps should be taken at an early day to couuect the same with the high service. 

The city now has three reservoirs, the united storage capacity of which is 
153,000,000 gallons, Bufflcienl to furnish a supply for the present ordinary uses 
for twenty-five days, in the event of temporary stoppage of the pumping engines 
;it Pettaconsett. While, however, ample provision is made for the storage of 
the water after it is pumped from the source of supply, yet due regard should 
be given to that most important part of the water works, the main pumping 
engines, in order to prevent the possibility of any accident thereto, and at the 
same time provide a sufficient reserve in the event of an accident or temporary 
disarrangement of those in use. I am informed that additional pumping ap- 
paratus at Pettaconsett will soon be required. 

During the past year there has been a very marked increase in the number of 
water takers, and for the fust time Bince the introduction of water the receipts 



68 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

therefrom at the close of the fiscal year have been in excess of the cost of interest 
and maintenance. Having now arrived where it is possible each year to increase 
the excess of income from water rents over the expenditures for maintenance, is 
it not wise to consider the question of a reduction in the rates in such a manner 
as will result in still further increasing the consumption of water, while it will 
not reduce the income to the city from this source ? 

In connection with the water works due care has been exercised to prevent the 
pollution of the Pawtuxet river, and stringent measures will be taken against 
any one who corrupts or renders the same impure. The penalty prescribed by 
the public laws for such an offence is extremely severe, and if a regard for the 
health of others will not restrain persons who pollute the river and its tributaries 
from which the city obtains its supply of water, they must be deterred by the 
heavy fine and imprisonment which the law imposes. 

SEWERAGE. 

July 22, 1887, the improved sewerage plan was adopted, and preliminary steps 
taken by the City Council of that year to begin the proposed work. Not only 
the land for the precipitation works was acquired, but the greater portion of the 
rights of way for the main trunk sewers in the sixth and seventh wards has now 
been secured. While the necessary steps for the inception of the general system 
were taken without any unnecessary delay, the actual work of building the 
sewers was not ordered by the City Council until after the election of a Commis- 
sioner of Public Works, in February last. Thus it will be seen that all legisla- 
tion since the adoption of the plan has been fully in accord with the proposed 
system, and in harmony with the design of its projector. 

Since, however, the actual work of building the sewers was commenced, ob- 
jections have been raised by numerous taxpayers to some of the features of the 
plan, and if it can be shown that these objections are of sufficient importance to 
warrant their consideration without detriment to the improvement of the sewerage, 
they should be recognized. By those making objections it is claimed that the 
precipitation works and siphon houses are not needed for the present, and that 
the sewage of the city, with a population of 135,000, can be permitted to flow 
into the Providence river for some years to come without injury to the public 
health. Especially is this claim advanced at the present time for the reason that 
experiments are now being made to determine the best manner of caring for 
manufacturers' wastes, which give evidence that such a disposition can be secured 
as to very materially reduce the causes of pollution of our rivers, and lesson the 
quantity of deleterious matter that is to be cared for by the sewers. If it is cer- 
tain that the public health would not be jeopardized by the postponement of the 
building of the precipitation works and siphon houses a material saving will be 
made to the city in the amount requisite for their maintenance, a sum estimated 
at $100,000 annually, which in itself should be an item for consideration. 

I have no doubt that eventually the increase of population will require the 
carrying out of the sewerage plan, with little if any modification of the original 
design, but I fail to understand what objection there can be to building the main 
and lateral sewers first, and leaving the precipitation works and siphon houses 
until it is unquestionably shown that a necessity actually exists for their con- 
struction. 



1889.] 



secretary's report. 



G9 



Extracts taken from t lie Reports of the City Engineer and Commissioner of 
Public Works. 

WATBB WORKS. 

Tlicre won; six hundred and forty-two (642) new water services opened during 
1839, making the whole number from the beginning to December 31, 1889, 
fifteen thousand one hundred and thirty-six (15,136). 

Total length of services laid during thirteen years ending December ;jl, lss<), 
127,207.22 feet or 33.58 miles. 

Thirty one hydrants were set during 1889. Total number of hydrants now 
in use, thirteen hundred and twenty-five (1,325), thirteen hundred and fourteen 
(1,314) Hush, and eleven post hydrants. These include the hydrants set in the 
town of Johnston. 

Lengths of water pipe in the ground December 31, 1889 : 

Length in feet 1,148,678 64 

Length in miles 217.55 

The above includes lengths of pipe in Johnston, Cranston, North Providence 
and Warwick. 

Total number of applications for water service to January 1, 1890, fifteen 
thousand eight hundred and nine (15,809). 

The receipts for water each year since the commencement have been as 
follows : 



JTear. 


Amount. 


Year. 


Amount. 


1872 


$41,003 51 
97,380 09 
132,052 39 
165,144 71 
183,868 73 
200,039 39 
218,883 33 
289,661 78 
•.247,705 06 


1881 


$260,530 87 
118 77 
283,632 89 
302,388 36 
813,68] '.'1 
823,084 87 
339,513 60 
346,7: 


1878 


1882 


1874 


1883... 


1875 


1884 . . . 




1885 


1877 


1886 


1878 


1887 


1878 


1888 


1880 


1889 









Total Dumber of service Btops in actual use January 1, 1890, fourteen thousand 
two hundred and thirty-three (14,233). 



8EWEK8. 



Total length of pipe laid in 1889 : 

Lengths in feel 18,1545 

Lengths in miles . ... 2.3u 



?0 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

Total lengths of sewer pipes in the ground January 1, 1890, 332,080 feet, or 
about 63 miles. 
There were nearly two and one-third miles of sewers constructed during 1889. 
The following were set and connected with sewers during 1889 : 
Catch-basins, sixty (60) ; extra inlets, thirty (30) ; manholes, seventy-nine (79). 
Total to January 1, 1890 : 

Catch-basins, twenty-one hundred and fifty-three (2,153). 
Manholes, thirty-one hundred and seven (3,107). 
House connections, five thousand five hundred aud ninety -five, (5,595). 

PUBLIC PARKS. 

Large improvements were made in the Roger Williams, Hayward and Tock- 
wotten Parks. 



1. No work for the promotion of public health except ordering the abate- 
ment of nuisances. 

2. No water service for general use. 

3. No public sewerage. 

4. Nothing new in the line of ordinances in abatement of nuisances or for 
any sanitary purpose. 

5. No board of health beside the town council. 

6. Health Officer, W. J. Smith, M. D. 

7. No gratuitous vaccination provided during the past year. 

D. H. Remington, Town Clerk. 

SMITHFIELD. 

1. No unusual work for the promotiou of public health contemplated by the 
town authorities during the year. 

2. No water service for general use. 

3. Have no public sewerage. 

4. Nothing new for sanitary purposes. 

5. Board of health, the town council. 

6. Health Officer, Jenckes Smith. 

7. No gratuitous vaccination during the past year. 

8. Undertakers have promptly sent in their returns of death. 

Oscar A. Tobey, Town Clerk. 

WOONSOCKET. 

1. As to any work for the promotion of public health, except as stated below, 
there has been none that I am aware of. 

2. The water mains have been extended somewhat. Have no data. 



1889.] secretary's report. 71 

3. No public sewers, but have them in contemplation. 

4. No new ordinances passed. 

5. Board of health, the board of aldermen. 

6. Health Officer, Dr. George W. Jenckes. 

7. No gratuitous vaccination provided during the year 

8. Undertakers have promptly sent in their returns of death. 

A. E. Greene, City Clerk. 

EXTRACTS FROM THE rNATJGUBAL M>DREBS OF EON. D. R. TOND, MAYOR. 

WATEB WORKS. 

The receipts from the Water Works show a gratifying increase. The wisdom 
of introducing water into the city has been full}' justified, and the benefits and 
convenience of the works go far towards reconciling us for much original im- 
perfect work and unnecessary expense. Experience, while being a good teacher, 
has been a costly one in this matter. It is to be hoped that most of the original 
imperfections have been remedied, and that appropriations for construction 
account may be devoted to legitimate extension of the works rather than to 
the repairs and correction of original faulty construction. 

SEWERAGE. 

The question of sewerage is one that must soon engage the attention of the 
city. The demand for sewerage facilities, in some sections of our city, is 
already imperative, and its convenience and importance is generally admitted. 

With the Increased consumption of water by our citizens, and with the present 
and prospective growth of our population, some method of disposing of the 
waste water and Bewerage of the city other than by the ordinary and simple, but 
entirely inadequate methods now in vogue, must soon be adopted. The problem 
is a large one, and we may well hesitate in undertaking it. But it cannot, in 
the interest of good health in our city, be much longer deferred. I believe the 
time has arrived to make a beginning, but as it is a matter largely affecting both 
our pecuniary and vital interests, the subject should have much consideration 
and thought before adopting any particular plan or process. 

I recommend that the BUbjecl lie referred to a joint special committee who 
shall examine the whole subject, with power to procure expert testimony as to 
the best plan to be pursued, and that general estimates be made of the probable 
cost of the same, and generally to obtain all possible information upon the sub- 
ject. All of which shall be reported to this council, so that if it is deemed wise, 
necessary legislative action may be had at an early day. 

I recommend that a moderate appropriation be made to enable the committee 
to accomplish its work. 

PUBLIC I'AKK. 

The writer in town meeting, some years ago, agitated the question of a Public 

Park, and upon his motion a committee was then appointed to take the subject 
into consideration. The committee soon after made a selection of a location, 



72 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

but were never able to get a price fixed for the land. My predecessor has also 
referred to this subject, and a committee was appointed, but I do not learn that 
anything has been accomplished. With our large population, and with abso- 
lutely no open squares or places for the public to assemble in for healthful 
recreation and enjoyment, our people must become trespassers upon private 
property unless contented to remain indoors, or if congregated in the streets, 
become subject to the order of the police to "move on." Parks and public 
squares are the breathing places of cities — sanitariums for those necessarily much 
confined — educational and wholesome in moral influences, and preventative of 
turbulence and disorder by presenting quieting influences to restless minds. 
Emerson says : " There is no police so effective as a good hill and wide pasture 
in the neighborhood of the village where the boys can run and play and dispose 
of their superfluous strength of spirits, to their own delight and the annoyance 
of nobody." The city cannot look to the generosity of individuals in this mat- 
ter, but must act for itself. I recommend that an act of the Legislature be 
obtained authorizing the appointment of a commission for this purpose who 
shall have power to lay out one or more Public Parks, and to take the necessary 
land under the right of eminent domain, whenever the location and probable 
expense shall have been approved by the City Council. 

WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

CIIARLESTOWN. 

1. No work for the promotion of public health contemplated by the author- 
ities during the year. 

2. Water for drinking purposes taken almost exclusively from wells. 

3. No public sewerage. 

4. No new ordinances in relation to health. 

5. Board of health, the town council. 

6. Health Officer, A. A. Saunders, M. D. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has not been provided during the past year. 

8. Undertakers do not promptly send in their returns of death. 

George C. Cross, Town Clerk. 



1. Nothing new for the promotion of public health by the town authorities. 

2. No water service for general use. 

3. No sewerage. 

5. Board of health, the town council. 

6. Health officers, the town council. 

7. No gratuitous vaccination provided during the past year. 

8. Undertakers do not promptly send in their returns of death. 

J. H. Edwards, Town Clerk. 



18S9.] secretary's report. 73 

HOPKINTON. 

1. Nothing new for the promotion of public health. 

2. No water service in town. 

3. No public sewers. 

4. Nothing new for any sanitary purpose. See ordinance in State Board of 
Health Report, 1888. 

5. No board of health beside the town council. 

6. Health Officer, Israel Gates. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has not been provided since November, 1888. 

E. R. Allen, Town Clerk. 

NARRAOANSF.TT, DISTRICT OP. 

1. Some of the work for the promotion of public health contemplated by the 
town authorities during the year was a system of sewerage contracted for, and 
also the introduction of water for general use. 

2. By introduction and extension of water service for general use the pro- 
portion of the population, by estimation, supplied with the same at the end of 
the year was one-third or thereabouts. 

3. The aggregate length of sewers, by estimation as contemplated, about 3 
miles. Not yet completed. 

4. Sanitary ordinances rigidly enforced. See .Manual appended. 

5. District council, the board of health. 
G. Health officers, as above. 

7. No gratuitous vaccination provided during the past year. 

8. Undertakers have promptly sent in their returns of death. 

W. EL Caswell, District Clerk. 

MANUAL OP RULES AND REGULATIONS RELATIVE TO THE HEALTH OK THE 

DISTRICT OF NARRAGAN8ETT, KIIODE ISLAM), MADE BY THE 

COUNCIL OF SAID DISTRICT, .11 NB 25TH, 1S89. 

I. Every privy vault and every vault connected with the privy, and every 
cesspool, must be impermeable and secure against any saturation of the vaults 
or of the ground above or about the same. 

No privy vault or Cesspool shall he allowed to remain nearer than thirty feet 
from any tenement or lodging house, hotel, or other habitable dwelling in this 
district. 

Privy vaults shall not have a greater depth than two feet, anected at 

the upper end with district water, and at the lower end with t lie street sewer. 
These vaults must be so constructed a- to admit of complete discharge, and 
must be Becure againsl leakage and the escape of gases and offensive od 

II. All the foregoing Bhall apply to all privy vaults and cesspools which shall 
instructed heieafter and all those heretofore built, and for or on account of 

10 



74 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

which any complaint may be made to the Council or Health Officer of the Dis- 
trict of Narragansett, shall, if so ordered by said Council or Health Officer, be 
by the owner or occupant thereof reconstructed in accordance with the forego- 
ing rules, or filled and replaced by new vaults so constructed. 

Vaults shall be emptied between the hours of ten o'clock in the evening and 
eight o'clock in the morning. The removal of the contents of vaults and cess- 
pools must be from November 1st to May 1st of each year only, except by special 
permit of the Council, effected in such a manner that there shall be no leakage 
in the public streets, and reasonable care must be taken to prevent the escape of 
odor in transportation. 

III. Every cesspool shall be securely covered and shall have proper means of 
ventilation. 

IV. Kitchen and waste sinks must be safely and securely connected with the 
sewer or well-covered drain, and must not be permitted to discharge by spouts, 
or otherwise upon the sides of the house, or on the surface of the ground. 

Sinks, laundry tubs, and water closets shall have as near to them as practical, 
suitable traps. 

V. Soil pipes, water pipes, and all drain pipes, must be of either properly 
tested cast iron or of best quality vitrified clay or cement, every such pipe inside 
such a building, or within a cellar wall, or on the surface of the ground, or less 
than three feet below such surface, must be of iron as aforesaid, must also be of 
the same material wherever it may be reached by the frost and wherever it 
lies within ten feet of any well or cistern. All such pipes should be properly 
trapped. 

VI. Disused or abandoned cesspools and vaults shall, when requiring it, be 
emptied by the occupant or owner of the land on which they stand respectively, 
and shall then be filled in and disinfected with loam or other proper absorbent 
as may be approved by the Health Officer. 

VII. Said Health Officer shall promptly condemn and order removed all 
defective or worn out material of the drains, pipes, cesspools, vaults and traps 
aforesaid, and also all work done thereon not in accordance with the provisions 
of these rules and regulations, or of the regulations in force from time to time 
in said District of Narragansett, for opening or entering or connecting drains 
with public sewers. 

VIII. He shall also order the repair, reconstruction, or renovation of said 
material and work so far as may be needful, and within such reasonable time as 
the Council may appoint. All such orders given to the owners or occupants of 
said structures condemned as aforesaid, on account of material or work, shall 
be strictly obeyed. 

IX. No disused or abandoned well or cistern shall be used as a receptacle for 
sewerage or garbage or other house water, unless the same be first reconstructed 
in conformity to the foregoing rules. 

X. And every owner or occupant of such a well or cistern shall fill it in with 
loam, or other clean absorbent, upon being ordered so to do by said Health 
Officer. 



1889.] secretary's report. ?5 

XI. Every building used as a dwelling-house shall be furnished with at least 
one suitable, safely constructed water closet or with a privy or privies built as 
hereinbefore prescribed, and large enough to supply the necessities of the per- 
sona entitled to use the same. 

XII. All waste water and all matter discharged from a water closet shall be 
conveyed through a sufflcienl drain underground to a common sewer or to a 

pool constructed as aforesaid into ground approved by said Health Officer, 
and no person shall Buffer waste or stagnant water to remain in a cellar or upon 
land owned or occupied by him in the compact part of said District of Narra- 
gansett. 

XIII. Whenever a vault, privy vault or cesspool becomes full or offensive, 
or a drain becomes obstructed, the owner or occupant of the land in which such 
drain, vault or cesspool is situated, shall cause the same to be emptied, cleared, 
and cleaued, within such reasonable time as the said Health Officer may in a 
notice therefor prescribe ; and every privy vault and cesspool in said district 
shall be emptied by the owner or occupant thereof at least twice in every year 
within the times and in the manner legally ordained. 

XIV. No fish-car, lobster-car, ark or other receptacle for fish or lobsters, 
shall be kept or put within one hundred and fifty feet of the mouth of any 
sewer. 

XV. Every owner or occupant or other person who shall make, maintainor 
use, either alone or with another person or persons, any structure or thing con- 
trary to or forbidden or prohibited by the foregoing rules or any part thereof, or 
shall in any wise violate any provision of said rules, shall be fined not less than 
live dollars nor more than twenty dollars for every olTense. 

XVI. No person shall empty the conteuts of any cesspool or privy vault with 
the intention of spreading the same upon land located in the compact part of 
this district without the written permit of the Health Officer. 

OFFENSIVE ODORS AND LIQUIDS, 

XVII. No person .-hall permit or have any offensive water, or oilier liquid or 
substance on his premises or grounds to the prejudice of life or health, whether 
for use in trade or otherwise. 

XVIII. No person shall boil any offal, swill, bones or fat in the compact part 
of said district, save in ordinary cooking, nor shall the business <>f bone crush- 
ing, bone boiling, bone grinding, bone burning, shell burning, fat burning, gut 
Cleaning, nor the skinning or making of glue from any dead animals or parts 
thereof, nor any other occupation that is dangerous or detrimental to life or 
health be hereafter established within said district ; and no business or pursuit 
of the kind in this section named -hall be carried on anywhere in said district, 
unless the same be allowed by permit of the Council. 

XIX. No hotel, tavern, or boarding house proprietor or other householder. 
shall permit garbage, or other decaying animal or vegetable matter to accumu- 
late about his or her premises in this district All such garbage must be con 
tained in properly constructed receptacles, capable of being kept clean and 



76 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

wholesome, and must be removed at least twice in the week and as much oftener 
as the Health Officer may require to the ground provided for that purpose. 

XX. Every owner, lessee and occupant of any stable or apartment in which 
any horse, cattle or swine or any animal be kept within the compact part of the 
district, shall cause the manure accumulating to be removed to some proper 
place, and shall at all times keep, or cause to be kept, such stalls, stables or 
apartments in a cleanly and wholesome condition so that no offensive smell 
detrimental to health shall be allowed to escape therefrom. 

XXI. No pile or deposit of manure, offal, dirt or garbage, or any accumula- 
tion of any nauseous substance shall be made within the compact part of this 
district, at any time after the first day of May, and before the first day of 
November in each year. 

XXII. In or near any livery stable, by special permit of the Health Officer, 
mauure may be permitted to accumulate to a quantity not to exceed three cord. 

XXIII. No person shall permit the drainage from any stable, privy, laundry 
or sink to flow into an)' open pond or water course in this district. 

XXIV. No garbage, manure, or anything whatsoever, which may be, by 
contaminating the water, detrimental to health, shall be thrown into or deposited 
in any pond or water course in this district. Any person who shall violate this 
ordinance shall be liable to a fine- of fifty dollars. 

XXV. No person owning, occupying or having charge of any stable or other 
premises shall keep or allow thereon or therein any dog or other animal which 
shall by noise disturb the quiet or repose of those or anyone therein or in the 
vicinity, to the detriment of the life or health of any human being. 

DISEASED ANIMALS. 

XXVI. No diseased or sickly horse, cattle, swine, sheep, dog or cat or other 
animals, nor any that have been exposed to any disease that is contagious among 
such animals shall be brought into this district. 

XXVII. No person having a dead animal or any animal past recovery, and 
not killed for and proper for use as meat or fish, or in any offensive condition, 
or sick with an infectious or contagious disease on his premises in said district, 
and every person whose animal or any animals in his charge or under his control 
in any street or place may die or become or be in a condition past recovery, shall 
at once remove or cause the removal of such animal, dead or alive, to some 
proper place, and, when such place may be designated by the Health Officer, to 
the place so designated. 

DEAD, SICK AND INJURED ANIMALS. 

XXVIII. No person shall leave in or throw into any place or street, or public 
water, nor offensively expose or bury the body (or any part thereof) of any dead 
or fatally sick or injured animal ; nor shall any person keep any dead animal or 
offensive meat, bird, fowl or fish in a place where the same may be dangerous to 
the life or detrimental to the health of any person. 



1889. J secretary's report. 77 



HYDROPHOBIA. 

XXIX. Every animal which is mail or lias the hydrophobia, or show-' symp- 
toms thereof, shall, by the persons owning the same or having the possession, 
charge or control thereof, be at once killed upon the certificate of the Health 
Officer that the animal is afflicted with Rabies, and every animal that has been 
exposed to such disease shall be at once confined in some secure place for Buch 
length of time as to show that such exposure has not given such animal said 
disease and so as to avoid all danger to life or health. And the dead body of 
any animal that died of such disease shall be at once, by such person, buried not 
less than three feel under ground, at some place not within one thousand feet of 
any residence. 

The Public Statutes and Public Laws of the State in relation to the sale of 
Milk, shall be enforced. 

RULES FOR THE PREVENTION OF THE SPREAD OF CONTAGIOUS DISEASES. 

XXXIV. Every physician having knowledge of any cases of contagious, in- 
fectious or epidemic disease within the District of Narragansett, shall immedi- 
ately make a report thereof in writing to the Health Officer of said district, with 
such particulars as the said officers may indicate on blanks furnished for that 
purpose. 

XXXV. The diseases referred to in the preceding section shall include chol- 
era, yellow fever, typhus fever, typhoid fever, cerebro-spinal meningitis, diph- 
theria, smallpox, scarlet fever, and such other contagious, infectious or epidemic 
diseases, as the Health officer may from time to time direct. 

XXXVI. Any physician who shall fail to comply with the preceding regula- 
tions shall be fined not less than two dollars nor more than ten dollars for each 
day of such neglect after having knowledge thereof as aforesaid. 

XXXVII. No person living in a family where there is a case of small-pox 
Shall attend school until the patient shall have passed the period of dissicat ion 
(falling oil of scabs) and until the house has been properly fumigated. 

XXXVIII. No person living in a family where there is q case of diphtheria 
shall attend school until one week after the recovery of the patient, and until 
the house has been properly fumigated. 

XXXIX. The above rules shall, when deemed necessary by the Health Offi- 
cer, be extended to all persons living in the same house where the above diseases 
exist, and when he deems necessary the Health Officer may extend the period of 

isolation specified in the foregoing sections. 

XL. A certificate from the Health Officer stating that the required lime has 
elapsed and that fumigation has been properly performed, will be required by 

the teacher before the persons referred to iu the foregoing sections can be admit 
led to schools. 

Xl.l. No pei sun with measles, whooping COUgh, mumps or chicken-pox shall 
attend school until complete recovery. 



?8 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [ 1 889. 

XLII. The fiiueral of any person who has died of small-pox, diphtheria, 
scarlet fever, or Asiatic cholera, shall be private ; and no person having the care 
or custody of the body of any person who has died of the above diseases shall 
do, or knowingly or wilfully permit to be done any unnecessary act by which 
spread of disease from such dead body may be caused or promoted. 

XLIII. Any person who shall violate any provision of the next preceding 
rule shall upon conviction thereof pay a fine of not more than twenty dollars or 
be imprisoned not exceeding ten days, and any undertaker who shall violate any 
provision of said rule, upon conviction thereof, shall, iu addition to the above 
penalty, be thereupon and thereby removed from the office of undertaker. 

XLI V. That every physician, midwife and other person who may profession, 
ally assist or advise at auy birth, shall make and keep a registry of every such 
birth, and therein enter the time and place of such birth and the sex and color 
of every child born, and the names and residence of each of the parents (so far 
as the foregoing facts can be ascertained) and report the same to the Health 
Officer within the first week of each month following the birth. 

XLV. That no new burying ground, cemetery, tomb or vault for dead human 
bodies, shall be established, nor shall the remains of any dead body be placed in 
any existing burying ground, vault, tomb or cemetery, without a written permit 
from the Council. 

XLVI. That no person shall retain, expose, or allow to be retained or ex- 
posed, the dead body of any human being to the peril or prejudice of the life or 
health of any persop. 

REMOVALS OF SICK PERSONS. 

XLVII. That no person shall, within this district, without a permit from the 
Health Officer, carry, remove, or cause or permit to be carried or removed, any 
person sick with smallpox or other contagious disease, or remove, or cause to 
be removed, any such person from any building or vessel to any other building 
or vessel, or to the shore, or to or from any vehicle in any part of the district. 
Nor shall any person by any exposure of any individual sick of any contagious 
disease, or of the body of such person, or by any negligent act connected there- 
with, or in any respect of the care or custody thereof, or by a needless exposure 
of himself cause or contribute to or promote the spread of disease from any such 
person or from any dead body. 

XLVIII. That no person shall bring into this district from any infected place 
or land, or taken therein from any vessel lately from any infected port, or from 
any vessel or building in which had lately been any person sick of a contagious 
disease, an} r article or person whatsoever, nor shall any person land or come into 
said district without a permit of the Health Officer. 

COMPULSORY VACCINATION. 

XLIX. Every parent or guardian, or person haviug the care, custody or con- 
trol of any minor or other individual shall (to the extent of any means, power 
and authority of said parent, guardian or other person, that could properly be 



1889.] secretary's report. 79 

aged or exerted for such purpose,) cause such minor or individual to he properly 
vaccinated, unless satisfactory evidence is shown that within five years such 
minor or individual has been successfully vaccinated. 

DISINFECTANTS. 

The infectious character of the dejections of patients suffering from cholera, 
and from typhoid fever is well established — ami this in thai of mild cases and of 
the earliest stages of these diseases, as well as of severe and fatal cases. It is 
probable that epidemic dysentery, tuberculosis, and perhaps diphtheria, yellow 
fever, scarlet fever, and typhus fever may also be transmitted by means of the 
alvine discharges of the sick. It is therefore of the first importance that these 
should be disinfected. In cholera, diphtheria, yellow fever and scarlet fever, all 
vomited material should be Looked upon as infectious, and in tuberculosis, diph- 
theria, scarlet fever and infectious pneumonia, the sputa of the sick should be 
disinfected or destroyed by lire. 

It seems advisable also to treat the urine of patients sick with an infectious 
disease with one of the disinfecting solutions below recommended. 

Chloride of lime, or bleaching powder, is. perhaps, entitled to the flrsl place 
for disinfecting excreta, on account of the rapidity of its action. The following 
standard solution is recommended : 

STANDARD SOLUTION, NO. 1. 

Dissolve Chloride of Lime of (he best quality in soft water, in the proportion of 
four ounces to tin- gallon. 

l'-e one pint of this solution for the disinfection of each discharge in cholera. 
typhoid fever, etc. Mix well and leave in vessel for at least ten minutes before 
throwing into privy vault or water-closet. The same directions apply for the 
disinfection of vomited matters, infected sputum should be discharged directly 
iuto a cup half full of the solution. 

STANDARD SOLUTION, NO. 2. 

/> ioh Sublimat* and Permanganate of Potash in soft water, in the 

proportion of two drams of each salt to the gallon. 

This is to be used for the same purposes and in the same way as Standard 
No. J. It is equally effective, but it is necessary to leave it for a longer 

time in contact with the material to be disinfected — at least an hour. The only 

advantage which this solution has over the chloride of lime solution consists in 

the fact that it is odorless ; while the odor Of chlorine in the sick room is con- 
sidered by some objectionable. The cost is about the same It must be remem- 
bered that this solution is highly poisonous. It is proper, also, to call attention 
to the fact that it will injurs lead pipes if passed through them in considerable 

qua n i it its. 

STANDARD SOLUTION, NO. 3. 

To one part of Labarr ague's Solution (lir/ii<>r soda chlorinala), add five parts 
of soft ir.ifi r. 

This solution is more expensive than the solution of chloride of lime, and has 



80 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

no special advantages for the purposes mentioned. It may, however, be used iu 
the same manner as recommended for Standard Solution, No. 1. 

The following powder is also recommended for the disinfection of excreta in 
the sick room and of privy-vaults, etc. : 

DISINFECTING AND ANTISEPTIC POWDEK. 

One pound of Chloride of Lime ; one ounce of Corrosive Sublimate ; nine pounds 
of Plaster of Paris. Pulverize the Corrosive Sublimate and mix thoroughly with the 
Plaster of Paris. Then add the Chloride of Lime and mix well. Pack in paste- 
board boxes or in wooden casks. Keep dry 

As an antiseptic and deodorizer this powder is to be sprinkled upon the sur- 
face of excreta, etc. 

To disinfect excreta in the sick room, cover the entire surface with a thin layer 
of the powder— one fourth inch in thickness — and if the material is not liquid 
pour on sufficient water to cover it. 

DISINFECTION OF THE PERSON. 

The surface of the body of a sick person, or of his attendants, when soiled 
with infectious discharges should be at once cleaned with a suitable disinfecting 
agent. For this purpose Standard Solution, No. 3, may be used. 

In diseases like smallpox and scarlet fever, in which the infectious agent is 
given off from the entire surface of the body, "occasional ablutions with Labar- 
raque's Solution, diluted with twenty parts of water, will be more suitable than 
the stronger solution above recommended. 

In all infectious diseases the surface of the body of the dead should be thor- 
oughly washed with one of the standard solutions above recommended, and then 
enveloped in a sheet saturated with the same. 

DISINFECTION OF CLOTHING. 

Boiling for half an hour will destroy the vitality of all known disease germs, 
and there is no better way of disinfecting clothing or bedding which can be 
washed than to put it through the ordinary operations of the laundry. No delay 
should occur, however, between the time of removing soiled clothing from tbe 
person or bed of the sick and its immersion in boiling water, or in one of the 
following solutions ; and no article should be permitted to leave the room until 
so treated. 

STANDARD SOLUTION, NO. 4. 

Dissolce Corrosive Sublimate in water* in the proportion of four ounces to the gal- 
lon, and add one drachm of Permanganate of Potash to each gallon to give color to 
the solution. 

One fluid ounce of this standard solution to the gallon of water will make a 
suitable solution for the disinfection of clothing. 

The articles to be disinfected must be thoroughly soaked with the disinfecting 
solution and left in it for at least two hours, after which they may be wrung out 
and sent to the wash. 

* Mercuric chloride (corrosive sublimate) is soluble in cold water in the proportion of one part 
in sixteen. Solution is greatly facilitated by heat. 



1889.] secretary's report. 81 

N. B. — Solution of Corrosive Sublimate should not be placed in metal receptacles. 
A wooden tub or earthcrn crock is a suitable reteptacle. 

Clothing may also be disinfected by immersion for two hours in a solution 
made by diluting Standard Solution, No. 1, with 9 parts water — one gallon 
in ten. 

This solution is preferable to the poisonous solution made from Standard 
Solution, No. 4. 

Clothing and bedding which cannot be washed may be disinfected by exposure 
to dry heat, in a properly constructed disinfecting chamber for three or four 
hours. A temperature of 23° Fah. should be maintained and the clothing must 
be freely exposed. 

AGENTS THAT MAY BE USED FOR DISINFECTION. 

Heat. — Destruction by burning. 

" Steam under pressure (230° Fah.) ten minutes. 

" Boiling in water not less than one-half hour. 

" Dry heat, oven or furnace, (230° Fah.) two hours. 
Chloride of Lime, 1 part to from 4 to 9 of Plaster of Paris. 
Chloride of Lime, Solution, 1 oz. to quart of water. 

Corrosive Sublimate, Solution, 1 drachm to the gallon of water. For very 
strong, 4 oz. to the gallon. See Standard Solutions, Nos. 2 and 4, and remarks. 

STANDARD SOLUTION, NO. 5. 

(Or Blue Solution.) 

Dissolve four ounces of Corrosive Sublimate and one pound of Blue Vitrol in a 
gallon of hot water. 

One-half pint of this solution to one gallon of water when used for disin- 
fecting excreta in the sick room. Preferable in some cases to chlorides of lime 
or soda because odorless. 

Chloride of Zinc, Sol. 5 to 10 per cent. More costly and no more valuable 
than chloride of lime. Has no odor. 

FOR CLOTHING, BEDDING, &C. 

(a) Soiled underclothing, bed linen, &c, (1) destruction by fire, if of little 
value ; (2) boiling for at least half an hour ; (3) immersion in a solution of mer- 
curic chloride (corrosive sublimate), of the strength of 1 : 2,000 (1 drachm to 1 
gallon of water) for four hours ; (4) immersion in a 2 per cent, solution of car- 
bolic acid for four hours. 

(b) Outer garments of wool or silk, and similar articles, which would he in- 
jured by immersion in boiling water or in a disinfecting solution, (1) exposure 
to dry heat at a temperature of 110° C. (230° Fah.) for 2 hours ; (2) fumigation 
with sulphurous acid gas* for at least twelve hours, the clothing being freely 
exposed. 

(c) Mattresses and blankets soiled by the discharges of the sick, (1) destruc- 
tion by tire ; (8) exposure to super-heated steam — 25 pounds pressure — for one 



* Fumes or vapor of burning sulphur. 
11 



82 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

hour (mattresses to have the cover removed or freely opened) ; (3) immersion in 
boiling water for one hour ; (4) immersion in the blue solution (mercuric chlo- 
ride and sulphate of copper), two fluid ounces to the gallon of water. 

Furniture and articles of wood, leather and porcelain.*— Washing, several 
times repeated, with : (1) Solution of mercuric chloride, 1 : 1,000 (the blue solu- 
tion, 4 ounces to the gallon of water, may be used) ; (2) solution of chloride of 
lime, 1 per cent. ; (3) solution of carbolic acid, 2 per cent. 

For the person — The hands and general surface of the body of attendants, of 
the sick, and of convalescents at the time of their discharge : (1) Solution of 
chlorinated soda diluted with nine parts of water (1. 10) ; (2) carbolic acid, 2 per 
cent, solution ; (3) mercuric chloride, 1 : 1,000 (1 drachm to 2 gallons of water) — 
recommended only for the hands, or for washing away infectious material from 
a limited area, not as a bath for the entire surface of the body. 

For the dead. — Envelope the body in a sheet thoroughly saturated with : 
(1) Chloride of lime in solution, 4 per cent. ; (2) mercuric chloride in solution, 
1 : 500 (1 drachm to 1 quart of water) ; (3) carbolic acid in solution, 5 per cent. 

For the sick room and hospital wards. — (a) While occupied, wash all surfaces 
with : (1) Mercuric chloride in solution, 1 : 1,000 (the blue solution, containing 
sulphate of copper, may be used) ; (2) chloride of lime in solution, 1 per cent.; 
(3) carbolic acid in solution, 2 per cent. 

(b) When vacated fumigate with sulphur dioxide t t fumes of burning sul- 
phur for 12 hours, burning 3 pounds of sulphur — for every 1,000 cubic feet of 
air space in the room — then wash all surfaces with one of the above mentioned 
disinfecting solutions, and afterward with soap and hot water ; finally throw 
open doors and windows and ventilate freely. 

NORTH KINGSTOWN. 

1. No work for the promotion of public health especially. 

2. No introduction or extension of water for general use. 

3. No public sewerage. 

4. No new ordinances for any sanitary purposes. Town health ordinances 
published in last State Board of Health Report, 1888. 

5. Board of health, the town council. 

6. Health Officer, Thomas W. Peirce. 

7. No gratuitous vaccination provided during the past year. 

8. Undertakers have not promptly sent in their returns of death. 

George T. Cranston, Town Clerk. 

SOUTH KINGSTOWN. 

1. Water works completed. System of sewers contemplated. 

2. Wakefield Water Works Company. Supplies Wakefield, Peacedale and 
Narragansett Pier. See letter of Superintendent appended. 

* For metallic utensils use Standard Solution, No. 3. 



1889. J secretary's report. 83 

3. No public sewerage. 

4. See ordinance appended. 

5. Board of health, the town council. 
G. Health officers not appointed. 

7. As required by law, school children are vaccinated by physicians at school 
houses. 

8. Undertakers have promptly sent in their returns of death. 

H. B. Perky, Town Clerk. 

AN ORDINANCE TO RESTRICT THE SPREAD OF CONTAGIOUS OR 
INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 

It is ordained by the Town Council of the Town of South Kingstown, as follows : 

Section 1. No person shall attend the Public Schools of this town as teacher, 
pupil, or in any other capacity, if such person resides in, or has resided in any 
house, tenement or family, in which there is or has been a case of smallpox, 
varioloid, cholera, scarlet fever, diphtheria, whooping cough or measles, within 
the period of four weeks from the commencement of the last existing case, in 
such house, tenement or family of any such disease. 

Sec 2. Whenever it shall come to the knowledge of any teacher in the Public 
Schools, thiil any pupil is in attendance in violation of the preceding section, 
the said teacher shall forthwith forbid such attendance and give notice immedi- 
ately of the occurrence, to the Bealth Officer. 

Sec. 3. Every person violating the provisions of either of the preceding sec- 
tions, shall be fined not exceeding five dollars for every day of such violation. 
A true copy, H. B. Perry, Clerk. 

Ofkk EC Wakkfield Water Co., Narragansett Pier. 
Charles II. Wisher, M. D., Secretary State Board of Health, Rhode Island: 

Dear Sir : — Your postal of the 27th instant, requesting our report for 1889, 
if printed, or if not the extensions and number of persons supplied during and 
at end of 1889, received. 

Our plant, which covers an area of about 14 miles of piping, was only com- 
pleted December 30, 1889. Up to and at that time, we had 130 taps in use ; the 
number of persons supplied I am unable to say, as the taps are made for dwell- 
ings, stores, offices, &c. 

Very respectfully, 

E. A. Waterhouse, Superi?itendent. 

RICHMOND. 

1. No work for the promotion of public health. 

2. No water service for general use. 

3. Have no public sewerage. 

4. Nothing new in abatement of nuisances or sanitary improvement. 



84 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

5. Board of health, the town council. 

6. Health Officer, A. H. Ecclestone, M. D. 

7. No gratuitous vaccination provided during the past year. 

H. P. Clarke, Town Clerk. 

WESTERLY. 

1. Only the usual work for the promotion of public health contemplated by 
the town authorities during the year. 

2. Do not know the proportion of the population supplied with public water 
at the end of the year. 

3. No public sewerage. 

5. Board of health, the town council. 

6. H. W. Rose, Superintendent of Health, Benjamin York, Health Officer. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination was provided during the past year. The pro- 
portion of the population vaccinated, according to my best knowledge, was 
about 900. 

8. As a rule, undertakers promptly send in their returns of death. 

W. Hoxsey, Town Clerk. 

Westerly Water Works, 

Westerly, R. I., March 28, 1890. 
Charles II. Fisher, Secretary State Board of Health, Providence, R. I. : 

Dear Sir :— Your communication of the 27th inst. at hand. In reply would 
state that we do not print a public report. Our extensions in 1889 were 1,617 
feet. As near as I can estimate, 2,000 persons are daily using water supplied by 
this concern. 

Yours very truly, 

Everett Barnes, Superintendent. 



REPORTS OF 



HEALTH OFFICERS 



1889. 



CIRCULAR TO HEALTH OFFICERS. 



In order to ascertain what degree of interest was taken in the work 
(if sanitary inspection, and what had been accomplished in the differ- 
ent towns by the Health Officers of the same during 1889, the follow- 
ing circulars were sent at the close of the year : 

CIRCULAR No. 106. 

Office of Secretary of the State Board of Health, 

Providence, Dec. 26, 1889. 
To the Health Officer of 

Dear Sir : — An important feature of the Annual Reports of the Rhode 
Island State Board of Health is that of giving a connected history of the oc- 
currence of contagious and epidemic diseases from year to year, as they may 
have prevailed in the different towns, whether epidemically or in a less degree, 
together with the location in the town (village or otherwise), and season of 
i lie year. 

If the proportion of the fatal cases to the whole number of cases of the same 
disease could be given, the value of such reports would be very much enhanced. 
Such proportion can be ascertained only in sucb towns as by town ordinance re- 
quire physicians to report all cases of such diseases as come within their charge. 

An approximate proportion can, however, be given, after the subsidence of 
the disease, by inquiry of persons living in the immediate neighborhood of the 
prevalence of such disease as to the number of the sick, or by house to house 
visitation where the sickness occurred, with same inquiry, and by the compar- 
ison of the deaths with recoveries as so ascertained. 

Another feature of the Reports is a yearly record of the sanitary improve- 
ments made in the towns, in relation to water supply, drainage, abatement of 
nuisances, better methods of heating aud ventilating public buildings, and such 
new ordinances as may have been adopted, having in view the improvement of 
the public health, the data for which is mainly obtained from the town and city 
clerks. 

It is for the purpose of ascertaining additional and supplementary informa- 
tion that the questions in the inclosed circular are sent to the various Health 
Officers of the State, 



83 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

If, therefore, you will have the kindness to reply to the questions in the said 
circular, according to the best knowledge you have been able to obtain, and 
forward in the enclosed stamped envelope, you will favor one of the most im- 
portant interests of the State, and greatly oblige, 

Yours truly, 

CHAS. H. FISHER, 

See. Stale Board of Health. 

P. S. — In the replies on the blank circular of questions, in relation to the 
extent or degree of prevalence of any disease, the following signs may be used : 

The star (*) preceding the name of any disease will indicate an epidemic prev- 
alence ; the sign plus (+). a large prevalence ; and the sign equals (=), a mod- 
erate prevalence. 

To Health Officers who are not physicians, it may be said that the term 
epidemic, within the meaning of the questions proposed, is the prevalence of 
some disease to the extent of one or more persons affected with the disease to 
every five or six persons living in adjacent tenements or in the near neighbor- 
hood, or a smaller proportion, not less than one case of the disease in every ten 
or twelve of the population, extending over a large area of territory. One sick 
in every twelve to sixteen persons might be called a large prevalence, and one 
sick in every twenty to twenty-five, a moderate prevalence. The number of 
cases of any one disease may have to be estimated, but make them as nearly 
correct as possible. 

a h f. 



CIRCULAR No. 107. 

Dear Sir : — Replies to the following questions, as suggested in the accom- 
panying circular, (No. 106), are respectfully solicited ; said replies to be made 
on this circular, following each question : 



1. Name of Town. 



2. Name of Health Officer. 



3. Have there been, within your knowledge, any epidemics, or any large 
prevalence of contagious or infectious diseases in your town during 1889 ? If 
so, of what disease or diseases ? in what locality or localities ? how many of each 
disease ? * and in what months of the year ? 

* According to the best knowledge obtainable. 



1889.] secretary's report. 89 

Diseases. Locality. No. of Cases. Xo. of Deaths. Months in which they occurred. 



4. Was isolation maintained or attempted ? * 



5. What proportion of the sick, if any, were isolated :- 



6. Was any inspection of premises made, where sickness prevailed, as to the 
sanitary condition of th< pantries, sinks, sink drains, water-closets, if 

any, cesspools, "iii bouse privies, distance of wells from accumulations of tilth, 
etc., etc.? If so, please give a general statement as to whether they were sani< 
tarily in conditions, good or had, or if any thing or place was unusually unsani- 
tary, give a full description. Or if the cause of any outbreak of disease was 
found, please Btate what? 



?. Did you make any sanitary inspections during 1889, by order of the town 
c tuncil or from your own option ? If so, what were they and how made ? 



8. Do you know of any location in your town that seems to be particularly 
unhealthy to any considerable number of persons? If so, and the cause is sus- 
pected, can such cause be removed at any reasonable expense ? 



9. Do you report to your town council nuisances dangerous to the public 
health, or unsanitary premises within your knowledge ; or of buildings unsafe 
for occupants in case of lire ? (See Chapter 4!)."'), Section 0, Public Laws.) 



10. Have you knowledge that any serious disease of domestic animals has 
largely prevailed in your town during the year '.' If so, what disease "f >li-' 
and in what locality ? 



Have you a copy of the " Manual for the Health Officers <»f Rhode bland " at 
hand ? If not, one will be forwarded immediately, or more, if desired. 



« According to tin- beat knowledge obtainable. 

l. 



90 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 



REPLIES OF HEALTH OFFICERS. 



BRISTOL COUNTY. 



1. Bristol. 

2. Health Officer, George H. Peck. 

3. There has been some prevalence of the following contagious or infectious 
diseases in town during 1889 : 

Typhoid fever ; scattered ; 10 cases ; 1 death ; February, 2 ; July, 1 ; August, 
3 ; September, 2 ; November, 1 ; December, 1. Scarlatina ; suburbs ; 8 cases ; 
no deaths ; January, o ; February, 1 ; October, 2. Scarlet fever ; compact part 
of town ; 10 cases ; no deaths ; January, 8 ; March, 1 ; April, 1. Diphtheria ; 
compact part of town ; 1 case ; July. Measles ; compact part of town ; 1 case ; 
September. Chicken-pox ; compact part of town ; 1 case ; April. None of the 
last three mentioned diseases were fatal. 

4. Isolation was maintained. 

5. About one-half of the sick were isolated. 

6. I have kept well informed of accumulations of filth, and promptly caused 
them to be removed. There have been none of a serious nature ; the few ca>es 
of contagious diseases have occurred where the sanitary conditions were gen- 
erally fair. 

7. No special sanitary inspections were made during 1889 by order of the 
town council. 

8. No particularly unhealthy location known. 

9. Should report to the town council nuisances dangerous to the public health 
if any were known. 

10. No disease of domestic animals has largely prevailed. 

Barrington. 

No report from the health officers. 

Warren. 

Health officer made no report. 

KENT COUNTY. 

1. East Greenwich. 

2. Health Officer, J. H. Eldredge. 

3. No marked epidemics of any contagious or infectious diseases in 1889, 

6. No official inspections were made during 1889. 

7. No inspections ordered by town authorities. 



1889.] secretary's report. 91 

8. No known location in town that seems to be particularly unhealthy. 

9. Report is made to the town council of nuisances dangerous to the public 
health if any are known, or if complaint is made. 

10. No disease of domestic animals has largely prevailed. 

Coventry. 

No report from health officers. 

West Greenwich. 

No report from health officers. 

1. Warwick. 

2. Health Officer, Albert G. Spraguc, M. D. 

3. The following contagious or infectious diseases have prevailed in this town 
during 1889 : 

Scarlet fever : Phenix, River Point and vicinty ; a few cases ; Spring and 
Summer. Measles; Phenix, River Point and vicinity; very prevalent; mild. 
Influenza (La Grippe); all over the town to an alarming extent; no deaths; 
during last week in December. 

4. No isolation maintained. 

6. Inspections of premises were made, to a considerable number, as to the 
sinitarv condition of sink drains, cesspools, outhouse privies, distance of wells 
from accumulations of filth, etc. Some of the places were found to be very 
filthy, and I ordered them to be cleaned. 

7. Inspections were made mostly on complaint of individuals, and the nui- 
sances were abated in every case. 

8. No location in town that seems to be particularly unhealthy to any con- 
siderable number of persons. 

9. Should report to the town council any extensive nuisances dangerous to 
the public health upon first known occurrence. 

10. No serious disease of domestic animals has largely prevailed. 

NEWPORT COUNTY. 

1. Jamestown. 

2. Health Officer, Abbott Chandler. 

:;. No epidemics or any large prevalence of contagious or infectious diseases 
in this town during 1889. 

7. I made inspections at my own option. I inspected the sink-drains, water 
closets, cesspools, privies, back yards and cellars of the hotels and lodging* 
houses. 

8. No location in town ihut seems to be particularly unhealthy to my knowl- 
edge. 



92 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

9. I should report to the town council nuisances dangerous to the public 
health, or unsanitary premises, or buildings unsafe for occupants in case of fire, 
if any were known to me. 

10. No serious disease of domestic animals has largely prevailed. 

1. MlDDLETOWN. 

2. Health Officer, John Peckham. 

3. The following contagious or infectious diseases have prevailed in town 
during 1889 : 

Scarlet fever ; 5 cases ; no deaths ; April. Diphtheria ; 1 case ; September. 
The above are all the cases of which I have any knowledge. There is no ordi- 
nance of council obliging doctors to report to me or any one. I have tried for 
the last year, and hope for some action sometime. 

4. Isolation was maintained as soon as cases were known. 

5. All of the sick were isolated. The cases of scarlet fever were very light, 
all from one case contracted in Newport. The case of diphtheria was supposed 
to have been contracted in traveling ; other children in the house did not take it. 

7. I visited where the case of diphtheria was, with one of the town council, 
and found everything on the premises in good order. • 

8. Do not think any place particularly unhealthy. 

9. Should report to the town council nuisances dangerous to the public health 
soon as known. 

10. No serious disease of domestic animals has occurred. 

Newport City. 

Henry E. Turner, Jr., Executive Officer of the Board of Health. (See page 52.) 

The following are extracts from the Report of Dr. F. H. Rankin, Secretary of 
the Newport Board of Health : 

HEALTH OF THE CITY. 

We feel that the city is to be congratulated upon the general good health that 
has prevailed within its limits during the year, and also upon its immunity from 
any extended epidemic of infectious diseases. A review of the statistical tables 
herewith presented, places Newport in an enviable light as to its degree of 
healthfulness, and shows that few cities have as low a general death rate, as low 
a death rate from zymotic diseases, as small a percentage of deaths among chil- 
dren under five years of age, and as few deaths from consumption ; all of which 
is indicative of a more than the average good state of sanitation. Notwithstand- 
ing this laudatory statement, the guardians of the city's health should not rest 
satisfied with the present low mortality, for, blessed as the city is, with physical 
conditions unusually favorable to health, our general death rate and deaths from 
zymotic diseases should be much lower. 

During the year 1889 there were 319 deaths, exclusive of still-births, reported 
in the city, an equivalent lo an ai nual death rate of 14.3 per 1,000 inhabitants, 
based upon the estimated population of 22,o00. The population in 1888 was 



1889.] secretary's report. 93 

given as 22,000. la forming the estimate for 1889, the average excess (for sev- 
eral years) of 300 bir lbs over deaths, baa been added lo Ibe figures of the previous 
year. The mortality among children under five years of age was 77, an equiva- 
lent to a death rate of 24.1 per cent, of the total mortality ; a record that few 
cities can surpass. Among the aged, 83 decedents out of the total 319, passed 
the allotted time to man of three score years and ten ; or 23.1 per cent, of de- 
cedents had passed the age of 70 years. 

The mortality from consumption during the year was lower than the average 
of the previous ten years, although in excess of 1888. Thirty-six death- were 
reported from this disease, an equivalent to a death rate of l.Gb* per thousand 
inhabitants, a record bespeaking of good climatic influence for our city. The 
average age of decedents from consumption was 35 years, 10 months, 20 days. 
Tlie average age of the total decedents for the year was 11 years, 11 months, 7 
days 

An indication of the healthfulness of Newport as a summer resort may per- 
haps be judged from the fact that but ten (10) deaths occurred among the eight 
or nine or possible ten thousand transient residents of all classes who were with 
us during the summer months, and of this number there was but one death 
under five years of age. 

ZYMOTIC DISEASES. 

Our death record from zymotic or germ diseases for the past year is exceed- 
ingly favorable and is one that is equalled by few cities. The total number of 
deaths under this class was 4G, or 14 per cent, of the total death rate and 2.00 
deaths per 1,000 inhabitants, a lower record than we have had for a number of 
years. 

The following arc the most prominent causes of deaths in this class : 

Diphtheria, Croup and Tonsillitis — There were 9 deaths from these diseases in 
1889, a decrease of 11 deaths from 1888. 

Typhoid Fever. — During the year 1889, twenty-three cases of typhoid fever were 
reported to the Board of Health, as having originated within the city limits, with 
two deaths therefrom. In addition to these, however, were thirteen cases from 
the United States School Ship New Hampshire, with five deaths therefrom, and 
ten cases imported into Newport ; a total of forty-six cases and seven deaths. 
By imported cases is understood, patients who came to Newport in a debilitated 
condition in quest of health, and were taken ill within a week or ten days after 
their arrival, it being evident upon investigation that the disease was contracted 
elsewhere. The thirteen cases from the New Hampshire, caused by the unsani- 
tary surroundings of the school ship which was anchored close to the shore of 
Coaster's Harbor Island, should not properly be included in the total number of 
cases, since the patients were taken ill on board ship, and not in habitations on 
shore. Local sanitary defects were found to exist in every case exceptiug three 
(3), where the disease originated within the city. 

Diarrheal Diseases. — There were during the year fifteen deaths from cholera 
infantum, two fitm infantile diarrLoea, two In m cholera morbus, and seven 
from dysentery. 



94 STATE BOARD OF HFALTII. [l 885. 

Scarlet Fever — One death from this disease occurred in January. Seventeen 
cases were reported during the first five months of the year, but during the last 
seven months of the year not a single case has been known to have existed in 
the city. 

Diseases of a contagious character have received especial attention from the 
Board of Health, and every care has been taken to prevent the spread of con- 
tagion. The law requiring the posting a notice of warning upon houses where 
contagious diseases existed has been rigidly enforced, and careful inspection 
made in most cases. 

NEWPORT COMPARED WITH OTHER CITIES 

For many years invidious remarks about the unhealthfulness of Newport and 
its sanitary condition have been circulated by the press and passed from person 
to person. That this adverse criticism has been advanced without facts to sub- 
stantiate the statements, can best be shown by the following table, in the study 
of which it must be remembered that it is only by comparison that a correct 
judgment can be formed as to any degree of perfection. 

The healthfulness and sanitary condition of a city can be very accurately de- 
termined by a consideration of three classes of figures from its mortuary statis- 
tics, viz : The general death rate, the death rate from zymotic diseases and the 
percentage of deaths among children under five years of age. The general 
death rate is in a measure an index of the general amount of illness. Since for 
every death there must necessarily be a certain percentage of cases of illness, it 
naturally follows that the lower the mortality the less the amount of illness. 
The death rate from zymotic diseases and the number of deaths among children 
under five years of age may be looked upon as an exponent of the state of sani- 
tation in the various cities, for the reason that filth and unsanitary conditions 
are the chief causes for augmenting their mortality. 

With this brief explanation the value of the figures in the following table will 
be appreciated, and the relative position of Newport for healthfulness and sani- 
tation may be ascertained : 



1889.] 



SECRETARY'S UK fort. 



95 



COMPARATIVE DEATH RATES, 1888. 



Newport, R. I. 



Newark, N. J 

Memphis, Term. 
New York, N. Y. . . 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

BostOD, Mass 

Philadelphia, Pa. .. 

Burlington, Vt 

Fall River. Mass. . 

Concord, N. H 

Salem, Mass. . 
Cambridge, Mass. . . . 

Brooklyn, N. Y 

Providence, R. I. . . 
Hartford, Conn . . 

Manchester, N. H 

Si Louis, Mo 

Set anion, Pa 

Richmond, Ya 

New Bedford, Blase . 
New Haven. Conn . . 

Haverhill, Mass 

Newburgh, N. Y. ... 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Lynn, Mass.. . . 
Denver, Colorado. . . 
New Britain. Conn. . . 

Baltimore, Md 

San Francisco, Cal. . . 

Taunton, Ddass 

Bomerville, Mass. . . . 

Utica. N. V 

Nashville, Tenn 

Altoona. Pa 

Portland, Me 

Auburn, N. Y 

Brockton, Afass 

[leading, Pa 

Toledo, Ohio 

Davenport, Iowa 

Keokuk, Iowa. 
Grand Rapids, Mich. , 



Rate per 1,000 
of population. 



14.3 



27.75 

26.32 

25.1 

24 . 57 

23 9 

2S 11 

23 12 

22.8 

22.2 

21.fi!) 

21.38 

21.20 

21.08 

20.8 

20.71 

20 2 1 

19.71 

19.67 

19.4 

19.36 

18.76 

18.46 

18.06 

18. 

17.95 

17.86 

17.36 

17.15 

16.9 

16 ss 

16 36 

16 18 

16.05 

15.8 

14.48 

14.25 

18.71 

12.5 

10.94 

10.89 



Deaths from 

zymotic causes 

pel 1,000 of 

population. 



3.1 



4.54 
6.7 

5.7 

3.52 

E>! 69 
5.65 

3.87 

5^18 

5.7 

5 44 

4.6 

5.33 

4.85 

43.54 

2.87 

4^83 
3.28 

4.8 
4.1 
2.96 
4.54 



1.65 



3 43 
9.97 

4 . 92 



Percentage of 
Deaths under 

5 years to 
total mortality. 



31.4 



42.15 
30. 

43 2 
32 

35.29 
35.67 
52.58 
■17 5 
26.9 
29. 
45. 

44 39 
29.52 
45.7 
46.54 
40.14 

37' 34 

34.51 

33.6 

83.88 

35.2 

35 . 77 

35.39 

34.18 

34.82 

43 43 

25 8 

27.58 

29*8* 

34.15 

48 34 

24.14 

22. 3S 

39. 

88.76 

40.65 

37.2 




Deaths from 
Consumption 
per 1,000 of 
population. 



1.14 



2.4 

3.8 

3 44 

2.35 
58 
65 
13 
1 1 
33 

9a 

65 
54 
92 



:; 

2 

2 

3 

2 
1 

2 
2 
2 
2.7 
2.66 
1.82 
.88 
2 15 

2 til 
2.64 

3 08 
2 52 
2.71 
2.74 

*3. 

2^:V 
3.13 
2.11 
2 28 
2.1 
2.63 
.37 
8.75 

L88 

1 . 73 

1.58 

.92 

69 



* Denver, a resort for consumptives. 



96 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

SANITARY CONSIDERATIONS. 

The interest that has been evinced during the past year in the extension of 
sewers throughout the city, in the providing adequate means for the disposal of 
garbage, and in the consideration of the best method for the removal and dis- 
posal of night soil, bears evidence of a full realization of the importance of sani- 
tary reforms, and of a desire to improve the general healthfulness of our city. 
It is to be regretted that the earnest efforts that have been made have not been 
completely crowned with success. 

The Board of Health desires to testify its appreciation of the courteous atten- 
tion received from the City Council in the joint conferences for the considera- 
tion of sanitary questions that called them together. The first joint meeting 
was called to discuss the best method for the disposal of night soil. In the 
further consideration of the subject by the appointed committee, an expedient 
way for accomplishing this, was, it is understood, decided upon but not adopted. 
The Board of Health, as guardians of the health and sanitary interests of the 
city, feel called upon to again direct the attention of your honorable body to 
this important question, and to urge, most earnestly, the adoption of reform 
measures necessary to protect the public from the evil consequences that are 
liable to follow the present dangerous methods of disposal of night soil. 

CITY WATER. 

In my report of last year brief mention was made of a filter plant built by the 
Newport Water Works Company for the purification of the city water supply. 
During the summer months just past the filter was in active operation, and its 
successful working was practically demonstrated by a marked improvement in 
the clearness and taste of the water. 

The earnest effort made to increase the purity of our city water deserves a 
more extended notice, and I have deemed it of sufficient importance to give a 
description of the same. 

The water supply of a city, unless obtained from artesian wells, consists main- 
ly of water collected from the surface of the country by brooks and streams 
which convey it into ponds or reservoirs, from which it is distributed. This 
water, flowing as it does through forests and meadows, necessarily collects more 
or less organic matter of a vegetable origin, an excess of which renders it un- 
wholesome. It is for the removal of this organic matter that the filters are 
desirable. 

Few cities as yet possess adequate filters for the removal of this objectionable 
matter, and, therefore, it is with a feeling of no small satisfaction that we may 
number Newport among the fortunate minority. 

The water shed that gives rise to our city supply, being very near the city 
limits, offers no opportunity for the water to free itself of a portion of the or- 
ganic matter by oxidization, as will naturally take place when the water runs for 
a long distance in shallow streams with rocky beds. By reason of this, and from 
the character of the water shed itself, our water supply contains an excess of 
vegetable manner. 

The means resorted to for the accomplishing of the filtration are merely an 
imitation of the method adopted by nature for furnishing the clear water ob- 
tained from wells and springs. 



1889.] 



secretary's retort. 



97 



This filtration is accomplished by nature, firstly, through the instrumentality 
of certain earthy salts, chiefly the aluminum, which have the power to coagulate 
or to gather together in small mnsses, the organic m itter contained in the water ; 

secondly, the entrapping or collecting of the coagulated matter in the ground 
mar the surface, the water passing into the earth to he discharged through 
springs free from impurities. The organic matter thai is entrapped in the earth 
is appropriated by plant life for nutrition. In artificial filtration, therefore, the 
three fundamental points to observe are : First. The coagulation of the organic 
matter held in solution, and that in a state of line subdivision, by the addition 
to the water of a small amount of aluminum salts before it passes into the filter. 
Second. The entrapping or gathering of the organic coagulated mass ami other 
materials upon a bed of sand. Third. The thorough and rapid cleansing of the 
filter beds as frequently as they become fouled. 

These principles are all embraced in the admirable filtering process patented 
by Mr. Hyatt, of which the Newport filter is a modification, possessing improve- 
ments which I will point out after giving a description of the filter itself. 

The filter plant consists of a scries of brick tanks, six in number, and in close 
proximity. Each tank is twenty feet in diameter, eight feet deep, and open at 
the top, which is one foot above the surface of the ground. 




pr pf 



|.'i,,. i. Vertical section of one of the Filter tank*. A, Inlet pipe from pond; I I., points 
of entrance of water into tank; B, outlet for filtered water; W, ami Ol., outlet when lank in 
washed; 8 8, Bcreen collecting pipes; ft'', revolving perforated pipe for washing sand; 1. I.. 
lever arm for revolving perforated pipe; P P P, pipe from reservoir for washing tank; line 
through middle of tank Indicates height of sand. 

Km. •_'. Cross section of screen collecting pipe, showing centra] core of iron and wire wound 
around the same, with b] iter. 



r; 



98 



STATE I50AKD OF HEALTH. 



[1889. 




Fig. 3. Horizontal section of bottom of tank, showing arrangement of screen collecting tanks 
beneath the sand. 



One foot from the bottom of each tank is arranged a series of collecting pipes 
(Fig. 1, S. S. and Fig. 3), over which is a bed of sand four feet deep. Each 
collecting pipe consists of a central core of iron of star shape, (Fig. 2) around 
which is wound a No. 12 copper wire, with an interspace of 1-5,000 of an inch 
between each strand, thus leaving four spaces about the central core for the col- 
lection of the water. The ends of these collecting pipes, which are ten inches 
in circumference, are embedded in the walls of the filter, and the centre is sup- 
ported by girders from a cross beam on the top of the tank. 

By means of an apparatus especially constructed, a solution of sulphate of 
aluminum, of definite strength, is allowed to mingle with the water in the sup- 
ply pipe at a short distance before it enters each tank. The peculiar properties 
of the aluminum salts are quickly made manifest by an increased amount of 
the floculent matter in the water. The salts gather together by coagulation, in 
sponge like masses of varying size, the organic matter held in the water, and 
thus reduces it to a coudition readily to be entrapped iu the sand bed of the 
filter. The aluminum salt becomes mingled with, and retained in, the coagu- 
lum, and remains on the filter bed, from which it is removed when the filter is 
washed, and consequently does not affect the water that has passed through the 
filter. Supply pipe A. (Fig. 1) discharges the pond water into the filter through 
a series of openings (I. L. Fig. 1) on the sides of the tank, about eight inches 
above the level of the sand. The water gravitates through four feet of fine sand 
to the bottom of the filter, where it is collected by pipes (Fig. 1, S. S. and Fig. 3) 
and discharged through the outlet pipe (B, Fig. 1) into a large and deep cistern, 
from which it is pumped into the city mains and into the reservoir. 

This is a brief outline of the process of purifying the water. Another im- 
portant step remains unfinished, i. e., the thorough cleansing of the filter beds 
after they have performed a certain amount of work. This cleansing process is 
simple and effectual, and is accomplished by a series of pipes conveying water, 



L889. | BECRETA K\ 'a REPORT. 09 

under a pressure of sixty five pounds 10 a square inch, from the reservoir. If 
we assume a lank is to be cleansed, the supply pipe from the pond and the outlet 

pipe arc Bhut off by valves (a an.l i>, Fig. 1). The gate II. is now opened, i 
voir water from the pipe K. enters the wash pipe 1'. and is forced into the tank 
beneath the sand, through the perforated pipe P. P. A section of pipe P. is 
arranged to rotate between points EL K., thus enabling the lever arm L. to sweep 

the perforated pipe around the bottom of the tank beneath the sand and the col- 
lecting tubes. The water rushing through the perforation in the pipe washes B 
pathway before it, and thus enables the pipe to be slowly swept under the four 
feet of sand. The sand is thrown into violent agitation as the water is forced 
upwards, and all the impurities are washed to the surface. At the same time a 
How of reservoir watei enters through gate I. into the screen collecting tidies, 
and washes nut any material that may have collected between the strands of 
wire, and assists in washing upwards the impui ities collected in the saud. The 
water, laden with the collected organic matter and other impurities, gradually 
rises in the tank and Hows out through openings on its side (,0. L. Fig. 1), ami 
thence in the waste pipe W, by which it is carried beyond reach of again con- 
taminating the pond. After the washing, which requires about twenty minutes 
for eaeli tank, the sand is left as clean and as pure as when first put into the lank. 

Relative t<> the amount of watei to be filtered, the Newport tiller plant is the 
largest in the country, The main points wherein it differs from the recognized 
Hyatt filters are : That the tiller In its are much larger in proportion to the work 
required, thereby allowing a slower filtration ; the water gravitates through the 
saud, thus rendering impossible the forcing of organic matter through the filter 
bed, which is likely to happen whenever pressure is used ; the sand is washed 
from beneath the collecting tidies, which are of a different construction. 

The capacity of the pump for raising the water into the reservoir is 3,000,000 
gallons per day, and the tillers are designed for this amount, although capable of 
tillering a much larger quantity of water. The amount of water that actually 
passed through the filter and was used in the city during the past summer was 
8,000,000 gallons a day. 

The filter plant has as yet been in use only during the few months of the past 
summer, but as soon as further alterations, which are now being carried mi 
have been completed, it is understood that the filler will be in use during the 
Whole year. That there is a necessity for an uninterrupted use of the tiller 
throughout the whole year is very apparent, for our city water contains an excess 
of vegetable matter. 

During the period the filter was in operation experiments were constantly 
carried on to improve the filtration, the perfection of which depends chiefly 
upon the quality of sand in (lie filter bed, and the character and amount of 
aluminum salts. Whin these two points are satisfactorily determined, our citi- 
zens can look forwaid 10 a supply of water clear in color, and of a degree of 
purity that is surpassed by few cities. 

The company are at presenl engaged in raising the heighthof the dam. and 
thereby raising the heighlh of the water in the pond about eighU en inches This 
will be an additional aid in purifying the pond water, for it will hasten the de- 
struction of the little remaining vegetable growth along the shallow edges of the 



100 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

pond, a growth which heretofore has been one of the causes of the vegetable 
matter in the water. 

The Board of Health deem it their duty to again call the attention of your 
honorable body to the great importance of instituting measures for the more 
thorough protection of the city water shed from matter of a character which 
may defile the water. We recommend a sanitary inspection to be made of the 
city water shed, and power granted to remove all unsanitary conditions, if any 
exist, that are in close proximity to the streams which flow into the pond. 

The company is to be commended for their enterprise and efforts to purify the 
water, and it certainly behooves the city to take equal interest in guarding 
the water from pollution, for perfect though a filter may be, it is not beyond 
the possibility that germs of disease having gained entrance into the water may 
pass through the filter. 

The mortuary tables for 1890, herewith appended, exhibit the number of 
deaths and the causes, also the sex, color, social condition, nativity, and ages of 
decedents, and the number of deaths in each ward. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Francis II. Rankin, M. D., 

Secretary of Board of Health. 

1. New SnoREHAM. 

2. Health Officer, Herbert S. Millikin. 

3. Only very small prevalence of contagious or infectious diseases in town 
during 1889, except Diphtheria, 4 cases, 2 deaths; February. 

A. Isolation was maintained. 

5. All were isolated. 

6. Inspections of premises were made where sickness prevailed as to the sani- 
tary condition of the cellars, sinks, sink-drains, res-spools, outhouse privies, dis- 
tance of wells from accumulations of filth, etc. Of the places inspected the sani- 
tary condition was found to be good. 

7. No sanitary inspections were made during 1889 by order of the town coun- 
cil. 

8. No known location in town that seems to be particularly unhealthy to any 
considerable number of persons. 

9. Should report to the town council nuisances dangerous to the public 
health when known. 

10. No serious disease of domestic animals has prevailed. 

1. Tiverton. 

2. Health Officer, none appointed, town council act. 

8. Have no knowledge of any epidemics or any large prevalence of con- 
tagious or infectious diseases during 1889. 
6. Very few inspections of premises were made during 1889. 
8. No location in town that seems to be particularly unhealthy. 



1889.] retary's report. 101 

9. The town council would acl if nuisances dangerous to the public health 

were known. 

iu. No serious disease of domestic animals. 

No report from the Following towns in Newport County : 

Little Compton. 

Portsmouth. 

PROVIDENCE COUNTY. 

1. Burrillvtlle. 

2. Health Officer, Herbert F. Mowry. 

3. No epidemics or any large prevalence of contagious or infectious di-> 
pi this town during 1889 except Hie following : 

Diphtheria, Pascoag, 5 cases, 2 deaths ; Harrisville, 3 cases, 1 death ; Maple- 

ville, 3 cases, 1 death. Influenza, all about, scores of cases, no deaths; De- 
cember. 

G. Condition of man}- cellar- and cesspools bad. Distance of cellars from 
privies and sink drains from three to ten feet in some cases. Water iD - 

cellars. 

7. I have made cases known to the town council as to sink drains, and they 
gave me no answer ; they are very slack. 

8. As to locations in town that seem to he unhealthy to any considerable 
number of persons, there are plenty, and can be removed or abated. 

9 It would be of no use to report to town council nuisances dangerous 10 the 
public health, or unsanitary premises within my knowledge. 

10. No serious disease of dome-lie animals lias largely prevailed. 

Cb )lNSTOH. No report 

( 'i mui i:i ami. No report. 

1. East Providence. 

2. Health Officer, Mason B. Wood. 

:;. Have no knowledge of any epidemics or any large prevalence of conta- 
gious or infectious diseases in town during 1889. There is no ordinance requir- 
ing the physicians of the town to report cases, excepting such as are in the 
Public Laws. 

4. In cases of diphtheria, scai lei f< ver, whooping cough, nu ash s and chicken- 
pox among Bchool children isolation was maintained where the physicians in at- 
tendance requested me; six cases in all. 

5. I believe the proportion to be very small. 

(*>. Inspections of premises were made as to the sanitary condition of the 

cellars, cess] Is, oul bouse privies, accumulations of 01th, etc. Bee report 

appended. 



102 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

7. No sanitary inspections were made during 1889 by order of the town 
council. They were made on request of physicians or tenants. 

8. Do not know of any location positively unhealthy to any considerable 
number of persons, although there is a place known as Carrigan's Hollow, near 
Fort Hill, in the village of YVatehcmoket, where there is a standing pool of dirty, 
(illhy water. 

10. Have no knowledge that any serious disease of domestic animals baa 
largely prevailed during the year, 

REPORT OK HEALTH OFFICER. 

East Providence, R. I., March 1, 1800. 
To the Honorable Town Council of East Providence : 
The annual report of the Health Department is herewith submitted, and is as 

follows: 

The total number of complaints of all kinds received are 78, and may be clas- 
sified as follows: 

Over full and offensive privy vaults (i 

Over full and offensive cesspools ■ 16 

Dead and decomposing animals 2 

Heap of decomposing rubbish 9 

Bad wells . . 2 

Pig pens in bad order. 5 

Fouled stream of water 1 

Gathering swill without permit 12 

Carting night soil without permit 10 

Nuisance existing in open grounds 15 

78 

Material assistance has been rendered to this department by the Police Depart- 
ment on all occasions where deemed necessary. There has been a general acqui- 
escence in the suggestions and requests made by this department on the part of 
those complained of, so that resort to the law by prosecution has not been nec- 
essary in any instance. 

There seems to be urgent need of some change in the manner of collecting 
and disposing of swill. At present whoever will, may take out a permit and 
gather swill anywhere, and at any time, as personal interest or whim may lead. 
Numerous complaints have been made that parties in the compact portions of 
the town had no way of disposing of swill accumulations. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Mason B. Wood, Health Officer. 

1. Foster 

2. Health Officer, Henry Arnold. 



1889.] si:ci;i:tai;y\s BBPOBT. 105 

3. No large prevalence of contagious or infectious diseases in town during 

18S9, except Measles, scattered, 50 cases, no deaths ; November and December. 

4. Isolation was maintained in some instances. 

5. The proportion of the sick isolated was small. 

6. The sanitary condition of the cellars, pantries, Ssc., was found quite good. 

7. No sanitary inspections made during 1889 by order of the town council. 

8. No location that seems to be particularly unhealthy. 

9. I should report to the town council nuisances dangerous to the public 
health if any were known. 

10. No serious disease of domestic animals has occurred. 

1. Glocester. 

2. Health Officer, George A. Lee. 

3. No knowledge of any epidemics or any large prevalence of contagious or 
infectious diseases in town during 1889. 

G. No inspection of premises made where sickness prevailed, as to the sani- 
tary condition of the premises. 

7. From my own option and on complaint of neighbors, I inspected a horse 
incompletely buried, and received promise from the owner of the land that the 
burial should be properly done. 

8. No location in town that seems to be particularly unhealthy, so far as 1 
know. 

9. I should report to the town council nuisances dangerous to the public 
health. 

10. No disease of domestic animals has largely prevailed. 

Johnston. No report. 

1. Lincoln. 

2. Health Officer, Thomas F. Quigley. 

3. There was a large prevalence of the following contagious or infectious 
diseases in town during 1889 : 

Diphtheria, Lonsdale, large number of cases; S deaths; September and Oc- 
tober. Malarial fevers, eastern part of town, large number of cases ; no deaths ; 
April to November. 

4. Isolation was no! maintained or attempted on the part of the health officer. 
G. Some sanitary inspections were made and the nuisances abated. 

7. Tli« sanitary inspections made during 1888 were from my own option. 

8. Do not know of any location in town that seems to he particularly un- 
healthy to any considerable number of persons. 

9. Would make report to the town council of nuisances dangerous to the 
public health if such were found. 

10. No serious disease of dome-tic animals known. 



104 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

1. North Providence. 

2. Health Officer, Sanford E. Kinnecom. 

3. No epidemics or any large prevalence of contagious or Infectious diseases 
in town during 1889. 

7. I did inspect the premises at Lymansville and found four privy vaults 
and five cesspools overflowing ; ordered them abated. Inspected the premises 
at Centredale, found three privy vaults running over, and ordered them abated. 
Inspected the premises at Maryville, and found one vault overflowing and the 
contents of night soil emptied on a vacant lot and not covered ; ordered abated, 
repeatedly ordered abated, finally recommending an ordinance not allowing the 
contents of privy vaults to be brought in the town without the consent of the 
health officer. Passed by the town couucil. 

9. I do report to the town council nuisances dangerous to the public health 
when such occur. 

10. No disease of domestic animals has largely prevailed. 

1. North Bmithfield. 

2. Health Officer, Joshua Wardle. 

3. The following diseases were prevalent during 1889: Typhoid fever, Slaters- 
ville Village, 15 cases, 3 deaths, September and October; Forestdale Village, 11 
cases, 4 deaths; September and October. 

4. Isolation was not maintained or attempted. 

6. Inspections of premises were made where sickness prevailed as to the sani- 
tary condition of the cellars, sinks, sink-drains, cesspools, out-house privies, dis- 
tance of w T ells from accumulations of filth, etc. All in fair condition, except the 
wells in one village. Found no cause for the outbreak that could be traced di- 
rectly. 

7. I did, and from my own option. Three cases in particular, where depos- 
its from privies, etc., were left uncovered, had it buried. 

8. No location iu town that seems to be particularly unhealthy that I 
know of. 

9. Should report to town council nuisances dangerous to the public health 
if any. 

10. No disease of domestic animals known. 

Pawtuoket. 

No report from the health officer. 

Providence City. 

Superintendent of Health, Charles V. Chapiu, M. D. 

EXTRACTS FROM THE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT FOR THE YEAR ENDING 
DECEMBER 31, 1889. 

The number of deaths reported during the year was 2,510, which was 98 less 
than iu the preceding year. The estimated population in 1888 was 123,000, giv- 



1889. J secretary's report. 105 

ing a death rate of 21. '.20. In 1889 the estimated population was 127,000, and t he 
death rate per thousand was 19. 70, or 1.44 less than in the preceding year. This 
is slightly above the average for the lust thirty-four years. 

There were 232 deaths from diarrhceal diseases in 1889. This was 9.24 per 
cent, of all deaths as compared with 10.39 in the preceding year. This is 1.32 
per cent, less than the average for thirty-four years. 

The Dumber of deaths among children under one year of age was 499, or 19 
per cent, of all deaths. This was more than in any year since 1884, and slightly 
more than the average for thirty-four years. 

There were 24 deaths from malarial diseases, or 4 more than in the preceding 
year, and more than in any year since 1887, when 28 deaths were reported. 
Nevertheless, I do not think that malaria is increasing in Providence. On the 
contrary, from conversation with practising physicians in various parts of the 
city, I am convinced that it has been decreasing for several years. The apparent 
increase in deaths is, I imagine, due to the tendency of physicians to attribute to 
malaria, cases in which it is difficult to determine the true cause, and this ten- 
dency seems to increase the longer malaria remains with us. 

There were 309 deaths from consumption in 1889, which is less than any year 
since 1877, at which time the population was 101,000, while now it is 127,000. 
The percentage of the total deaths due to consumption was 12.31, or 25 per cent. 
less than the average for thirty four years. It is now known with certainty that 
tubercular consumption is a contagious disease, due in every case to the growth 
in the lungs of very minute vegetable organisms called tubercle bacilli. These 
organisms are thrown off from the lungs in the sputum, and live for a consider- 
able time outside the body. The)' may be carried about in various ways, prob- 
ably most frequently in the air. If a person who may happen to inhale them is 
in feeble health, or has a poor constitution, the germs are very liable to grow 
and produce a case of the disease. People with a strong constitution and well 
developed lungs, and well nourished bodies, are not susceptible to consumption, 
and the bacilli, if they enter the lungs of such persons, speedily perish. If it 
were not for this fact, that the majority are proof against the disease, we should 
probably most of us die of consumption, for the tubercle bacilli are present at 
all times in considerable quantity in cities, in the dust of the street, and in the 
air of buildings and rooms where many people congregate. If we could be 
sure that all of the sputum ami the excreta from persons suffering from this 
disease wen; destroyed or disinfected, consumption could probably be almost 
entirely eradicated. For the purpose of popularizing this recently acquired 
knowledge of the nature of consumption, and urging proper care on the part of 
patients, the following circular was printed and distributed very generally 
throughout the city. By request of many physicians packages of the circular 
were sent to each practitioner for distribution to those of their patients suffering 
with the disease, and to their friends. It is believed that better results will be 
obtained in this way than by requiring physicians to report cases of consump- 
tion to this office. 

Unfortunately tuberculous disease is not confined to the human species, but 
afflicts many of the lower animals even more severely than it does man. (.' . 
are particularly subject to it, and the Secretary of the State Board of Health iu 



106 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

his report for 1888 says that probably a large proportion of the cows of this 
State are suffering from one form or another of tuberculous disease. The tuber- 
cle bacilli are often found in large numbers in the milk of such cows, and if 
taken into the alimentary caoal of infants may there develop and cause consump- 
tion of the bowels, with, perhaps later, consumption of the lungs, or tubercular 
disease of the joints. To prevent all this the only remedy is a periodic inspection 
of the dairy farms supplying milk to the city, but as these farms are almost en- 
tirely in neighboring towns of the State they are beyond the jurisdiction of this 
department. The chemical examination of milk after it has reached the city 
will show whether it has been adulterated or not, but it will not detect the tuber- 
cle bacilli and the microscopical examination is so difficult that it is impracti- 
cable to apply it. Examination of the cows themselves by a skilled veterinarian 
is necessary, and the State Board of Health should have sufficient funds to un- 
dertake this, and ample power to destroy all cattle found to be diseased. 

PREVENTION OF CONSUMPTION. 

Consumption causes more deaths than any other disease the human race is 
subject to. Nevertheless it is to a very large extent preventable. It is, though 
not generally known, a contagious disease. Consumption, or pulmonary tuber- 
culosis, is in every case caused by disease germs which grow in the lungs in 
enormous numbers. When a person is sick with this disease these germs are 
coughed up in great quantities in the expectoration, and when this becomes dry 
and crumbles, or is trodden to dust, the germs float about in the air and are lia- 
ble to be breathed into the lungs of any one. If the lungs of the person who 
does breathe them in are poorly developed, or if the constitution is feeble, the 
germs are very sure to grow and cause the disease. Unfortunately we do not 
know how to kill them when they are once in the air passages. The best that 
can be done is to build up the system and strengthen the lungs by good food and 
fresh air. 

Much, however, can be done to prevent the spread of the disease by destroy- 
ing the germs as completely as possible in every case. 



No person with consumption should ever spit on the floor or in the street. If 
handkerchiefs or bits of cloth are employed they should be at once disinfected, 
or burned. A good plan is to use a small wide-mouthed bottle with a rubber 
stopper. The contents should be thrown into the fire and the bottle thoroughly 
scalded with boiling hot water every day. 

II. 

The dishes used by a consumptive should be at once scalded, and the soiled 
underwear and bed clothing should not be thrown with that of other persons, 
but should be thoroughly boiled as soon as possible. 

III. 

When a person with consumption has diarrhoea, the discharges from the bow- 
els should at once be disinfected, as at this time they contain the disease germs. 



1889.] SECRETARY'S REPORT. 107 

A good way is to add ;i half teacupful of fresh chloride of lime, or fill up the 
chamber vessel with boiling water. 

IV. 

No one with consumpl Lou Bhould sleep in the same room with another person, 
and the room occupied bj a consumptive should be thoroughly cleansed as often 
as possible. 

V. 

No mother with consumption should nurse an infant, and children ought 
never to be taken care of by a consumptive person. 

CONTAGIOUS DISEASES. 

During the year 1888 there was very little measles in Providence, but during 
the latter part of 1889 it again began to prevail. Fourteen deaths are attributed 
to that cause. Measles appears in epidemics, but at not very regular intervals. 
The following table shows the number of deaths from measles each year since 
185G, and indicates that the disease is by no means so harmless as it is popularly 
supposed to be. This department has as yet been unable to devise any feasible 
means for checking its spread. It is so often unrecognized in its incipient stage, 
when it is most contagious, and is so little feared by our citizens, that it does not 
seem possible, at present, to wage a very successful warfare against it. About 
all that can be done is to cultivate a wholesome dread of it. 



1856 1 1885 7 1874 4 1SS3 8 

1857 2 1S6C 9 1875 1884 7 

1858 40 18C7 1876 1885 8 

1859 1868 4 1S77 2 1880 7 

1860 I860 6 1878 50 18S7 90 

1861 6 1S70 1C 1879 1888 2 

18C2 1 1S71 1 1880 3 1889 14 

1863 16 1872 7 1881 25 

1864 .'...7 1873 28 1882 4 34 years 377 

Whooping cough is another disease which is too lightly looked upon. It pre- 
vailed quite extensively in 1889, and 44 deaths were attributed to it. In this 
disease, as in measles, doubtless more than the number of deaths reported should 
be laid to its charge, for in both diseases the lungs are so weakened as to give 
rise to subsequent fatal pulmonary complications. 

The following table -hows the number of deaths from whooping cough each 
year since 18S6 



108 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 



1856 10 1868 13 1880 11 

1857 2 1809 16 1881 40 

1858 7 1S70 24 1882 40 

1859 22 1871 10 1883 4 

1860 19 1872 10 1884 28 

1861 25 1873 18 1885 24 

1862 3 1874 33 1886 23 

1863 6 1875 8 1887 12 

1864 10 1876 35 1888 28 

1865 31 1877 16 1889 44 

1866 8 1878 43 

1867 2 1879 15 34 years 640 

There was no case of small-pox in the city in 1889. The only cases since 1875 
were one fatal case in 1883 and one mild case, which recovered, in 1887. The 
principal contagious diseases which prevail in Providence, and of which reports 
are required from physicians, are scarlet fever, typhoid fever and diphtheria. 
The following tables show the prevalence of each during the past six years. It 
will be seen that there were, in all, 658 cases of these diseases in 1889. All but 
25 of these were reported by the attending physicians. This shows a failure on 
the part of the medical attendant in complying with the law in less than 4 per 
cent, of all cases. In most of these it was foigetfulness on the part of the phy- 
sician, rather than wilful neglect. Indeed, I believe there is only one physician 
now in the city who deliberately intends to disregard the law whenever he deems 
it safe to do so. In some cases, also, failure to report is the result of failure to 
recognize the disease, or the existence of a reasonable doubt as to its nature ; 
though in the latter case the attending physician should call in the health officer 
to bear his share of the burden of that doubt. The teachers in the public schools 
all report to this office cases of contagious disease coming to their notice ; and in 
making his visits of inspection the medical inspector always inquires about the 
existence of the disease in the neighborhood. Rarely, in following up reports 
so obtained, does he come upon true cases of the disease in question ; in most 
instances he finds the rumor ill-founded. In these various ways it is believed 
that very few cases of contagious disease escape the notice of this department. 
I have no doubt that when this does occur it is due almost always to a failure to 
recognize the disease, either because it is a mild case and no physician is called 
in, or because the medical attendant himself is led astray in his diagnosis. This 
is borne out by the fact that there was failure to report scarlet fever, which is 
usually easy to recognize, in only four instances ; in typhoid fever, which is 
more doubtful, in six ; while diphtheria, about which it is much more difficult 
to come to a conclusion than in either of the others, there were fifteen failures 
to report. I do not mean to claim that this department is infallible in diagnosis, 
or that the medical attendant can be expected to determine the disease in all 
cases. I fully appreciate his difficulties ; and if this department has been able 



1889.] 



secretary's report. 



109 



in doubtful cases to determine the nature of the disease only after it has run its 
course, and perhaps other and typical cases have developed from it, I certainly 
can attach no blame to another for failure to recognize it earlier. 

Scarlet Fevek. 




Tyi'hoih Fkyi.k. 



Yeah. 


Cases. 


Deaths. 


Rate of Mortality. 


1884 


122 

87 
104 


52 
44 
53 


42 . 62 


1885 


50.57 


1886 


50.96 


188? 


66 


39 


59.09 


1888 


403 


103 


25 55 


1889 


198 


.-)9 


29.76 







Diphtheria. 



Yeak 


Cases. 


Deaths. 


Rate of Mortality. 


1884 


193 
146 
822 
807 

BOS 


58 
37 
98 
108 
98 
17 


80.06 
26.84 


1886 

1887 


80.48 

35.:.ii 


1888 

1889 


42.61 

32.01 



110 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

Scarlet fever, when left to itself, tends to recur in epidemics about every five 
years. But if active measures are taken for its suppression, this regularity may 
be considerably interfered with. This is well illustrated by the history of the 
disease in many cities, notably Boston, where the energetic action of the health 
department has resulted not only in markedly diminishing the death rate from 
this disease, but has interrupted the marked periodicity in it which formerly oc- 
curred. A severe epidemic began in Providence in the autumn of 1887, but it 
was speedily checked, owing to the interest which was taken in the epidemic by 
the great body of our citizens, and the care which they consequently exercised. 
Since that time there has been only a very moderate amount of scarlet fever in 
the city ; particularly since June, 1889. During the last half of the year only 
45 cases were reported, with five deaths, and four of these were in July. The 
mildness of the disease is particularly remarkable ; and this, together with the 
greatly lessened tendency to spread, has led me to mistrust that some of the 
reported cases were not scarlatina. This mistrust is strengthened by the fact 
that I have several times, during the past few months, been called in consulta- 
tion by physicians to see suspected cases, which shows that similar doubts have 
existed in the minds of others. During the past year, scarlet fever has several 
times been imported into the city; and these cases and those which sprang from 
them, have been the most severe which have occurred. A record of some of 
these cases may be of interest and value. 

A family from Ireland moved to S street in the latter part of September. 

Five days after leaving the vessel two of the children were taken sick with 
scarlet fever. Other members of the family had had scarlet fever a few 
months before. There was no scarlet fever at this time among their neigh- 
bors or friends. 

On September 20-22, the children of Mrs. G , on S avenue, visited 

friends in an adjoiuing town. A child in this family had had what, from a de- 
scripti on of the case, was scarlet fever, about two weeks before the visit. On 

their return from this visit, the G children were taken sick with scarlet 

fever : one on the 28th of September, and the others about a week later. There 
was then no scarlet fever in that part of Providence. 

In May, 1889, Mrs. moved to 38 B street. Her child had died two 

years before, of scarlet fever. The clothes of this child were placed in the attic, 
and the children of another family in the house — the X's — played among them 
and were taken sick with scarlet fever in July. The house was only imperfectly 
disinfected by the family. On September 21st, a family just from England 
moved into this tenement and stayed five days, moved out, and came back to the 
lower tenement October 1st. Scarlet fever developed October 11th. The dis- 
ease spread to several families in the immediate neighborhood. 

In October, a boy came from Connecticut to visit some friends on E street. 

He had had scarlet fever two weeks before and was desquamating at the time of 
his visit. Within a few days of his arrival, scarlet fever appeared in the family 
where he was visiting. 

Two years ago, I began the collection of data in regard to scarlet fever ; in 
each case of the disease waiting for sufficient time to elapse for all in the family 
to have the disease who would be liable to have it. At least two months is al- 



1889.] SECRETARY^ REPORT. Ill 

lowed to elapse. I have continued this plan ever since, and the Following table 
presents the results of the three years' work : 

1SS7. 1888. 1889. Total. 
Number of families in which there was more than one suscepti- 
ble child 232 244 73 534 

Number of these in which there was no second case 102 97 43 130 

Number of susceptible children in all the above families 9SG 827 242 2,010 

Number of these children who were attacked 452 511 120 1,070 

Number of additional families with susceptible children in the 

same house where the disease appeared 112 128 18 261 

Number of susceptible children in these families 381 354 34 757 

Number of these additional families attacked 27 1C 43 

Number of children in these families attacked 58 21 79 

Number of families where inunction was practiced 87 99 30 217 

Number of instances in the above families where the disease 

spread beyond the first case 44 64 12 119 

Number of susceptible children in these families 218 496 191 832 

Number of these children who were attacked 148 319 56 515 

Number of tenements which were fumigated 51 63 33 144 

Number of instances where fumigation was done, and where 

the disease spread to other families in the house 5 5 10 

Number of instances where susceptible children were at once 

removed 24 18 10 02 

Number of instances where they were attacked on their return. 3 10 4 

It will be seen that the figures indicate about the same results for each of the 
years, except that in 1889 the disease shows less of a tendency to spread. This 
may be due partly to increased precaution and better methods of disinfection, 
but is rather, I believe, to be attributed to a milder form of the disease and to 
the errors of diagnosis, before referred to. 

The following tables show the ages of 1,009 persons attacked by scarlet fever, 
the proportion of those exposed of each age who were attacked, and the propor- 
tion of those attacked at each age to the total population of the same age. The 
figures cover the past three years : 



112 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1889 



Ages. 


Cases. 


Number 
Exposed. 


Percentage of those 

exposed who were 

attacked. 


No. per thousand of 

population of each 

age attacked. 


Under 1 year. 


28 


116 


24.1 


10.9 


1 


30 


86 


41.8 


23.5 


2 


100 


177 


56.5 


35.1 


3 


99 


177 


55.9 


39.8 


4 


104 


173 


60.1 


41.6 


5 


82 


183 


44.8 


32 9 


6 


101 


164 


61.6 


40.6 


7 


93 


151 


61.6 


36.8 


8 


G8 


143 


47.5 


28.4 


9 


61 


151 


46.5 


25.8 


10 


41 


90 


45.6 


16.2 


11 


41 


96 


42.7 


17.8 


12 


29 


89 


32.6 


12. 


13 


24 


73 


32.8 


11.2 


14 


19 


65 


29.2 


8.4 


15 


14 


61 


22.9 


6.2 


16 


11 


36 


30.6 


4.5 


17 


7 


31 


22.5 


2.9 


18 


1 


2 


50. 


.4 


19 


5 


15 


33.3 


2. 


20 


6 


14 


42.8 


2.3 


Adults 


39 


56 


69.6 


4.9 



There were 198 cases of typhoid fever in 1889, with 59 deaths. In 1888 there 
were 403 cases and 103 deaths. The exceptionally large number in 1888 was due 
to the epidemic, the cause of which was considered in my last report. A con- 
siderable number of the cases in 1889 were as usual evidently contracted outside 
of the city. The accompanying table shows the number of cases occurring in 
the city and State since 1856. 



1889.] secretary's report. 113 

During the past four years diphtheria has prevailed more extensively in Provi- 
dence than it did for the four years preceding that time, but at no time since 
1878 has the mortality nearly equaled that of the severe epidemic of that and 
the yenr immediately preceding. What causes this moderate increase of the dis- 
ease we do not know. It is not confined to Providence, but is the same in the 
principal cities of New England aud the Middle States. Diphtheria exhibits a 
tendency, which we do not as yet understand, to appear and disappear, and to 
vary greatly in extent and severity at different times. During the early part of 
this century it was entirely abseut from this country, and first appeared in New- 
York in 1856. Two years later the first cases occurred in Providence. The 
accompanying chart shows the percentage of deaths from known causes due to 
diphtheria during the last forty-nine years. This chart was prepared to show 
the relationship of diphtheria, if any exists, to certain other diseases. It has 
been claimed by some that diphtheria, instead of being an imported disease in 
1856, was always with us, and its apparent increase in recent years is simply due 
to calling old things by a new name. It is also believed by many that croup 
and diphtheria are identical. In this chart one line represents diphtheria, and 
another croup. If diphtheria and croup are identical and have long prevailed, 
their lines might, it is true, appear as they do on the chart. But as the term 
croup is, and always has been, except in rare instances, confined to a disease ex- 
isting almost entirely in the larynx, while in diphtheria there is in many, in fact 
in a majority of cases, no symptoms referable to the larynx, we should expect 
that the number of cases of croup would diminish as diphtheria attained a greater 
and greater prominence in medical nomenclature, while as a matter of fact both 
increase together. Still, from all that the chart indicates, diphtheria and croup 
might be identical, for there might have been some climatic or other causes op- 
erating in 1856 which very greatly increased the number of cases of croup, both 
of the laryngeal and the much rarer pharyngeal forms. But if we should study 
the history of the disease, which it is here not the proper place to do, we should 
find that the remarkable increase in croup, if increase it was, thirty or thirty- 
five years ago, was a progressive one, and spread over the continent of Europe 
to Englaud and then to the United States. We can hardly conceive that this 
progressive increase could be due to anything but the advent of a new and (lis 
tinct disease. 

Another reason for believing that diphtheria and croup are distinct diseases, 
are the different seasons at which they occur. The following diagram exhibits 
the seasonal occurrence of the two diseases, aud it will be seen that their lines 
are not by auy means identical : 



114 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1389. 



OCT. 





*y<^ 


\^^n£ 




v/ 


\A 




\*? 


**K 






y%> 




/^—- - 


i — — <« 





APnn 



I do not here refer to the clinical points of difference, but only present reasons 
which are made evident to a health officer. The clinical differences, while clear 
enough in many instances, are not so in others, and it would undoubtedly be 
safer if all cases of membranous croup were considered contagious. But truth 
is always better than falsehood, and while we take proper precaution in all cases, 
we should, I think, recognize the difference betweeu the two diseases, which I 
believe to exist. If diphtheria has always existed here it must have been called 
by some other name, and the bottom line in the chart includes (with the excep- 
tion of scarlet fever) all diseases which it seems possible could have been con- 
founded with diphtheria. These are laryngitis, quinsy, thrush, and tonsillitis, 
and of these tonsillitis and laryngitis caused less deaths before 1856 than they 
have siuce. It will be seen from the chart that all these causes combined caused 
so few deaths that, they never could have included the unrecognized cases of 
diphtheria if it prevailed to any appreciable extent before 1850. Thinking that 
perhaps diphtheria might have been called a scarlatina anginosa, with slight ex- 
anthem, I have added a line for scarlet fever, but it will be seen that it is neither 
supplementary nor parallel to diphtheria. 

It would appear, then, that diphtheria is a specific disease, but it must be con- 
fessed that we do not at present know nearly as much about it as we would like 
to. In fact our knowledge of its nature is much less certain than it is about any 
of the other contagious diseases. Unfortunately, also, its diagnosis is by no 



1889. | BY'a ttEPOBT. 115 

means easy, and it is very difficult often to distinguish between a catarrhal 
pharyngitis, a follicular tonsillitis, and true diphtheria. The disease varies 
greatly in virulence and in contagiousness, and 1 have sometimes thought that 
ribly in certain persons the poison might lose its virulence or die out. If we 
could. only isolate the specific poison of diphtheria, as has been done in typhoid 
fever and cholera, all doubtful points would be chared up, and it is to the bac- 
teriologist and the chemist thai we must look for this solution. Various able 
Investigators have, it is true, claimed to have isolated the specific organism of 
this disease, but their claims have not, as yt, received sufficient corroborative 
evidence to warrant their general acceptance. Meanwhile, we must try to ox- 
tend our knowledge as much as possible by the slow method oi the study of 
CaSCS. For this purpose I have tabulated the data obtained during the year in 
regard to diphtheria in much the same way as scarlet fever was treated. The 
table is for 1889: 

Number of families in which there was more than one child 121 

Number of these in which there was more than one case 47 

Number of children in all the above families 172 

Number of these children who were attacked 231 

Number of additional families with children in the same house 38 

Number of children in these families 96 

Number of these additional families attacked 7 

Number of children in these families attacked 11 

Number of tenements which were fumigated 57 

Number of instances where fumigation was done, and where the disease 

spread to other families in the house 1 

Number of children who were at once removed 26 

Number of instances where they were attacked on their return 

This table indicates that diphtheria is a disease of about the same degree of 
contagiousness as is scarlet fever. About one half of those under fifteen years 
of age who are exposed directly to it are attacked, and it exhibits about the same 
tendency as scarlet fever to extend to other families in the same house. The 
need of precautionary measures during convalescence is not necessary lor bo long 
a time as in scarlet fever. 

Investigation showed apparently that no immunity against diphtheria is se- 
cured by 'in- attack, for of fifty one persons who had previously bad it, and who 
were o\p< Mil to I he disease, twenty five acquired it a second lime. Of the in- 
stances where there were a numl cr of cases in the same family, in only one was 
the first ease mild and followed by severe Or fatal (lies. In all the others the 
first case was the worst. From the above table it will be seen that of twenty- 
six children who were removed from the house promptly on the advent of the 
disease, not a single one was attacked on its return. The time in which they 
were away was from one to three weeks, being on the average two weeks. 

The following table shows the ages of the persons attacked by diphtheria ; 



116 



STATE BOARD OP HEALTH. 



[1889. 



Ages. 


Cases. 


Number 
Exposed. 


Percentage of those 

exposed who were 

attacked. 


No. per thousand of 

population of each 

age attacked. 


Under 1 year. 


3 


20 


13 


11 


1 " 


13 


10 


56.5 


8.5 


2 " 


23 


9 


71.9 


8.1 


3 " 


18 


18 


50.0 


7.-2 


4 " 


23 


9 


71.9 


9 2 


5 " 


27 


10 


72.9 


10.8 


6 " 


23 


16 


60 5 


9.2 


7 " 


17 


18 


48.6 


6.7 


8 " 


14 


11 


56.0 


5.8 


9 " 


10 


15 


40.0 


4.2 


10 " 


13 


9 


59.0 


5.1 


11 " 


11 


8 


57.9 


4.8 


12 " 


15 


13 


53 5 


6.2 


13 •' 


4 


5 


44.4 


2.0 


14 " 


3 


10 


23.0 


1.3 


15 " 


4 


5 


44.4 


1.8 


16 " 


2 


4 


33.3 


.8 


17 " 


o 


6 


25.0 


.8 


18 " 


3 


3 


50.0 


1.1 


19 " 


2 


3 


40.0 


.8 


20 " 


2 


2 


50.0 


.8 


Adults 


36 


231 


13.5 


4 6 



This table does not deal with a large enough number of cases to warrant any 
very general deductions, but it seems to show that diphtheria is not confined to 
one age as closely as is scarlet fever, though it shows a predilection for the ages 
from two to twelve. The apparent small number of individuals between the 
ages of sixteen and twenty-one is due to the fact that many persons between 
these ages are called by their friends "grown up," and the inspector has made 
no effort to distinguish between the ages of the adults. 



1889.] secretary's report. 117 

During the latter part of the summer there was a case of diphtheria in Tall- 
man's lane which was not reported by the attending physician. No precautious 
were taken by the family or their neighbors, as there doubtless would have been 
had the house been placarded. A child in the next house— the open windows 
being separated by only a few feet — was attacked in a few days, and within two 
weeks seven other families within a radius of three hundred feet, had children 
suffering with this disease. The children of these families played freely with 
one another in the yards and streets, and in some cases visited each others' 
houses. The father of one of the sick children visited very Frequently relatives 
on P street, and soon after the disease appeared in his own family, it ap- 
peared in P street also. Thence it was directly traced to two families in 

the immediate neighborhood. In all there were fourteen cases and eight deaths. 
Of course, with the freedom of communication which exists in cities, and the 
countless and unknown sources of contagion, it cannot be definitely proved that 
the above unhappy course of events was directly induced by the unreported case 
in Tallmau's lane, but the circumstantial evidence is very strong, and it is a strik- 
ing illustration of the dangers of hidden cases of contagious disease. 

Another case of diphtheria which is of interest, occurred at the St. Aloysius 
Orphan Asylum, May 20. A boy who had come to the institution May 17, was 
taken sick with the disease. He, with an attendant, was at once isolated as 
completely as possible. A sheet wet in bichloride solution was hung before the 
door, the unused beds were covered with sheets, and nothing was afterwards 
removed from the room. June 8th two other cases occurred which were also 
isolated in the same ward. One case died, and on the recovery of the other the 
room was disinfected by washing the floor aud woodwork with bichloride, and 
washing all the bed-clothing and body clothing in the same solution, and then 
boiling it. The mattresses on which the sick children lay were burned. The 
rooms were thoroughly aired for two months and white-washed before being 
again occupied. No other cases occurred. There was no sulphur fumigation. 
As there were nearly three hundred young children in the institution this is a 
good illustration of the efficacy of strict isolation and thorough cleansing. 

DISINFECTION. 

The satisfactory disinfection of private houses, after contagious diseases, is a 
very difficult matter. In the present state of medical science we are not by any 
means certain what will destroy the specific poison of these diseases ; or at least, 
those of them in which there is the most need of disinfection in our American 
cities. I refer paiticularly to scarlet fever and diphtheria. It is a common 
thing for medical men and others to consider thai these two diseases are "germ 
diseases ;" and it is, indeed, very probable that they are. Yet we do not know 
this positively ; and until the specific poison of the disease, whether it be a germ 
or something else, has been isolated and studied, our knowledge can never be 
exact. If it is found true that scarlet fever, diphtheria and smallpox are caused 
by microorganisms similar in natuie to those which cause certain other con- 
tagious diseases, then we should be sure lhat a very popular method of disinfec- 
tion is entirely useless BS ordinarily practiced. I refer to fumigation with burn- 
ing sulphur. "Whin sulphur is burned in an ordinary room, in the proportion 



118 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

of two or three pounds to each 1,000 cubic feet of air space, the specific organism 
of typhoid fever and anthrax, and the pus-forming microbes are destroyed only 
to a slight extent, and only wben exposed in such a way as to be readily reached 
by the concentrated fumes. I have tried the experiment, many times, of expos- 
ing rags saturated with cultures of these organisms in rooms which we were 
fumigating with sulphur in the ordinary way, but have rarely succeeded in thus 
rendering them sterile. Such experiments have been performed by so many 
competent observers that there is no question as to the failure of sulphur to 
accomplish a disinfection in such cases. But it is hardly permissible to argue 
from this that sulphur fumigation is equally valueless in all other diseases. It 
is very possible that the poison of scarlet fever, diphtheria and small-pox may 
be of au altogether different nature, even if these too are germ diseases. 

In fact, there is considerable evidence to be obtained from the statistics of 
fumigation to show that sulphur fumigation is of value in destroying the poison. 
The following facts have been obtained in this city: Where fumigation was 
done by this department, in cases of scarlet fever, the disease extended to other 
families in the same house in about 9 per cent, of the cases ; where fumigation 
was not done, it extended in 25 per cent, of the cases. This was in 1887 and 
1888. Too much importance should not, however, be attached to these figures, 
for it must be remembered that where fumigation was done best, there, also, 
other precautions would be best carried out. 

In 1889, fumigation with the addition of steam disinfection, in nearly everj r 
instance, was done in 35 cases of scarlet fever where there were other families 
with susceptible children in the same house, and in no case was there extension 
of the disease. In 57 cases of diphtheria, where fumigation and disinfection by 
steam was done, there waS*extension in not a single case ; while in the cases 
where it was not done, it spread in over 19 per cent, of the cases. We know 
from actual experiment that sulphur dioxide is capable of destroying the virus 
of vaccinia, a disease closely allied to the other exanthemata. Therefore, in the 
absence of direct evidence to the contrary, I hardly feel like giving up sulphur 
fumigation, although it is accompanied by considerable inconvenience to the 
family. 

What we should aim at, in all these cases of contagious disease, is first, to se- 
cure as slight an infection of the house and its contents as possible. Hence a 
circular of caution is always left when the medical inspector makes a visit. 
This circular also gives directions as to what the family should do in the way of 
disinfecting all clothing which can be washed, and the wood-work, walls, etc., 
of the rooms. 

HEALTH DEPAUTMENT. 

Directions for the Management of Scarlet Fever and BiphtJieria. 

The law makes both the physician and the head of the household responsible 
for reporting contagious and infectious disease. Scarlet fever and diphtheria are 
such diseases, and whenever a case occurs in any family, it is the duty of the 
head of the family at once to report such case to the Superintendent of Health, 
or else to see that the attending physician does so. This rule applies not only to 
the first case in the house, but to all that may follow. 



1889.] secretary's report. 119 

Scarlet fever and diphtheria are caused by direct intercourse with one who 
has these diseases, or they may be caused by the poison which is carried from 
the sick to the well in clothing, books, toys, and other articles. Cats and dogs, 
also, may carry the contagion in their fur or hair. In diphtheria, however, it is 
possible that the poison which causes the disease may find its way into drains, 
waste-pipes, cesspools, and similar places, and may there develop so that the 
sewer gas which escapes from them may give rise to fresh cases. 

As soon as any one is taken sick with either of these diseases, a room should 
at once be selected and the patient put in it and not removed until all danger of 
contagion shall have passed. A room on the upper floor of the house and away 
from all children, is of course preferable. 

A building with all modern improvements has recently been constructed at the 
Rhode Island Hospital expressly for the treatment of these diseases. It is ear- 
nestly recommended that in all cases in which it is impossible to secure isolation 
at home, that the patient be removed to the hospital. 

All articles not needful should be removed from the room before the patient 
is carried in. Curtains, blankets, and clothing of every kind are especially lia- 
ble to retain and carry the poison, and all such, if not required for the comfort 
of the patient, should be taken from the room. It is better to have the floor 
bare, with the exception of a few strips of carpet, as these can be more easily 
disinfected than a whole carpet. Birds and plants should be removed. 

No person except the physician, nurse or mother, should be allowed to enter 
the room, and nothing should be taken from it until it has been thoroughly dis- 
infected. 

All members of the household should be kept away from public places as 
much as possible, and no child should be allowed to attend day school, Sunday 
School, church, or similar place, or to ride in the horse cars or any public con- 
veyance, or to play in the street or yard with other children, until all danger of 
carrying the contagion shall have passed. 

No visitors, especially children, should be allowed in the house. 

The rules of the Board of Aldermen require that a card be placed upon the 
house stating that there is scarlet fever or diphtheria within. 

All discharges from the patient are dangerous, and should be received in ves- 
sels containing at least a quart of the disinfecting solution. 

The water closet or vault into which the discharges are emptied, as well as 
any set basin or sink in the house, should he disinfected daily. 

Soiled linen, sheets, underwear, towels and similar articles, should be at once 
placed in a tub or pail standing in the room and containing a disinfecting solu- 
tion, and they should afterwards be thoroughly boiled and washed apart from 
the rest of the washing. It is best not to use handkerchiefs at all, but pieces of 
old soft cloth, which should at once be burned. 

All dishes used by the patient should be put into a disinfecting solution in the 
room and scalded and washed by themselves. 

Until desquamation or peeling of the skin shall have ceased, in cases of scar- 
let fever, the patient should be thoroughly anuoiuted from head to foot with 



120 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

sweet oil, or some similar substance, at least once each day. Ointment for this 
purpose will be furnished by the Health Department without charge to those 
unable to pay. 

The time during which these precautions should be taken is, in scarlet fever, 
until five weeks from the beginning of the last case in the house, and until the 
sick room and its contents have been thoroughly disinfected ; in diphtheria, 
until one week after the recovery of the last case and until the room and its con- 
tents have been disinfected. When this time has elapsed, the patient should 
have a bath and change of clothing, and then the room and its contents should 
be thoroughly disinfected. 

Children must obtain a written permit from the Health Department before 
they return to school. 

If the patient should die, the body should be immediately washed in a disin- 
fecting solution and placed in the casket, which should be tightly sealed and 
not opened again. The whole house should then be disinfected before a funer- 
al is allowed, and the law requires that the funeral must, in such cases, be 
private. 

A good disinfectant is made by dissolving four ounces of corrosive sublimate 
in a gallon of water. It may then be kept in a glass bottle. It must be used 
carefully, as it is very poisonous. It must not come in contact with any metal 
receptacle, but be used only in wood, earthenware or glass. For ordinary use, 
such as soaking clothing, washing the hands or wood-work of the room, or dis- 
infecting the drainpipes, it should be diluted by adding one-half pint of the 
above to a pailful of water. 

Cloths dipped in carbolic acid, or carbolic acid placed in a saucer, or chloride 
of lime, or similar substances kept about the sick room, are of very little use, 
and should not be relied upon. 

The following is the best method of disinfecting a room and its contents after 
the disease is over : All clothing and bedding which can be washed should be 
soaked for several hours in the disinfecting solution and then boiled. Clothing 
which cannot be washed, carpets, mattresses, etc., should be tied up in sheets 
wrung out in the disinfecting solution, and removed to the city disinfecting 
room, where they may be subjected to steam heat. The Health Department 
will do this without charge, when notified. Valueless articles of furniture and 
clothing should be burned. Polished furniture, picture frames, and articles of 
brass or bronze should be thoroughly rubbed off with dry cloths, which should 
be immediately burned, or washed in the disinfecting solution. Floors and 
woodwork, and walls and ceilings, if painted or white-washed, should be washed 
with the disinfecting solution. If the walls are papered the paper should be 
washed and removed, or if too valuable for that they may be rubbed down 
with lumps of bread which are allowed to fall on the floor which has been 
well wetted with the disinfecting solution. 

Lastly, the room must be thoroughly aired for twenty-four hours or longer. 

All these precautions should be taken in mild cases as well as in the more 
severe, for mild cases spread the disease as readily as do the latter. 



1889.] secretary's report. 121 

When the time for fumigation has arrived, men detailed for that purpose 
remove bedding, carpets, hangings, and such other textile material as is most 
likely to retain the poison, and which cannot be washed. Sulphur is then 
burned in the infected apartments, and the goods spoken of are carried away 
to be disinfected by steam. At present, our arrangements for this purpose are 
very defective. The goods are placed in a movable wagon body covered with 
canvas ; but as this body is made of wood, it is not at all durable, and a new 
one should be built of metal. It should also be built and mounted in such a 
way as to make it suitable for an ambulance to transport cases of contagious 
disease. Our disinfecting room is simply a frame building 8 feet by 13 feet, and 
8 feet high. It is covered with pine feather-boarding and ceiled with matched 
spruce. It receives a two-inch pipe from a 35 horsepower upright tubular boil- 
er, which also serves to furnish power for the stone-crusher in the city yard. 
The wagon body with its contents is rolled into the building, the doors closed 
and Btenm turned on. When I first used it, I found that the steam coming 
directly into the cold room and on to the cold goods, condensed so as to wet 
them badly ; moreover, I could not, of course, get with the open steam a tem- 
perature of over 212° P., and the draught on the boiler was enormous. By put- 
ting in coils of pipe on the sides of the room, and heating it to 140° — 150° F., 
before the live steam was turned on, the temperature could be immediately 
raised above the boiling point and would speedily reach 250° F. and over. This 
heat has so warped the building that it leaks to such an extent as to render the 
expense from the loss of steam a considerable item. Moreover, the boiler can- 
not furnish enough steam except at the noon hour. We should have an iron 
chamber which would hold a pressure of 25 pounds or more. It would speedily 
pay for itself in the saving of steam. It would undoubtedly be economy to 
super-heat the steam, but this, at present, caunot be well arranged. If this steam 
apparatus were put in proper condition it would also greatly expedite our work. 

Besides disinfecting with steam and sulphur, I think that it would be a g 1 

plan, at least among the poor where probably alone it would be necessary or 
desired, for the city to send a couple of scrub-women who should thoroughly 
understand how to clean the house with disinfectants. I tried taking a portable 
boiler to a house and disinfecting a room with live steam carried through an inch 
rubber hose put through a board under the window. The temperature of the 
room was raised to nearly 212° F., and kept there fifteen minutes, bul as was to 
be expected, the results were disastrous to the room. It was, doubtless, disin- 
fected, but the paper dropped off, the furniture fell to pieces, and the paint was 
blistered. 

During the past year, 35 premises were disinfected with sulphur only, and the 
steam apparatus was brought into use 7!) times, and in most of these cases sul- 
phur was used besides. The best way to stamp out a contagious disease is to 
remove every case of it to the hospital. The Rhode Island Hospital has recently 
constructed a commodious ward for the treatment of these diseases, and they 
offer to treat all eases which may be sent there by the Health Department, on 
reasonable terms. As this would do away with uny necessity for the city put- 
ting up such a building, I recommend that the offer be accepted. 



122 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 



VACCINATION. 

During the year 188!), the number of persons vaccinated was 1,130 ; making 
the total number of persons vaccinated by the Health Department, since 1856, 
51,271. The only public vaccination has been at the City Hall, on Saturday 
afternoons. Humanized virus only is employed. The number of transfers in 
1889 was 50 ; making the total number of transfers since 1808, when an accurate 
record was begun, 349. The number of certificates of vaccination issued was 
1,344 ; which makes the total number issued since 1850, 40,745. 



Messrs. A. E. Field & Son continued to collect and dispose of the swill, under 
their old contract, at $14,500 per annum, until April 1, 1889. At that time their 
contract expired and they demanded $24,000. Thinking that in case there were 
no other bidders it might be necessary for the city to undertake the work, I be- 
gan to look about for some better method of disposal than feeding it to swine 
and cattle, the method adopted by the Messrs. Field. I was considering the 
project of separating the grease by means of naphtha, when I accidentally heard 
that this very process was in active operation in Buffalo. I immediately entered 
into correspondence with the parties owning this process, and by their courtesy 
was enabled to examine their works in that city. I was very much pleased with 
their method of disposal, and induced them to put in a bid for collecting and 
disposing of our swill, but their bid proved too high. Meanwhile, the Fields 
had consented to take the swill a month longer. When the bids were opened, it 
was found that A. H. & J. Barney were the lowest bidders : they agreeing to 
collect and remove the swill for 154 cents per head of the population per annum. 
Their bid was accepted, and they would have taken hold of the work on May 
1st, if they had not been disappointed in securing a certain means of disposal 
for it, which they were promised and had counted upon. The contractors then 
made arrangements with the Fields to dispose of the swill in the old way until 
something else could be devised. Since then, a company has been formed to re- 
ceive the swill, dry it, and remove the grease by means of naphtha. Works 
have been constructed on the cove lands and are now in partial operation. Two 
processes are being tested to determine their relative merits : In one, the swill 
is put through a drying machine and the moisture removed and passed through 
fire. After passing through the dryer, the material is treated with naphtha, to 
remove the grease, and the residue has some value as a fertilizer. In the other 
process, the swill, after having the superfluous water pressed out by a powerful 
press, is put at once into air-tight tanks where it is dried and the grease extracted 
at the same time. In neither case does any nuisance arise from the process, the 
only odor about the premises being due to the discharge of the swill from the 
carts in which it is collected. This process is certainly far superior, from a san- 
itary standpoint, to feeding it to animals and producing inferior beef and pork, 
and milk which is not fit to drink. 

During the year, the number of complaints made at this office in regard to the 
collection of swill was 231, as compared with 299 in 1888, and 329 in 1887. 

The number of special permits granted in 1889, to remove swill from hotels 
and restaurants, was 15. In 1888 it was 17. Men have been stationed on the 



1889. J secretary's report. 123 

dumps at Acorn street, Allen's avenue and Long Pond, all through the year, to 
cover up all offensive material dumped there. 

NIGIIT-SOIL. 

The number of licenses granted to scavengers in 1889 was 119. The year be- 
fore it was 117. The collection and disposal of night soil is a serious problem 
scarcely second in importance to that of garbage disposal. At present the 
scavengers are totally unreliable and are provided with inadequate and defective 
apparatus, and do their work in a slovenly manner. Complaint is constantly 
made in regard to them, and the frequeut passage of their wagons along such 
streets as Greenwich, Broad and Cranston, causes an almost insufferable nui- 
sance. The best way to remedy these evils is for the city to take this work in 
hand. Proper apparatus should be purchased and operated by the city, and a 
charge made for each vault cleaned. In the case of vaults not on the line of 
sewered streets this charge should be nominal, while in the case of vaults and 
cesspools on sewered streets it should be excessive. If no other way of accom- 
plishing this could be devised, it might very well be done by licensing all vaults 
and cesspools and charging a license fee. The material when collected should 
be transported out of the city by car or boat, and used by farmers for fertilizing. 
There are several extensive land owners who stand ready to take it. It is possi- 
ble, also, that it might be dried in some suitable place in the city, so as to allow 
of cheaper handling. As I have repeatedly urged, this work can best be done 
by the city, but in default of this it would be a great improvement over the 
present plan if a license were granted to only one responsible scavenger, the city 
of course regulating the price, and exercising some check on the number of 
loads removed. 

NUISANCES. 

During most of the year only one inspector was employed, but during the 
summer season a second was engaged for a short time. The salary of the sani- 
tary inspector is only $900, which is extremely small in consideration of the 
amount of work he has to do, and the efficient service he lias rendered. I know 
of no city in the country where a single inspector is required to go over so much 
ground as he is here, and I know of no city which, with the exception of the 
unnumbered privy-vaults, is so free from nuisances as this. 

New Haven, with a population of 85,000, has two inspectors, Boston and New 
York have one to every 20,000 or 30,000 inhabitants, and most other cities in 
proportion. While the work is greater the salary is less than is paid in mosl 
places, and I particularly recommend lo your board thai it be increased. 

During the year 413 complaints were made at this office. Of them 316 were 
well-founded, while 97 were not. In addition to these complaints, IS! were re- 
ceived through the police, making 596 complaints received from the public dur- 
ing the year. Many of these, however, had already received attention wheu 
the formal report reached this office. The nuisances abated during the year 
were as follows : 

Privy-vaults full and offensive 1,381 

Cesspools full and offensive. •Jl'.i 



124 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

Defective vaults and cesspools 99 

Uncovered vaults and cesspools 71 

Cesspools and vaults leaking on to adjoining estates. 36 

No vault to privy 2 

No cesspool on estate 11 

Cesspools and vaults leaking into cellar 58 

Defective waste and drain pipes 323 

No traps 167 

Filthy yards „• 4G4 

Filthy water flowing into the street 51 

Defective water closets 19 

Filthy cellars 70 

Privy vaults removed 16 

Tenements cleaned 6 

When a nuisance exists on any premises in the city, a letter is at once sent to 
the owner to abate it, and if he does not do it within a reasonable time the case 
is reported to the Board of Aldermen for action. In 1888 the board issued 394 
orders under form A, to abate nuisances, and 40 under form C, to vacate tene- 
ments. When the board is not in session, I have authority, under Chapter 495 
of the Public Statutes, to issue such orders, and during tbe year 48 were issued 
from this office. 

As usual the most complaints are about privy-vaults. They furnisb more 
nuisances than all other causes together. A privy-vault in a city is, in ninety- 
nine cases out of a hundred, a nuisance. When it is on the line of a sewered 
street it should never be tolerated. Ever since I have been Superintendent of 
Health I have labored to have them removed, but have always been handicapped 
by the absence of any decisive law on that subject. ... I trust that during 
the coming summer the board will order the removal of all vaults on sewered 
streets which may be brought to their notice. Even at the best it will be im- 
possible to reach some of the worst cases, for the law is so framed that non-resi- 
dent land owners can practically do as they please. It would be difficult in some 
of the poorer tenements, which were not constructed for it, to put water closets 
in the house, and to meet these cases, I devised two years ago a contrivance 
which is shown in the accompauying diagram : 



1889.] 



secretary's report. 



125 








It consists of a cast-iron tank sot in a brick vault below the frost line. The 
tank is self-tilting, discharging its contents when it becomes full, when it swings 
directly into place again. It receives the sink water and the rain water from 
the roof of the house. It only holds a few gallons, and so even in a one family 
house flushes the drain quite often. In such a house the privy building can be 
set directly over the tank. In tenement houses with several families, it is better 
to build the privy over the drain, ten inch eartbernware pipes leading straight 
down from the seats to the drain. A trial has been made of both kinds in a 
place in this city where they would be well tested, and they have worked Butia 
factorily for two years. Any one is free to make use of this, and the castings 
can be obtained at the Builders' Iron Foundry. The idea lor this was BUggested 
by the valuable report of the health ollicer of Birmingham, England. What 
are called BChool-sinks are also useful for tenement bouses and shallow vaults 
that are flushed out daily with a plentiful supply of clean water, and will effec- 
tually do away with the privy nuisance. One of these vaults has been in suc- 
cessful use in the tenements of the Nottingham Mills, and another has been put 
in at t lie Carpenter Street School. 

I have repeatedly urged the need of a good plumbing law, and the appoint- 
ment of a proper person to look after its enforcement, but as yet we are without 
one. Such a law should be carefully framed with special reference to the neces- 
sities of small house owners. It should not be too elaborate, as it is, I believe, 
in many cities, but should aim to present the most common faults which are to 
be found in our own community. It would be an excellent thing if such a law 



126 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1880. 

could be enacted before the building operations of the summer season are com- 
menced. 

WATER SUPPLY. 

Early in the year, in company with a representative of the Department of 
Public Works, I made a thorough examination of the Pawtuxet river. Many 
sources of pollution were found along the banks, and steps were at once taken 
by the Commissioner of Public Works to induce the riparian owners to put 
their property in such condition that there could be no possibility of dangerous 
pollution. An inspector was at once put on to see that the recommendations 
made by the commissioner were properly carried out. Unfortunately this was 
not done. The epidemic of typhoid fever last year showed that even an ap- 
parently insignificant amount of pollution is sufficient, if it be of a certain kind, 
to produce the most serious consequences. But it is very difficult to bring the 
dwellers or property owners along the banks of the river to realize that an almost 
infinitely small amount of human excrement as compared with the volume of 
water in the river could, and in fact has, caused hundreds of cases of sickness 
and scores of deaths in this city. It is probable that no one could be found 
who would willingly, for the sake of a few dollars, thus jeopardize the lives of 
his neighbors. Yet it is certain that a single evacuation from the bowels of a 
typhoid or cholera patient would be sufficient, if discharged into the Pawtuxet 
river, of causing an epidemic of the disease in Providence. It is this danger of 
pollution by human excrement which has been demonstrated to be competent 
to spread typhoid fever and cholera, and perhaps certain diarrhceal diseases, 
which is to be particularly guarded against. If we could only keep out human 
foeces we should feel much relieved, even if barn-yard washings, sink water and 
manufacturing wastes continued to find their way in to a greater or less extent. 
Yet not many years ago the excrement of over two thousand persons was dis- 
charged daily into the stream, but owing to the efforts of the Commissioner of 
Public Works, this has almost, if not entirely, ceased. But experience has 
taught the lesson that privy-vaults along the river must be so built that there 
cannot, by any possibility of means, be a chance of their contents leaking, or 
being washed by rains into the water. But a privy-vault has to be unusually 
well built to permanently withstand the action of alkali which is formed by the 
decomposition within, and in large establishments employing many hands, or in 
tenement houses, constant vigilance is needed to secure the proper use of the 
sanitary arrangements that are provided, even if they are of the best. 

The following analyses of the Pawtuxet water were made by Prof. John H. 
Appleton of Brown University. The figures signify parts (in weight) in one 
million parts of water (in weight). 



1889.] 



SECRETARY 8 REPOBT. 



137 



lSTG-lfSS!). 



Ykai:-. 


Total 
Residue. 


Mineral 
Matter. 


uiic 
and 
Volatile 
tCatter. 


Common 

Salt. 


Albuminoid 
Ammonia. 


Ammonia. 




Ami- 
age. 


Maxi 
mum. 


Aver 


Max! 

nium. 


Aver- 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Aver 
age. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Aver- 
age. 


Ma\i 

mom. 


Avei 


Maxi- 
mum. 




50 
43 
37 

38 
45 
41 

4.'. 
47 

45 

46 
46 
42 
40 
38 
42.0 


56 
54 
50 
70 
55 
59 
64 
72 
63 
50 
63 
59 
52 


30 
24 
21 
24 
29 
20 
27 
30 
29 
30 
29 
21 
23 
2 2 
26.3 


44 
32 
34 
43 
49 
40 
42 
47 

i; 

46 

41 
40 
40 

•J'.l 


20 
19 
16 
14 

i<; 

15 
16 
17 
16 
1G 
17 
17 
17 
17 
1C.6 


30 

24 
24 

24 
22 
21 
25 
24 
29 
24 
25 
25 
30 
27 


5.72 
5.40 


.24 
7.09 .'•:{ 


.40 
.32 
.2.". 
.23 
.20 
.28 
.38 
.36 
.32 
.30 
.30 
.:;.; 
.30 
.80 


.06 
.06 
.04 

.02 

.02 
.03 
.04 
.04 
.05 
.05 
.04 
.05 
.04 
.04 


.11 


1877 


.12 


1878 


5 47 8.51 
5.73 10 83 
6.35 -.7.', 
4.05 S 07 
4.43 6.60 


.17 

.17 
.22 
.21 

•T. 


.10 


1 -::i 


.10 


1880 

1882 


.14 
.05 
.08 


18S3 


1.60 7. '.'■-. .27 
1.79 7.33 -10 


.14 


1S84 


.14 


1885 


4.20 74 

4.14 

1.1.- 6.84 

3.50 


.22 
.22 
.21 
.19 
.21 
.21 


.20? 


1880 


.14 




.10 


1880 


.14 
10 




4.71 







128 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1889. 



ANALYSES FOR 1889. 

Two analyses were made each month. 

The figures signify parts (in weight) in one million parts of water (in 
weight). 



January. . . 
February. . 

March 

April 

M ay 

Juue 

July 

August ... 
September 
October... 
November. 
December 



Total 
Residue. 



Mineral 
Matter. 



Organic 

and 
Volatile 
Matter. 



Common 
Salt. 



3.74 
3.12 



2.50 

2.43 



1.87 

2.18 



1.56 

2.50 



2.81 
3.43 



2.50 
3 74 



1.87 
3.12 



1 87 
2.50 



2.81 
2.18 



3 74 
2.81 



3.43 

4.99 



3.12 
2. SI 



Albuminoid 
Ammonia. 



1. Smithfield. 

2. Health Officer, Jenckes Smith. 

3. There has been considerable prevalence of the following contagious or in- 
fectious diseases in town during 1889 . 

Diphtheria, Georgiaville, 12 cases, 5 deaths ; May. Dysentery, Greenville, 
5 deaths ; July and August. Measles, all about in the town ; no deaths known ; 
through the Winter. 

4. No isolation maintained. 

G. No inspection of premises made. 

8. Do not know of any location that seems to be particularly unhealthy. 



1889.] secretary's report. 129 

9. Would report to the town couucil nuisances dangerous to the public health 
if any were known. 

10. Know of none. 

Scituate. 

No report from Health Officer. 

WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

1. ClIARLESTOWN. 

2. Health Officer, A. A. Saunders, M. D. 

3. There were no epidemics in this town during 1889, except the Influenza or 
"La Grippe," around Carolina ; 40 cases, no deaths ; December 2~d to 31st. 

4. Isolation did not seem to be called for. 

6. Some inspections have been made, advice given, requests made, and a bet- 
ter sanitary condition obtained. 

7. No sanitary inspections made during 1889 by order of the town council. 

8. No location in town that seems to be particularly unhealthy. 

9. Should report to the town council nuisances dangerous to the public 
health. 

10. No serious disease of domestic animals has largely prevailed. 
Exeter. No report. 

1. Hopkinton. 

2. Health Officer, Israel Gates. 

3. No epidemics or any large prevalence of contagious or infectious diseases 
in towu during 1889, except " La Grippe," everywhere; uumber of casts legion; 
no deaths to my knowledge ; December. 

4. No isolation attempted or called for. 

7. There has been one case of fouling of a well by proximity of stable, which 
was examined and ordered abated as a nuisance. 

8. Kuow of no locality particularly unhealthy. 

9. I should report to the town council nuisances dangerous to the public 
health if I knew of any such, or Bhould order them abated of my own option. 

10. No knowledge that any serious disease of domestic animals has largely 
prevailed. 

1. North Kingstown. 

2. Health Officer, Thomas W. Pcircc. 

:'.. There have been no epidemics or any huge prevalence of contagious or In- 
fectious diseases in towu during 1889. 
17 



130 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

5. None of the sick were isolated by my order. 

6. No inspection of premises made where sickness prevailed. 

7. Nothing required any particular inspection. Something might be done 
for out-houses and sink-drains, but there is nothing serious in any of these 
things at present. 

8. Do not know of any location in town that seems to be particularly un- 
healthy to any considerable number of persons. 

9. I have nothing to report. I would if the occasion required. 

10. No serious disease of domestic animals has largely prevailed, to my 
knowledge, during the year. 

South Kingstown and Richmond. 
No reports from Health Officers. 

1. Westerly. 

2. Health Officer, H. W. Rose. 

3. No large prevalence of contagious or infectious diseases in town during 
1889. 

6. No inspection of premises made, as to their sanitary condition, by order 
of the town authorities. 

7. I have made several inspections from my own option ; mostly nuisances. 

8. No location in town particularly unhealthy. 

9. Reports to the town council of nuisances dangerous to the public health 
are made, when necessary. 

10. No serious disease of domestic animals has prevailed. 



COMPARATIVE PREVALENCE 



OF TWELVE IMPORTANT ACUTE DISEASES IN Till: TOWNS. 



For the purpose of the comparison of any one year with others, 
the following six Tables will present the varying degrees of the 
prevalence of twelve acute diseases of importance, as causes of death 
during the six years, 1884-1889. 

In these Tables the appearance of the most important of the com- 
mon contagious diseases, with a few others not contagious, may be 
traced as they occurred in the different towns, with different degrees 
of prevalence from year to year. 

The mortality from that class of diseases styled zymotic, quite ap- 
proximately corresponds, in a majority of instances, with the relative 
extent of the prevalence or number of such diseases. 

A fair estimate, therefore, of the whole number of cases of each of 
such diseases, occurring in the 8tate daring each of the years repre- 
sented, may be made by reference to the alphabetical classification 
and percentage Tables of mortality in the Registration Reports for 
these years. 



132 STATE HOARD OP HEALTH. [1889. 

Comparative Prevalence of Twelve Important Acute Diseases during I8S4. 



TOWNS. 



Burring ton 

Bristol 

Warren 

Coventry 

East Greenwich . . 
West Greenwich . . 

Warwick 

Jamestown 

Little Compton . . 

Middletown 

New Shoreham. . . 

Portsmouth 

Tiverton 

Newport City . . . . 

Bnrrillville 

Cranston 

Cumberland 

East Providence. . 

Foster 

Glocester 

Johnston 

Lincoln 

North Providence 
North Smithfield. 

Paw tucket 

Scituate 

Smithfield 

Woonsocket 

Providence City. . 

Charlestown 

Exeter 

Hopkinton 

North Kingstown 
South Kingstown 

Richmond 

Westerly 











>» 



































































n 





























































R 






>, 
















g 






« 


■a 


— 


















T) 















■i 


a 
a 




.2 




a 

a 
a 
8 


0. 


0) 




ci 

"3 



a 


a 
a 


a 




ft 


£ 

2 


.a 





fcT 


£ 


2 

3 


a 

3 


a 










ft 


a 


> 


> 








a 


M 





O 





O 


ft 


& 


a 


PM 


P3 


QQ 


= 


= 


= 





= 





+ 


— 


+ 


= 





= 


— 


— 





— 


+ 


— 





— 


— 


— 


= 


= 


— 





= 


= 


= 


+ 


+ 


+ 





= 


= 


— 


= 


+ 


— 




— 


+ 


+ 


— 


=r 


= 


— 


— 


= 


= 


— 





= 


= 


= 


= 


— 


= 




— 


— 








= 


+ 


= 


+ 


= 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


= 


* 


= 


= 




= 


— 











— 








— 


— 





— 


— 










= 





* 


— 


— 





= 


— 







— 


= 





— 


= 





= 


— 


— 





— 


— 


+ 





* 


— 


— 





= 


— 








— 


— 








— 


— 


— 


zz 


— 







— 


— 





— 


= 


= 


— 


= 


— 






— 


= 


. . 


— 


= 


= 


+ 


— 


— 


— 






* 








+ 


= 


+ 


= 


= 


— 


— 


— 


= 


+ 


— 


= 


+ 


= 


+ 


— 


+ 


+ 








* 




— 


= 


= 


= 


= 


— 


= 





+ 


= 


— 


+ 


+ 


= 


— 


— 














+ 


= 


= 





— 


— 




== 


= = 








+ 


= 


=3 


= 


+ 


— 


— 


— 


= 


+ 


— 




= 


+ 


= 


= 


— 


= 


= 


— 


+ 




— 





= 


= 


— 




= 


— 


= 


+ 


— 


+ 


+ 


— 


= 


= 


— 




= 


= 


— 





= 


+ 


— 


= 


— 


+ 


+ 


= 


= 


+ 


+ 


— 





+ 


=: 


= 


— 


— 


= 


+ 


— 


+ 


+ 


+ 












+ 





= 


+ 


= 


= 


= 


— 




= 


+ 


+ 





= 


+ 


+ 


= 


+ 


= 


= 








= 


= 


+ 


+ 


+ 


= 







— 


+ 





— 





— 







= 





— 







— 








— 


+ 


— 


= 







— 


= 


= 


— 





— 


= 


— 


= 


^ 


— 


— 


= = 


— 





— 


= 


= 


= 


r= 


— 




= = 







+ 


+ 


— 


= 







— 


+ 


= 


— 





— 


= 




= 




— 









= 





+ 


= 


* 



A®- The signs or characters used in the above Table indicate the degrees of prevalence of the 
diseases named, as follows: The # indicates an epidemic prevalence; the sign + a large preva- 
lence; the sign = a moderate prevalence; the sign — a small prevalence; the dote a very small 
prevalence; and the no prevalence, according to the returns. 



1889.] secretary's report. 133 

Comparative Prevalence of TireUe Important Acute Di-waxe* during 1885. 



TOWNS. 



Barrington 

Bristol 

Warren 

Coventry 

East Greenwich . . 
West Greenwich. . 

Warwick 

Jamestown 

Little Compton . . 

Mid die town 

New Shoreham. . . 
Portsmouth.. 

Tiverton 

Newport City 

Burrillville 

( 'ranston 

Cumberland 

East Providence. . 

Foster 

Crloccster 

Johnston 

Lincoln 

North Providence 
NorHi Smithfield . 

Pawtncket 

Scituate 

Smithfield 

"Woonsocket 

Providence City. . 

Charlestown 

Exeter 

Hopkinton 

North Kingstown 
South Kingstown. 

Richmond 

Westerly 



-1- 



+ - 



+ 



- u 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 




+ 
■ + 



+ 



+ 



— 
- 



+ - 
- + 

= 



i ["be eigne or characters need in the above Table Indicate the degrees of prevail nee of the 
dleeaaei named, aa followa The • Indicate! an epidemic prevalence; the tlgn • a large preva- 
lence; the nign = a moderate prevalence; tbe algn a email prevalence; the dote a veru email 
prevalence; aud the bo prevalence, accord 1 04: to the returug. 



134 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

' Comparative Prevalence of Twelve Important Acute Diseases during 1SS6. 



NAMES. 



Barrington 

Bristol 

Warren 

Coventry 

East Greenwich . . 
West Greenwich .. 

Warwick 

Jamestown 

Little Oompton , . 

Middletown 

New Shoreham. . . 

Portsmouth 

Tiverton 

Newport City .... 

Burrillville 

Cranston 

Cumberland 

East Providence. . 

Foster 

Glocester 

Johnston 

Lincoln 

North Providence 
North Smithfield. 

I'awtucket 

Scituate 

Smithlield 

Woonsocket 

Providence City. . 

Charlestown 

Exeter 

Hopkinton 

North Kingstown 
South Kingstown. 

Richmond 

Westerly .... 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 







+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



.. 

.. 

+ * 

= + 



^g=- The signs or characters used in the above Table indicate the degrees of prevalence of the 
diseases named, as follows: The * indicates an epidemic prevalence; the sign -f- a large preva- 
lence; the sign = a moderate prevalence; the sign — a small prevalence; the dots a very small 
prevalence; and the no prevalence, according to the returns. 



1889. J secretary's report. 135 

Comparative Prevalence of Twelve Important Acute Diseases during / 



TOWNS. 



Harrington 

Bristol 

\\ arren 

Coventry 

East Greenwich . . 
West Greenwich.. 

Warwick 

Jamestown 

Little (Jompton . . 

Middletown 

New Shoreham. . . 

Portsmouth 

Tiverton 

Newport City 

Bumllville 

( 'ranston 

Cumberland 

East Providence. . 

Foster 

(Jlocester 

Johnston 

Lincoln 

North Providence 
North Smithfield. 

Pawtacket 

Scituate 

Smithfield 

Wbonsocket 

Providence City. . 

Oharlestown 

Exeter 

Eopkinton 

North Kin --st own 
South Kingstown. 

Richmond 

Westerly 



+ 






+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



i- 



+ 



+ 



+ 





J3 




SO 




3 




o 




O 




60 








S. 




o 
o 


C3 


J3 


C 

QQ 


? 








= 





+ 




= 





• 




* 


* 








(1 













= 



I'll.' Bigna or characters used in the above Table Indicate the degrees of prevalence of the 
diseases named, as follows : The • Indicates an epidemic prevalence; the sign ■ a large prcva- 

li'iu-i-; tin- M«n ;i moiliM-atf prevalence; the sign - a small prevalence; the dotsa very small 
prevalence; and the no prevalence, according to the returns. 



136 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

Comparative Prevalence of Twelve Important Acute Diseases during 1888. 



TOWNS. 



Barrington 

Bristol 

Warren 

Coventry 

East Greenwich . . 
West Greenwich.. 

Warwick 

Jamestown 

Little Compton . . 

Middletown 

New Shoreham. . . 

Portsmouth 

Tiverton 

Newport City. . . . 

Burrillville 

Cranston 

Cumberland 

East Providence. . 

Foster 

Glocester 

Johnston 

Lincoln 

North Providence 
North Smithfield . 

Pawtucket 

Scituate 

Smithfield 

Woonsocket 

Providence City . . 

Charlestown 

Exeter 

Ilopkinton 

North Kingstown 
South Kingstown. 

Eichmond 

Westerly 



+■ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 




















* 


* 


* 


+ 



+ 



+ 



Q3~ The signs or characters used in the above Table indicate the degrees of prevalence of the 
diseases named, as follows : The * indicates an epidemic prevalence; the sign -f a large preva- 
lence; the sign = a moderate prevalence; the sign — a small prevalence; the dots a very small 
prevalence; and the no prevalence, according to the returns. 



1889.] secretary's report. 137 

Comparative Prevalence of Twelve Important Acute Diseases during 18S9. 



TOWNS. 



Harrington 

Bristol 

Warren 

Coventry 

East Greenwich . . 
West Greenwich. . 

Warwick 

Jamestown 

Little Conipton . . 

Middletown 

New Shoreham. . . 

Portsmouth 

Tiverton 

Newport City . . . . 

Bnrnllville 

( 'ranston 

Cumberland 

East Providence. . 

Foster 

Glocester 

Johnston 

Lincoln , 

North Providence 
North Smithfield. . 

I'awtucket 

Scituate 

Smithfield 

Woonsocket 

Providence City. . . 

( 'harlestown 

Exeter 

Bopkinton 

North Kingstown . 
South Kingstown 

Richmond 

Westerly 



+ 



+ 



+ 

+ J 

V 



-f 



+ 
i 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 
= 



+ 



+ 











+ 



+ 

* 

+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 

■:■:• 

+ 
* 



* 


o 



«- rhe eigne or characters and in the above Table Indicate the degrees of prevalence of the 
dleeaaee named, aa folio we: I Ik- * Indlcatea an epidemic prevalei ; . ;i larse Dre va 

leiu-e; the »it„ ,x mmimiie prevalence; the niyn - a email prevalence; the dote a wru email 
prevalence; and the no prevalence, according to the retome. 

18 



METEOROLOGY. 



It has been remarked in previous reports of the Board that the 
influences of the meteorological conditions of the atmosphere, as 
well as the floating matter suspended therein, as causes of disease, 
are recognized and acknowledged by all pathologists ; and the fol- 
lowing tables are therefore introduced, as heretofore, for the purpose 
of comparing the large prevalence of certain diseases at different 
periods of the year, with the temperature, the barometric pressure, 
the relative humidity, prevailing direction of the wind and other 
conditions of the atmosphere, and also the amount of rainfall dur- 
ing each month of the year. All of the said diseases may be found 
in the report upon the registration of deaths by months, in Table 
VII of the Registration Report. 

The first table is compiled from the monthly reports of the City 
Engineer of Providence, and shows the mean, maximum and mini- 
mum temperature of the different months, and the extremes and 
average daily ranges of the same, the rainfall and prevailing direc- 
tion of the wind. 

The second table will give a more comprehensive monthly sum- 
mary of observations during 1889, including a larger number of 
atmospheric conditions for each month, and also yearly summaries 
for each of the eight preceding years. 

It is condensed from the annual summary of monthly observations 
at Hope Reservoir and the City Hall. 

The meteorological observations taken 'on Block Island are fur- 
nished by the courtesy of the officers of the Signal Office, War 
Department, Washington, D. C. 



1889.J 



SECRETARY'S REPORT. 

Table I. 



130 



Temperature, Rainfall and Prevailing Direction of the Wind, for ear]. Month 
during the year 1SS9. 





TEMPERA 1 IKK. 




"a3 


Wind. 
































s 


— 






































= ~ 


o 


Months, 1889. 










tc 
a 

- 




o 

a 

r 

- 


.__ c 


a 
o 




a 






bC 


>> 


C3 

- 


>> 


-* 


— 




- 






a 


■ — • 




= = 


Q 




S 
>> 


'6 

3 


S 

- 


eg 
K 
>> 


03 

Q 


'3 


Q 

-_ 


O0D 

£ 


to 




— 


fl 


S 


rf3 


- 


♦j 


C3 


_ - 


a3 




c 




a 


a 

o 


c3 


S3 


> 




> 




S3 


^ 


5 


*5 


O 


J 


< 


E- 


Cm 


January 


35 . ? 


W 


11. 
0.5 


47. 
47 


18. 
30.5 


1. 

8.5 


L2. 
13.5 


5.62 
2.55 


N. W. 




86.4 47.5 


W. 




88.7 85.5 


22.5 


43. 


25. 


2. 


13. 


1.98 


N. 


April 


49. 


; ». 


. 


29. 


8. 


16. 


4.07 


N. 


May 


61. 


Rfi 


W.5 14. 
19.5 43. 
54 5 36. 


32.5 
25. 
26 5 


4. 
6. 
5. 


19.5 
16.8 
16. 


4.71 
2.90 
9.49 


S. 


June 


69.792.5 
71.2 90.5 


s. 


July 


s. 






19.534. 


•-•7.:. 


4. 


16.7 


5.83 


N. W. 




68.2 81. 


43 


38. 


24. 


3. 


15. 


5.23 


N. E. 




49.4 69 5 


82. 


37.5 


24 5 


3.5 


i:;.l 


4.52 


N. 


November 


45.;:r,i 


23. 

11. 


11. 
58.5 




4.5 
5.5 


11. 
81.5 


6.39 
■J 82 


N. W. 


December 


39 2 


(if R 


N. 








For the year 


51 492.6 


0.5 


42.8 




• • 


.... 


55.91 





Mean temperature for the year 1889 was 51.4 Pah. Total amount of rain 

ami melted snow, 5."). '.II inches. 



140 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1889. 



r- 1 
m 

< 



1 






3 

sss 



a 









o o vr 


















§ 




« 







•saqoni 




















i- 




5g 


m Mong jo qidad 


tt ip C< 
















-r 




»- 


■eaqonj 












M 


ni mous paijaw 




> io o o t- 


O -r 


CO CI IO CO CO 




c» 


jo niB>| jo icmouiy 


IO CI 1-H T« Tf CI © 

4 1 


>o ir 


rr © CI 




IO 




•pnojo 
jo innoniy nBajfl 


io co o o © © i-h 


rH CO iO cO a. 


■* 




« 


■* ^ to *o in © to 


iO CO iO iO Hji 


IO 




o 
o 


■BWqiO IIV 


O O © t-l rl <N o 


O r)< O O O 




CO • 


•Aiong 


IN CO io -* IN IN t- 


rH t- CO O U0 




© ■ 


9 


jo ure^j 




























S '■ 




































< 




■9iq«UBA 


i-i O O © CO O O 


CO CN O O © 




a 


£ 


S 


































•J!^ 


CO O CO CO CI h* CO 


CO CO t- © rH 




CI ■ 






































<1 


'163(0 


© © CO IN CO CI i-H 


rH rH rH IO IO 




© 

* • 




•^jpojoA DBSK 


© © i-H © 00 OO t- 

1-1 T-l 


iO 00 00 00 OS 


00 ^ ■ 




•aiqeuBA 


CI -f CO 1- -f U5 IO 


© •* eo eo t- 




IO 




O a 


A\X 


© t- *« 05 c* TP ITS 


00 IO Id r 00 




n : 


a 

S 


fig, 

oi a 

1° 
> o 

rH 


•AV 


CI CO •<* O CN CO i-H 


CO CI CI t- CO 




c 


J ■ 

i . 
> 




• 


3 rH •* O (N •* t- 


CN IN CN CO ■* 




o 
c 


3 O CO Tj 


l< tN r 
» rH C 


H CD 


h* »- Tfl IO I 


3 _ 




© • 

It— 


•a - s 


rH rt o e 


> rH 


© © rH © « 


•a 


r- CI C ■ 1- 


< CM O O 
» CM rH -H 


© C 
_ CN o 


3 IN rH © 




• © 


•a-K 


CN C <C - 


3 rH tH © 




: co • 




X 




© rH 


































IO • 


o 


J? 


































S 


T3 


•nB8K 




3 00 


00 rf 00 CO CN 


© 




"3 


a 


t- 


<D I 


t" 


t- t 


I- 


1 


OO I— t- t- 


t" 






« 


HH 






































•aSuB 1 }! 








ia >o 








• O 


K3 


CO 








t- t— co ci ■* co © 


rp OO t- rH CO 


c* 






ID 

« 




'* ■* "* "* ■* "* " 


CO CO CO IT »C 


Hl< 


a> 






IO iO *0 O lO ITi 


IO 












■e 




W 

s 




•ration tnp{ 


r-l O IN ci o a> -* 














' H 


d CO i* -11 tf3 


■» -* CO CN 1-1 










































g 






m IO 




io >o 


IO 


IO 


IO 






IO 




s 


•ainuitxB^ 




CO i—i © - p ^J* 
00 CO © © CO 










S3 






S -H^ CO t- oo o> o 






© 




t- ** t- 




t- CJ 


CN CN HJi CO CN 


-t 










•acajf 


■O tD 00 © i— I Ol rH 
CO CN CO •* © to t- 


CO CO CS IT3 © 
© © ** -^« CO 


■c 












■ra <# co c 


l-l t- OO 


-i* CD t- -* t- 










o 


•aSmjjj 


IO IO IO r- 


OO Oi CD 


© © CO CO t— 






© 


K 


h3 




i-H i-H i-H i-H 












rH r- 






•- 1 






CI ao IN 










?, N 




© CN © C 


IO -5 


CO 


t- CO IO CN 1-h 






© 




•amauntj^ 






0> CT 












S 


02 

O 

o *■> 




CI c 


<N CN 


<N C 


o 


IN IN CI CJ 


tN 






<N 






















n 






© OO T* h: 


CO r 


00 


CO C 


H 


< 


O 






© 


T3 P 


•amtuixBji 


c 


o o c 




o 


c 


c 




C 










3 




CO CO CO c 


CO C" 


CO 


CO cc 


CC 


o- 


3 








CO 








t-- 
























a 


o oo a 


o c 


a 


c 


_ 





_ 




~ 








•UBajif 


o 


o a 


a 


CT 


c 


o> 


<=l c 


o 
















c 




c< 


o 


K 


CM 






o 


c^ 


CO 


7 








































































ct 


a 


































a 


a 


































> 


> t> 






H 
H 


















% 










£ 


CE 

— 






g 




- 


















In 










O 


s- 
n 


r" 


_ 










- 
a 

e 

c 

DE 


s 


£ 


1° 

a 


O 

P 
I 

2 


C 


CS 

a 








c 


- 
* 


t 
| 


<1 


> 

■c e 


•■5 


1" 


< 


T 1 




o 


a 
a 

B 




e 


M 



1889.] 



secretary's report. 



141 



00 
00 






65 





o 

to • 




2 : 


CI 




lO • 




H : 




n 




CO 




3 : 


o • 




o 
1- 




o> • 




CO 




S3 : 




5 • 




r* 




o> 




1- ; 




3 : 






o 

to 


© 






1 






IO 

to 


cn 

00 




s 


o 
c5 






IS 

00 
CI 






CM 

© 
CO 


§ 




u 

I 

1 
> 
■ 

E 

i 

- 

a 


e 

— 

£ 
i 

E- 


• 

■ 

a 

H 
E 

M 

W 



°0 



«, 

^ 



o > 



1? 





o 

o 




I 00 • 

o 

i S j 


01 




IO ; 








■*• 




"* : 




s : 


00 • 




eo 




t- • 




■ 

CI 




00 
CO 

3 : 




-r 




i- 








CO 

CO 


CO 




■* 








i 






3 






CO 


CO 

o 






3 

CO 






e» 
© 

CO 


s 

© 

CO 




ft 
1 

a 

eg 

J 

E 
1 

q 

a 


ft. 

g 

a 

a 
,E 

£ 
C 


; 

CO 

I 
K 



Oo 



• — . 
?3 





S : 
3 : 




o 

CM • 


5.0 




o \ 




3 : 




CO 




CO ^ 




3 j 


00 • • 




i> 




o> 

to 




o 

CO 




o 




CO . 

uo 




o» 

CI • 




»o • 


-* 




oo 

CO 

-J" 


© 






o 
o 






IO 

ti 
o> 


CO 
00 




CO 


oJ 




CO 
CO 




g 

CO 

o 

CO 


© 
© 

CO 




ft 
■ 

- 
> 
- 

u 

: 

E 

-. 
- 




a 
> 
m 

z 
« 

E- 


• 

• 

a) 
3 

I 
E 

M 
W 



is 

°o 



g 3 








• CI ' 




: o • 

oi ■ 
CO ; 


to 




** 




: SS : 




t- ■ 

•o 




S i 


o> • '. 




to • 




-r 




-» 

CO 
-r 
to 
•o 




3 : 




00 




-I • 




- 
"J 1 


t— 




to 

to 








1 






uo 
CO 

o> 


CO 




8 


s 

1^ 






8 

ao 

OI 


■r 

9 

- 
ex 

■ 
I 

1 

E 

1 

a 


t 

r 
a 
> 
& 

r 
i 

c 
E- 


; 

CO 

'. 

. 

• 
; 

K 



oo 



« 



S3 

1H Cli 





• o 

I * : 


• CO '■ 

t- 

00 • 


CO ■ • 


: s • 


to '. 
to 


: to : 

. CM • 






o '■ 




CO 




CO . 

CO 




e>» '- 




i : 




T 




00 




CI 
CI 




1- 

U5 


49.2 76 



e 






o 

T 












o 


CO 
00 






CO 

o> 

00 
CM 






o> 
o 

CO 


O 

8 




> 

- 

< 

t 

• 
a 


ft 

g 

a 
• t> 

s 

« 
3 

t- 


'• 
; 

■ 
• 

i 

E 

H 

w 



142 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1389. 



si 



■aaqnui 



•goqorit 
.io u ni; | jo junouiy 



•pnoio 

JO }imOUIB U«3JV 



•Aions 
.10 uiuy 



■3|qcu«A 



•HV£ 



vreaio 



•^ipoiaA 


trcapj 


2 « 

i ^ 

5 £ 
gyp 
•s ° 


•9JC 


AY X 


AY 

'AY '8 


"8 


■a -b 


•a 


•M X 




".NT 



•agQEa 



•rancaixBH 



•aSaEy 



•tanrainjH 



•ninaiisuH 



< 



«: 



> 



^ 



• o 

• o 

• CO 


— 


• U3 


.... 5.1 
11 .... 


• co 

: ^ 




• t- 




136 








cn : 




■ CO 




• o 




CO 




iO 




-r 




pH 




C- 




• c: 




CO 




CN 


lO • If 




' ' c 




^ ^ CO 


CN 

00 I 




1.08 
1.89 


• CO 

CO 

• * CO 

CN 


• • o 

CO 


o 

© I 

CO 




Means for the year. 
Totals for the year. 


> 
3 

> 

< 







o 

-i 








CO 






CO 

ni • 






• to 






to 

CO 






: co 






• CO 






i - 






CI 

c-5 • 






o 
to 






CN 

CO 






o 
-* 






a 

CO 






• CO 




CO 




: °' 




?^ 


CO 

ex 




1 


• no 




CN 






5f> 




CO 

o 


t 

£ 






1 






ni 




CN 

o 








CO 

© 

r-l 










CN 
<N 

ci 








o> 

© 

CO 




CO 

o 
© 

CO 








c 
1 

F 
1 

is 


.- 

> 

■» s 

> 9 

i 1 


t 
> 

; ! 

; 
> i 


i 
i 

3 
1 



•< 





e 

i - 
C 








CO 
© 

ci 

■a 




in '■ 




'• CM 




130 




-* 
o 




• co 




■ o 

00 




e>5 






CD 

o 

CO 


- 




- 

CN 






5 

o 


- 




a. 






CN 






CO 
CO 






-* 




CO 








o 

o 


- 




i 




CO 

o> 


CO 
oi 






CO 

o 

rH 


CO 
00 






o 

OO 
CN 






o 

O0 
CO 


- 
- 

C 
P 


> 
> 

1 
> 






1 

< 

c 

i 


: c 
■> P 
> o 

: - 

■- 

I £ 

\ I 


> 

> 

! 

i 
I \ 

> 1 


1 



1889.] 



3E< KETARY'S REPORT. 



143 



Table III. 

Staement showing the air pressure, reduced to sen level ; the temperature, jirecipi- 

taiioa and the prevailing direction of the wind for each month of 

the year 1880, at Block Island, R. I. 



1889. 
Months. 



BLOCK ISLAND, R. I. 



Pbksburb. 



January 30.02 

February... 30.11 

March 29.87 

April 29.99 



pd 



May 

June 

July 

August — 
September. 
October . . . 
November. 
December. 

Auuual. . . . 



29 99 
30.05 
30.01 
30.08 
30.05 
30.03 
30.07 
30.15 



30.63 
30 B5 
30.48 
30.58 
30.39 
30.49 
30.32J 
30.35 
30.34 
30 41 
30.64 
30.92 



29.14 
29.39 
29.06 
29 37 
29.65 
29.60 
29.71 
29.76 
29.45 

29.84 
29.39 



Temperature. 



a" 


s 

3 


= 


a 


* 


= 


- 




~ 


s 



36.1 
27.0 
37.2 
44.1 
58.8 
• 12.9 
67.6 
67.2 

51.2 
16.8 

41.4 



30.03 30.92 29 I 



56 


10 


48 


2 


49 


24 


58 


32 


70 


40 


76 


52. 


81 


57 


80 




71 


49 


66 


36 


62 


25 


57 


18 
2 


81 



16 
46 
25 

26 
30 
24 
24 
2 1 
25 
30 

89 



Bl 



>. 

Q 

a 



- 1 

_ ti. 

- - 
5 



9.6 21 

Ui.fi 2D 

9.4 19 
11.:; -JO 
10.1 19 

- 

8.5 14 
8.0 14 
9.5 15 
9 5 20 

12.3 16 



9.8 



- 



2.16 
1.57 

2.30 
2.10 
3.21 
8.84 

3.41 



in 



X. W. 
N. \V. 
N B. 
N. E. 
W. 
s. w. 

8. W. 
8. W. 

- W. 



:;.ll N. E. 

L86N. W. 

\\ ^v. 



.\. w. 



Signal Office, War Department, Washington City, 
March Olh, 1890. 



APPENDIX A. 



WATER WORKS 



RHODE ISLAND. 



IS 



WATER WORKS IN RHODE ISLAND. 



A very large proportion of the population of Rhode Island, is 
supplied with water for domestic use from public water works. 
The further and very large employment of water from the same 
sources in the various industrial pursuits, in the extinguishment 
of fires, the supply of public and private fountains, etc., etc., makes 
the subject of such works of large interest and importance to the 
citizens of the State. 

The importance of the subject, in a sanitary point of view, can 
scarcely be over estimated, and the usefulness of a public water sup- 
ply from unpolluted sources for domestic use, has become the recog- 
nized sentiment of a large majority of the people. 

Numerous conferences have been held and questions asked at the 
office of the State Board of Health, in regard to the formation of 
Water AVorks Associations, methods of procedure, etc., and always 
with the inquiry of the location, cost, management, success, and 
many other particulars respecting the water works already con- 
structed. It is to give some idea of the cost, localities, sources of 
supply and other items, that the following descriptions, which are 
not all fully completed to date, are given, which in addition to in- 
formation obtained by personal solicitation, is much more largely 
derived from the Manual of American Water Works, edited by M. 
N. Baker, Ph. B., and published by Engineering .News, New York. 
For extensions of water services et al during 1889, see Reports from 
Towns, pp. 46-84. 

BRISTOL. 

Bristol and Warren Water Works commenced in 1SS2. This sys- 
tem includes Warren as well as Bristol, and also Harrington, includ- 
ing Nayatt Point. The source of the water supply, Eickemuit river. 



148 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

Water raised by pump to tank by a Knowles pump. Daily capacity 
one million (1,000,000) gallons. Dimensions of tank 40 feet in dia- 
meter, by 35 feet high, capacity of tank three hundred twenty-nine 
thousand (329,000) gallons. 

There are now constructed 14 miles of mains, 350 taps. Present 
consumption of water about two hundred fifty thousand (250,000) 
gallons. Ordinary pressure sixty pounds, fire pressure eighty pounds. 
Capital stock, two hundred fifty thousand ($250,000) dollars, no 
bonded debt. The annual operating expenses not positively ascer- 
tained. The annual revenue from the consumers about ten thousand 
($10,000) dollars. I. F. Williams, President ; G. Norman Weaver, 
Newport, Treasurer ; Sidney Dean, of Warren, Secretary. 

BARRINGTOM". 

This system is included with that of Bristol. Originally designed 
to supply Nayatt Point and still continues to do so. 

Built by the Barrington Water Co. in 1887. The main pipes are 
of wrought iron, service pipes cast iron. Taps thirty, meters thirty. 
The consumption not able to ascertain exactly. 

Cost fifteen thousand ($15,000) dollars, no remaining indebtedness. 
Length of main pipes three miles. President, Lucian Sharpe ; Treas- 
urer, C. H. Merriman. 

WARREN". 

Warren Water Works, built in 1882, and is part of the system of 
the Bristol and Warren Water Works. The main pipes wrought iron 
and cement, length eight miles. The services wrought iron and 
cement. Taps 224, hydrants 58, consumption about two hundred 
fifty thousand (250,000) gallons. Ordinary pressure sixty pounds, 
fire pressure also sixty. Benjamin B. Martin, Superintendent. 

COVENTRY. 

Proposed System. — The Warwick and Coventry Water Co. were 
organized in June, under a State charter, to supply water to the vil- 
lages in Warwick and Coventry about the south branch of the Paw- 
tuxet river. Fifty thousand dollars of stock has been issued. Supply 
will be from wells by pumping to stand-pipe. Eventually, a popula- 
tion of eight thousand (8,000) will be supplied, requiring 14 miles of 
pipe, but at present only three villages, with a population of four 



1889.] secretary's report. 140 

thousand (4,000) will be supplied. This will require GJ miles of pipo 
and 60 hydrants. President, E. Lapham ; Secretary, Jf. B. Barton, 
Centreville, Engineer for town of Warwick. 

EAST GREENWICH. 

East Greenwich Water Works, built in 188G by the East Greenwich 
Water Supply Co., under the National Water Works Syndicate, Bos- 
ton, Mass. Engineer, A. W. Forbes, Boston, Mass. 

Source of water supply, Hunt's river. Raised by a pump to a 
Btand-pipe. Pump machinery, Worthington pump; Daily capacity 
one million (1,000,000) gallons. Stand-pipe from Cunningham Iron 
Works, Boston. Capacity one hundred sixty thousand (160,000) gal- 
lons. Main pipes cast iron, length nine miles. Services wrought 
iron. Pipes and specials made by Wood & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pipes laid by Ferris & Halladay, Jersey City, N. J. Taps 180, hy- 
drants 52, made by Wood & Co.; valves by the same. Consumption 
100,000 gallons. Ordinary pressure 50 pounds; lire pressure 200 
pounds. 

Original cost about £100,000. Capital stock, $75,000. Bonded 
debt, £73,000. Annual operating expenses about 13,000. Annual 
revenue : consumers about £3,000 ; hydrant rentals, §28.88. 

George Alexander, President; B. ('. Mudge, Treasurer, 70 K i I by 
street, Boston ; John L. Congdou, Superintendent, East Greenwich. 

WARWICK. 

South western section to be supplied by the Warwick and Coventry 
Water Co. See Coventry for reference. Introduction for general 
use nnder consideration, and will doubtless be established at no 
greatly distant date. 

NEWPORT. 

Newport Water Works built in 1870-7, by George H. Norman. 
Newport, under a fifty years' franchise, and owned by him till June. 
1881, when a company was organized and took possession of the 
works. Designing Engineer, George II. Norman ; Contracting En- 
gineer, (i. Norman Weaver. Most of the work was done by the 
original owner. 

Water Supply. — Easton'sand Paradise ponds, pumping to reservoir 

from two Btations, thai at the tirst pond being one, and at the second, 
three miles from the city. Easton's pond was formed by impounding 



150 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

the water of 4£ square miles drainage area by two dams of sand, one 
2,800 feet long, 15 feet high, and 12 feet wide on top, with the water 
slope covered with rip-rap ; the other, 2,000 feet long, 4 feet high and 
6 feet wide on top. The pond has an area of one hundred and sixty 
acres. 

Pumping Machinery. — Combined daily capacity seven million 
(7,000,000) gallons ; one Knowles 19£ inch water cylinder and 36 
inch stroke, one Carr-Selden of 12 inch water cylinder and 24 inch 
stroke, one Knowles high pressure, one three million (3,000,000) 
gallons Curtis pump. The lift from the first pumping station is 
160 feet. 

Distributing Reservoir. — Capacity ten million (10,000,000) gallons ; 
its flow line is 60 feet above highest point in the city. 

Distribution. — Mains, cast iron, wrought iron and cement, 50 
miles. Services, wrought iron and cement. Taps, 2,500. Meters, 
Crown, Worthington, 12. Hydrants, kind not given, 220. Con- 
sumption one million gallons. Pressure, ordinary, 55 pounds. 

Financial. — Cost seven hundred thousand ($700,000) dollars. Cap- 
ital stock, seven hundred and fifty thousand ($750,000) dollars. No 
debt. Annual operating expenses twenty thousand ($:i0,000) dollars. 
Annual revenue : consumers, sixty thousand ($60,000) dollars ; city, 
ten thousand '($10,000) dollars. 

Management. — President, George H. Norman ; Secretary, R. S. 
Franklin ; Treasurer and Superintendent, William S. Slocum. 

CRANSTON. 

Various localities in the town of Cranston, including the State In- 
stitutions, are supplied from the Providence system of Water Works. 

CUMBERLAND. 

Valley Falls, part of Lonsdale and Valley Falls division of Paw- 
tucket Water Works, all data to be found under Pawtucket Water 
Works. 

EAST PROVIDENCE. 

Water Works built in 1880 by the town. Engineer, C. H. M. 
Blake. Contractor, J. J. Newman, Providence. After the original 
plant was completed the distribution system was turned over to the 
Pawtucket Water Works. 

Water Supply. — Pawtucket Water Works. 



1889.] secretary's report. 151 

Distribution. — Originally 8 miles of mains and 42 hydrants. 

Financial. — East Providence receives a rebate of 25 per cent, on 
all rates collected from consumers. 

All data included under Pawtucket. 

JOHNSTON". 

Johnston water supply commenced in 1873 by the extension of the 
Providence system ; about three-fourths of the population in the 
eastern section of the town are supplied. Statements in regard to 
late extensions found under Providence report. 

LTNCOLN. 

Central Falls.— Water Works built in 1881 by the Fire District. 

Water Supply. — Pawtucket Water Works. 

Distribution, 1886. — Mains, iron, 11.5 miles. Services wrought 
iron. Taps, 800. Meters not given. Hydrants, the kind not given, 
72. Consumption not ascertained. Pressure, ordinary, 100 pounds ; 
fire, 100 pounds. 

Financial.— Cost, *50,000. Debt, $37,500. Interest, 5 per cent. 
Annual operating expenses three thousand ($3,000) dollars. Annual 
revenue: consumers, $4,200; city, $1,000. 

Management. — The Fire District operate the works, taking the 
supply from the Pawtucket Water Works, the officers of which col- 
lect the rents, and give Central Falls a rebate of 40 per cent. 

Lonsdale. — The plant was built and operated as a part of the 
Lonsdale and Valley Falls division of the Pawtucket Water Works. 
All data included under Pawtucket. 

NORTH PROVIDENCE. 

A large reservoir of the Providence Water Works erected at Fruit 
Hill . Lymansville supplied from the Providence Water Works. 

NORTH SMITHFIELD. 

A portion of the town supplied by the Woonsocket Water Works 
Company. 



152 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

PAWTUCKET. 

Pawtucket Water Works built in 1877-9 by city. Engineer, Wal- 
ter II. Sears. Supplies Ashton, Central Falls, East Providence, Lons- 
dale and Valley Falls. 

Water Supply. — Abbott's Kun, by pumping to reservoir through 
distributing mains. Water is impounded by a dam forming Happy 
Hollow pond, having a drainage area of 26 square miles, and a capac- 
ity of seventy-two millions (72,000,000) gallons. 

Pumping Machinery . — Two Corliss pumping engines, daily capac- 
ity three million (3,000,000) gallons each. A new pumping station 
is being built with provisions for three six million (0,000,000) gallon 
pumps, water to be taken from a gravel filter bed near Blackstone 
river. 

Reservoir. — Capacity twenty-one million (21,000,000) gallons. 

Distribution. — Mains, cast iron, 98 miles. Services, tarred wrought 
iron. Taps, 4,795. Meters, 2,900; mostly Crown and Union, with 
a few Desper, Worthington, Ball & Fitts, Duplex, Equitable and 
Empire. Hydrants, Fales & Jenks, 778. Valves, Chapman. 

Consumption. — 3,176,193 gallons. Pressure, ordinary, 65 to 130; 
fire, 65 to 130. 

Financial.— -Cost, $1,336,658. Debt, $1,336,658. Interest 4 and 
5 per cent. Sinking fund, $120,000. Annual operating expenses, 
$23,141. Annual revenue : consumers, $82,000 ; cities, $14,868. 
Bebates were paid to the amount of $3,633. Hydrant rentals, 
total, $12,640. 

Management. — Three commissioners ; Superintendent, Edwin Dar- 
ling ; Pumping Engineer, Jno. Walker. 

Pawtuxet. — Pawtuxet, a part of Warwick and Cranston water 
supply, introduced in 1880 for general use from the Providence Water 
Works, through about two miles of eight inch pipe. See extensions 
under Providence city. 

providence. 

Providence, at head of navigation on Narragansett Bay, thirty-five 
miles from the ocean. Two small rivers meet in the centre of the 
city, and on the east is the Blackstone river, which, near its mouth, 
becomes a tidal basin, called the Seekonk river. The confluence of 
these three rivers form the Providence river. The business part of 



1889.] secretary's report. 153 

the city is near the river and about ten feet above tide-level ; a second 
part rises on each side of the river seventy-five feet above tide-level, 
while a small section is at an elevation of from 90 to 100 feet. En- 
gaged largely in commerce and manufacturing. Settled in 163G ; 
incorporated a city in 1832. 

History. — Built in 1870-6 by city. Engineer, J. Herbert Shedd, 
Providence. The city also supplies parts of Cranston, and the parts 
of Johnston and North Providence within one mile of the city limits, 
and the village of Pawtuxet. Terms same as for Providence. 

The first public water supply was introduced in 1772 by a company 
who distributed spring water through three-fourth mile of wooden 
logs. In the same year the "Rawson's Fountain Society" collected 
spring water in a reservoir 13£ by 30 feet and 10 feet deep, from 
which water was conveyed through six thousand feet of four inch 
wooden logs. The Providence Water Co. also built two fountains or 
reservoirs. From these water was supplied to families for ten dol- 
lars each. 

Water Supply. — Pawtuxet river by direct pumping and pumping 
to reservoir. The river has a drainage area of 192 square miles and 
empties into the Providence river, five miles below the city. The 
Pettaconsett Pumping Station is four miles from the river's mouth, 
and at this point water is taken from a basin excavated in the porous 
and saturated sand near the river bank, there being provision for 
drainage directly from the river. 

Pumping Machinery. — Combined daily capacity thirty-three mil- 
lion (33,000,000) gallons; 5,000,000 gallons Worthington ; 9,000,000 
and 5,000,000 gallons Corliss; 9,000,000 gallons Cornish, and 5,000,- 
000 gallons Nagle pumping engines. 

Reservoirs. — Two; combined capacity one hundred and twenty-five 
million (125,000,000) gallons. The Sockanossel reservoir is 180 feel 
above the pumping station ; has a water surface of 11 acres and a 
capacity of 50,000,000 gallons. It is an excavation and embank- 
ment, the slopes being lined with six inches of broken stone, upon 
which is laid a 15 inch dry stone wall. The Hope high service reser- 
voir is 162£ feet above high tide, irregular, about 840 by 950 feet and 
24-J feet deep, and has a capacity of 75,000,000 gallons. A new high 
service reservoir has been built in North Providence. Contractor, J. 
J. Newman, Providence. 

Distribution. — Mains, cast iron, 202 miles. Services, lead. Taps, 
13,128. Meters, 7,623. Hydrants, Providence, 1,278. 

80 



154 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

Consumption. — 4,984,915 gallons. Pressure, ordinary, 39 to 73. 

Financial.— Cost, $6,234,672. Debt, $5,500,000. Interest 5 and 
6 per cent. Annual operating expenses, $69,828. Annual revenue : 
consumers, $313,561 ; city, $37,020. 

Management. — Board of Public Works. 

River Point. — River Point Fire District contracted with the Paw- 
tuxet Valley Water Co. for water supply for general use, and will have 
six miles of pipe when completed. See data under Phenix. 

phentx. 

Water Works built in 1885-7 by Pawtuxet Valley Water Company. 
Engineer, II. B. Barton, Centreville. Contractors, Leach & Baldwin, 
Philadelphia, Pa. The system is being extended to supply River 
Point. 

Water Supply. — Spring Lake Brook by gravity. There is a reser- 
voir of 17 acres. 

Distribution. — Mains, cast iron, 6 miles. Services, lead. Pipes 
and specials furnished by Warren Foundry and Machine Company, 
Phillipsburg, N. J. Taps, 90. Meters, Crown, number not given. 
Hydrants, Ludlow, 41. Valves, Ludlow. Pressure, ordinary, 80 
pounds. 

Financial.— Capital stock, $100,000. Bonded debt, $50,000. In- 
terest, 5 per cent. Annual revenue, $1,230. Hydrant rental, $30. 

Management. — Secretary, Vernum A. Bailey; Superintendent, 
Albert F. Hill. 

It was designed when it was completed that there would be 11 
miles of pipe and 104 hydrants, but in the summer of 1889 the 
dam at Spring Lake reservoir gave way from an overflow of water, 
leaving the works worthless. 

SOUTH KINGSTOWN". 

Peacedale. — Water supplied from the Wakefield Water Co.'s 
Works. See below. 

Wakefield. — The Wakefield Water Co. began construction of 
works July, 1888, to supply Wakefield, Narragansett Pier and Peace- 
dale. Engineer, J. Herbert Shedd, Providence. Contractor for pipe 
laying, F. B. Durfee, Norwich, Conn. 



1889.] secretary's report. 155 

Water Supply. — Water bearing gravel, near Saugatuck river, Peace- 
dale, by pumping to stand-pipe 190 feet above tide-level. The area 
to be supplied is generally from 10 to 60, and at extreme points 130 
feet above tide-level. 

Financial— Estimated cost, $133,000. 

Management, — President, Richard Pancoast, No. 68 Wall street, 
New York city. 

Note. — The above data was said in a letter from the president of 
the company to be somewhat inaccurate in minor details, but no cor- 
rections have yet been given. 

Narragansett Pier. — Water supplied for general use by the 
Wakefield Water Works Co. About one-third of the population is 
supplied. 

WESTERLY. 

Works built in 1886 by the Westerly Water Works Co. Designing 
Engineer, J. Berber! Shedd, Providence. Constructing Engineer, 
William Brown, Jr. Contractors, Adam Miller & Co., Saratoga, N. 
Y.. and F. A. Snow, Providence; for masonry, Henry Champlain, 
and for buildings, Randolph, Bently & Co., both of Westerly. 

Water Supply. — Shnnoc Brook, pumping to stand-pipe. 

Pumping Machinery. — Two Babcock & Wilcox boilers ; two Worth- 
iogtOD compound condensing pumps, daily capacity, 750,000 gallons 
each. Stand-pipe made by Robinson Boiler Works, Boston, 3l) feet 
in diameter and 70 feet high. 

Distribution. — Mains, cast iron, 14 miles. Services, lead. Pipe 
furnished by McNeal Pipe and Foundry Co., Burlington, X. J., M. 
J. Drummond, New York city, and Qlocester [ron Works— offices, 
Philadelphia, Penn. Taps, 180. Meters, 85. Hydrants. Chapman, 
Ludlow. Chapman and Ludlow valves. 

Consumption, — 125,000 gallons. Pressure, ordinary, 85 pounds; 
fire, 90 pounds. 

Financial.— Cost, $125,000. Bonded debt, $100,000. Interest, 5 
per cent. No further financial data given. 

Management. — President, 1888, James M. Pendleton. Treasurer, 
Charles Perry, Jr. Superintendent, Everett Barnes. 



156 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

WOOSTSOCKET. 

History. — Built in 1884 — now owned by city. Engineer, J. W. 
Ellis. Contractor, John W. Rutherford, New York city ; for build- 
ings, William Hubbard, Woonsocket. 

Water Supply. — Crook Falls Brook, pumping to tank. 

Pumping Machinery. — Worthington compound duplex directing 
acting pump, daily capacity, 1,500,000 gallons. Tank made by Cun- 
ningham Iron Works, Boston ; 50 feet in diameter and 30 feet high. 

Distribution. — Mains, cast iron, 21.85 miles. Services, lead. Pipe 
and specials furnished by R. D. AVood & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., Pan- 
coast & Rogers, New York city, and McNeal Pipe and Foundry Co., 
Burlington, N. J. Taps, 761. Meters, 674. Hydrants, Chapman, 
334. Valves, Chapman. 

Consumption.— 269,648 gallons. Pressure, ordinary, 100 pounds; 
fire, 100 pounds. 

Financial— Cost, $319,871 . Debt, $300,000. Interest, 4 per cent. 
Annual operating expenses, $7,346. Annual revenue : consumers, 
$10,940 ; city, $10,263. 

Management. — Superintendent, Willard Kent. 

BURRILLVILLE. 

Proposed System. — The Burrillville Water Co. propose to take 
water from W 7 allum pond, by gravity, and have made surveys for 
this and one other plan. The town has voted twice on the ques- 
tion, once rejecting the proposition, and later, postponing action. 
The National Water Works syndicate, No. 70 Kilby street, Boston, 
Mass., are interested. 



APPENDIX B 



REPORT 



uroN THE 



SANITARY CONDITION OF WATCH HILL, R. I. 



WITH SUGGESTIONS FOK I M I'KOY EM ENTS. 



W. P. Anderson, Esq., President Watch Hill, (/?. /.) Improvement 
Association : 

Dear Sir : — Having, at your request, and upon suggestion of Dr. 
Charles II. Fisher, Secretary of the State Board of Health of Rhode 
Island, on September 13th, visited Watch Hill and made a general 
sanitary inspection of the locality and of the principal hotels, I beg to 
submit the following report : 

PRESENT CONDITION". 

JSituated at the extreme southwestern point of the State of Rhode 
Island, on a narrow peninsula, surrounded almost entirely by water, 
Watch Hill would seem to offer, by its select position, peculiar advan- 
tages as a watering place and seaside health resort. Bounded on the 
east by the open Atlantic Ocean, and by the waters of the quiet Little 
Narragansett Bay on the opposite side, exposed to invigorating sea 
breezes, from whatever direction the wind may blow, this beautiful 
spot appears to be particularly favored by nature to be a fit resting 
place for tired brain workers, and for all persons in search of health 
and healthful surroundings. 



168 STATE BOARD OP ttEALTH. [1889. 

The place at present consists of a few village dwellings and stores, 
a number of large summer hotels, some of which are situated on the 
bluffs, from which magnificent ocean views may be obtained, and of a 
large and rapidly increasing number of isolated summer cottages, 
scattered here and there on the undulating grounds, formerly known 
as "Everett Farm," and now subdivided into many building lots. 

The large hotels at Watch Hill are the Ocean House, "Watch Hill 
House, and the Larkin House, on the ocean side, and the Atlantic, 
Narragansett and Plympton Houses on the bay side. 

There is no system of sewerage at present at Watch Hill, nor is 
there a public water supply. Each individual cottage and each hotel 
has its own supply of water, derived from storage of rain-water in 
cisterns or else from wells and springs. Each building takes care, in 
a more or less perfect manner, of its liquid and semi-liquid refuse. 
All cottages and hotels have more or less of the usual inside house 
plumbing. As a rule, each cottage has its own water-tight and 
cemented cesspool, but to avoid the annoyance of frequent emptying 
or pumping out, I am informed that many cesspools are provided 
with overflows, allowing the surplus liquid waters to soak away into 
the ground, while the solids and grease are retained in the cesspool, 
which is emptied each fall at or after the close of the season. 

As regards the hotels, the Ocean House has a well arranged and 
well taken care of system of flushing-rim hopper water closets, with 
abundance of flushing water, and the sewage is carried by drains into 
a large cesspool, situated between the hotel and the East beach, at 
the foot of the bluff on which the Oceau House stands. The Watch 
Hill Hotel has a system of trough water-closets emptying into sewer 
pipe, carried across the main road into a cesspool near the East 
Beach. The Annex to the Watch Hill House has only privy vaults. 
The large Larkin House has several two story or tower privy vaults, 
and no water-closets. The Atlantic House has a similar arrange- 
ment, while the Plympton House has a well arranged and well taken 
care of system of flushing- rim hopper-closets, flushed from flushing 
cisterns, delivering into an 8-inch sewer, receiving also the wastes 
from the Plympton Annex, and carried from the hotel into Little 
Narragansett or Pawcatuck Bay, where the outlet discharges, at a dis- 
tance of about two hundred feet from the shore, into deep water, the 
mouth of the sewer being situated somewhat below low tide level, so 
as to be at all times covered by water. The smaller Narragansett 
House, has a system of inoffensive and well kept ash or earth closets. 



1889.] secretary's report. 159 

Many of the privy vaults inspected were found to be in an extremely 
unsanitary and disgusting condition. Cesspools are becoming rapidly 
filled, and as soon as one commences to clog up with grease and filth 
and to overflow, the cesspool is abandoned, a new hole dug close by 
the first one, and thus the soil is gradually honeycombed and increas- 
ing polluted by such a series of foul cesspools. In some c 
laundry wastes or kitchen liquids are carried in the most primitive 
manner, sometimes along or across the roadside, in soak holes in the 
ground, causing an open nuisance, when the Boakage ceases, owing 
to obstructions. During the inspection several large, highly offen- 
sive pools of liquid filth were detected in the immediate vicinity of 
the hotel windows. 

DANGERS TO BE AVOIDED. 

It is a well-established axiom of sanitary science that the Btorage 
of putrefiable or putrefying filth of whatever character in the imme- 
diate neighborhood of human habitations should be avoided ; and 
while this applies to the smallest single habitations or isolated cot- 
tages, it is particularly applicable to summer hotels, where a Large 
number of people congregate annually for pleasure or health. With 
only a few exceptions I find that this law is violated at Watch Hill, 
and the fact that this resort has so far enjoyed an immunity from 
infectious disease must be explained to a large extent by the above 
mentioned exceptional natural advantages of the place. It should be 
remembered, however, that more people will be attracted to the place 
from year to year, owing to the salubriousness of its climate, and as 
rapidly as the place is destined to grow, the unsanitary conditions 
created or maintained by mankind will multiply and become more 
and more a source of possible danger to health to the increasing 
number of permanent summer residents. Therefore, bearing in mind 
the old proverb that " an ounce of prevention is better than a pound 
of cure," it is none too soon to begin to think seriously of sanitary 
improvements. Hotel owners in particular, whose success depends 
almost entirely upon the good sanitary reputation which a place 
bears, as well as upon the healthfulness of their buildings, should ever 
remember that every dollar judiciously expended in the interest of 
the healthfulness of a resort, will soon be returned to them ten or 
twenty fold. 



160 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1839. 

LEACHING CESSPOOLS AND VAULTS. 

Privy vaults, as well as leaching cesspools, are abominations which 
should no longer be tolerated in any civilized community. All col- 
lection and storage of putrefying organic matter, on or under the 
surface of the ground, should be avoided as constituting an ever 
present menace to health. Such accumulations of putrefying filth, 
undergoing constant decomposition and creating poisonous gases, 
have been well compared to a powder magazine, lacking only a single 
spark, to become the center of vast destruction through the rapidly 
multiplying germs of disease when introduced by a single case of ill- 
ness. With privy vaults and cesspools abounding, the surrounding 
earth becomes saturated, the air tainted, the general health of per- 
sons living in the immediate vicinity, and compelled to breath such 
air, becomes affected, and the power of resisting infectious disease 
will be lessened. Again, the drinking water derived from wells or 
springs will gradually be poisoned, and thus may arise a second and 
equally potent cause of illness. 

Cesspools and vaults are retained in communities only through 
ignorance or indifference. It is a fundamental principle that all filth 
incident to human life should be removed thoroughly and immedi- 
ately, or at least before putrefactive decomposition begins. Likewise 
should all liquid or solid offal, garbage, or manure from stables, cow 
barns, hog pens, henneries, or places where animals are slaughtered, 
be collected and removed by scavengers, and as much of it as possible 
used by farmers to enrich the land. 

No doubt there will be some who will argue in defense of the 
"leaching cesspool" for seaside resorts, that it is used only during 
three or four months of the year, and that it consequently has ample 
time during the remaining period to purify itself. To this it must 
be replied that even during the short period of four months a leach- 
ing cesspool may become highly dangerous by reason of soil pollution 
and air contamination, particularly in the case of larger hotels. Be- 
sides, it is tolerably safe to assert that proper oxidation does not take 
place except near the surface, and that even where the foul liquids 
leach away in the sand the solid foul matters and grease will remain 
in the cesspools and in the pores of the ground, accumulating from 
year to year. 

WATER SUPPLY. 

Until a pure and abundant general system of water supply is intro- 
duced, all wells and cisterns should be diligently watched and kept 



1889.] secretary's report. 1G1 

free from all possible surface defilement and underground pollution. 
Witter stored in cisterns is frequently polluted through the overflow 
pipe connecting the cistern with a cesspool or some drain carrying 
foul sewage. It is obvious that such a connection is absolutely inad- 
missible. Rain-water collected in cisterns may be contaminated 
through various other causes. Much care should be exercised to see 
that the roofs and gutters arc always kept in a clean condition, that 
no slops are thrown out from windows on to low roofs, draining into 
cisterns, that no leaky drain passes near the cistern walls, that the 
latter are carefully built of sound brick laid in cement, and with the 
inside rendered with Portland cement and preferably provided with a 
filtering compartment, 

ice boxes. 

Vigilant care should be exercised with regard to the storage of food, 
particularly of meat and milk, and the wastes from ice boxes or stor- 
age boxes should, under no condition whatever, be joined directly to 
any sewer or dram leading to a cesspool. 

disposal of excreta. 

As to the disposal of human excreta, one of two rules well estab- 
lished by experience may be followed, namely, either to adopt some 
so-called dry method of disposal, by which the excreta are kept per- 
fectly and absolutely dry, and by admixture of loam, rich garden 
earth or ashes, converted into manure to be used on the land, or else 
to remove the same rapidly by means of plenty of water through a 
system of water-closets and tight sewers, discharging either into some 
large body of water, or else delivering the sewage in a diluted condi- 
tion on to the land to be used as a fertilizer. 

THE REMEDY PROPOSED FOR WATCH HILL. 

After these general considerations, it is proper to give somewhat 
more specific advice relating to the problem on hand. There is very 
little doubt in my mind that with the growth of Watch Hill, nothing 
short of a complete and comprehensive sewerage system will satisfy 
the sanitary needs of the place. Other watering-places, for instance 
Nahant, Mass.; Par Harbor, Maine; Long Branch and Atlantic I 
on the Jersey coast, have adopted and carried out complete sewerage 
systems. The system most fully adapted to the needs of the place 



162 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

would, in my judgment, be the separate system, dealing only with the 
sewage proper, while excluding all rain fall, and therefore requiring 
comparatively small sizes of sewers. Neither the Pawcatuck Bay nor 
the water in front of the principal bathing beach would be suitable 
places for the main sewer outlet. It seems, therefore, probable that in 
the future a main sewer would have to be carried along the narrow edge 
of land stretching out to Napatree Point, where the sewage delivered 
either by gravity or by a system of pumping could be discharged into 
the sea, and probably would be carried away forever by the tides, 
winds, and strong currents. But the construction of such a compre- 
hensive system would require a comparatively large outlay of money, 
which for many years to come would be unnecessary. 

I shall, in the following, avoid suggesting any too extremely radi- 
cal method of improvement. The key-note of my advi-ce may be ex- 
pressed in very few words : for the privy vault and manure pit substi- 
tute some dry conservancy system, such as the earth or ash closet, or 
else some movable-pail system, with frequent removal ; for the leach- 
ing cesspool substitute either a tight cesspool, to be frequently emptied, 
or, better, a water-tight sewer, removing all liquid waste organic mat- 
ter, and discharging it in a fresh, unputrified condition into the deep 
water of the ocean or bay, or else use — in the case of the isolated 
summer cottages and residences — flush- tanks, with sub-surface sew- 
age irrigation, leaving to the bacteria, which have aptty been desig- 
nated as nature's scavengers, and to the roots of plants, the task of 
the complete destruction of the hurtful elements of sewage, and their 
conversion into useful elements suitable for nourishment of growing 
crops, or grass, or shrubs. 

DRAINAGE OF THE HOTELS. 

Leaving aside, for the present, the question whether the hotels 
should have dry earth or ash closets, or else a system of well arranged, 
well flushed, and well taken care of water closets, it is obvious that 
each hotel will require a sewer for the removal of the slop water, of 
kitchen and laundry wastes, wastes from bath tubs, etc. The topo- 
graphy of the place being such as to admit in nearly every case of 
good falls being obtainable, no large sewers are necessary ; and a 
6-inch sewer, laid in a well graded trench, with well made joints, per- 
fect alignment, and a bore as smooth and true as that of a gun-barrel, 
will be amply sufficient for the largest size hotel, even when water- 
closets are used. The best material for such sewers would be salt- 



1889. J secretary's report. 1G3 

glazed, hardburnt, vitrified pipe, the joints being made with Port- 
land cement mortar. The outlet pipe, leading into the water, should 
be constructed of heavy cast-iron pipe, well protected against corro- 
sion, by tarring. 

Only one of the hotels is now removing all its sewage by means of 
such a pipe sewer, discharging into Pawcatuck Bay. I have closely 
watched the water near this sewer outlet, and have been unable to 
find any floating sewage matter, nor was there apparent any defile- 
ment of the shore from stranded sewage particles or paper, and 
although the bay is extensively used during the summer season as an 
anchoring ground for all kind of pleasure boats, I am told that no 
complaint has ever been made of any nuisance created by this sewage 
discharge. This may partly be explained by the well-known fad that 
sewage discharged in afresh condition is quickly consumed by fishes, 
animalcules, and forms of aquatic life, and partly by the fact that 
where sewage mixes with salt water heavy matters are precipitated to 
the bottom. Putrid sewage, on the contrary, when discharged into 
water-courses, will drive fish away; hence it is apparent that one of 
the cardinal principles to be observed should be the quick removal of 
all sewage before decomposition sets in. 

While I believe that it would be injudicious, in case Watch Hill 
should be completely Bewered, to locate the sewer outlet into Pawca- 
tuck Bay, 1 can see, for tin present, no serious objection to the dis- 
charge of the sewage from single hotels or cottages into the large vol- 
ume of water in this bay. The Narraganset House should have a 
sewer delivering into Pawcatuck Bay. The cottages situated on the 
shore of the bay at Foster's Cove, could dispose thus of all their 
water-borne filth in an efficient and innocuous manner. The Atlan- 
tic House, where a deplorable lack of cleanliness in the disposal of 
waste matter was painfully apparent, should construct a sewer, deliv- 
ering into the bay under low water, the sewer being carried out as 
far as the head of the Bteamboat pier. An upward continuation of 
this sewer could take care of the Watch Hill House, in which case 
the cost of the sewer could be divided in proportion ; and this same 
plan could be followed at the Ocean House, the sewer from which 
could join the sewer from the Plympton House. The Parkin House 
could also run us sewage by an independent .-ewer of somewhat greater 
length, to the head of the steamboat pier in the bay. When, in the 
future, it should become desirable or necessary to construct the 
above-mentioned intercepting Bewer <>r pumping-main, these sewers 
from the hotels could still be made to do service by joining the main 



164 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

sewer at the foot of each street leading to the bay. Under no circum- 
stances whatever, should any drain or sewer be carried to the bath- 
ing beach, which should be kept scrupulously clean and unpolluted. 
For this reason, I should consider it unsafe to carry the sewage from 
the Larkin House to the head of the great ocean pier near the prom- 
ontory on which stand the Life-saving Station and the Watch Hill 
Light House. 

As an alternative method, applicable to the three hotels overlook- 
ing the ocean westward, namely, the Ocean House, the Watch Hill 
and Annex, and the Larkin House, I would suggest the discharge of 
their sewage eastward, directly into the Atlantic Ocean. There is 
some doubt in my mind, as to the possibility of the sewer outlets 
becoming choked by sand and gravel, washed into the pipes by the 
force of the breakers ; but this could probably be overcome by carry- 
ing the mouth far out into deep water, and by the use of a flush- 
tank, as I shall describe presently. The iron pipe itself should be 
well laid, and strongly and suitably protected, by stone-work, against 
the strong blows of the waves. It may become advisable to construct 
the iron outlet sewer in sections bolted together by flanges, and to 
remove the pipe at the end of each season. 

If such a method of disposal of the sewage were adopted, I should 
advise, for each hotel, the construction of a large flush-tank, built 
of hard-burnt brick, with cement mortar, and made absolutely 
water-tight. Between the house and the flush-tank, I should advise 
arranging a well-covered intercepting or straining chamber, with 
brick side walls and rounded concrete bottom, and with inlet and 
outlet pipes level with the bottom of the chamber, so as to avoid 
absolutely any stagnation of sewage in the straining chamber. This 
chamber to be provided with one or two rows of upright iron bar 
strainers, put closely together (one wide and one narrow strainer) for 
the interception of all coarse solid substances, such as paper, napkins, 
rags, corks, soap, etc., which should be scooped out and removed 
daily, and either dried and destroyed by fire, or else composted with 
garden earth, charcoal, and ashes, and carted away onto the land, to 
be used as a fertilizer. The amount of such intercepted matter, if 
removed daily, would be comparatively small, and, with a little care 
in management, could readily be dealt with without creating any 
nuisance. By arranging such a straining chamber, the possibility of 
a defilement of the beautiful East Beach by solid sewage matters 
returned to the shore, would be entirely avoided. This beach, 
although not much used for bathing, being composed of fine sand, 



1889.] secretary's report. 165 

is a favorite place for pleasure strolls, and, being one of the attrac- 
tions of Watch Hill, every effort should be made to keep it unpol- 
luted. 

For this reason, too, I suggest the use of a flush-tank, in which the 
hotel sewage may be retained daily until the commencement of the 
outgoing tide. Once, or, if necessary, twice a day, at this time, the 
flush-tank should lie emptied, and thus its contents discharged with 
uieat force into the ocean. The rush of water will tend to keep the 
sewer outlet free and unobstructed, and the outgoing ebb tide will 
carry all liquid sewage far away to sea. Flush-tanks are often pro- 
vided with automatic appliances, called siphons, to empty the tanks 
as soon as they become full. In this case, I advise the much simpler 
plan of placing on the discharge-pipe, where it leaves the flush tank, 
a shut-off gate-valve, accessible through a man-hole, and to be operated 
by hand. The hotel manager should make it the duty of some trusted 
employe" to empty this tank twice a day at regular intervals, corre- 
sponding to the hours of the beginning ebb tide. The flush-tank 
should receive not only the waste flow from urinals and water-closets, 
but also all chamber slops, bath wastes, and all fouled water from the 
kitchen and laundry. It should be provided with an overflow pipe, 
to prevent the tank from overflowing in case the opening of the gate- 
valve should, through oegliger.ee, be forgotten. The tank should be 
arched over, covered, and provided with inspection manholes, carried 
to the surface. Inasmuch as the sewage is stored in it for no great 
length of time, 1 do not consider it necessary, nor even desirable, to 
ventilate the flush-tank, but, at the end of each season, it should be 
thoroughly cleaned, the walls washed and disinfected, ami the pipes 
leading to and from it thoroughly cleaned, and all obstructions 
removed. 

I>l; \inai.i: ol Til i: COTTAGES. 

There are a few i adjoining the hotels which, in case the 

latter construct a sewer leading into deep water, could do away en- 
tirely with the present cesspools, by joining the hotel sewer and bear- 
ing a part of the expense of its construction. A few others, located 
on the shore of the hay. ran easily drain directly into the same. 

By far the greater number of collages, however, art' isolated and 
scattered about, and for the present, at least, a common sewer would 
seem to lie out of the question. A local treatment of the house B6W- 

becomes, in such eases, a necessity. The present method of tight 



166 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

cesspools with overflows, allowing the sewage to soak into the ground 
is, to say the least, crude and imperfect, and is accompanied with 
some danger wherever the domestic water supply is derived from a 
well. Although the wells are lined with cement pipes, to keep out 
any surface water, or soakage from the strata which the well pierces 
yet none of the wells are very deep — water said to be of good quality, 
being generally obtained at a depth varying from fifteen to twenty- 
five feet. There is, however, absolutely no security against the soak- 
age of sewage into the ground, and it would be obviously dangerous 
to trust to the filtering power of the deeper strata of earth to purify 
the sewage before it reaches the underground sheet of water from 
which the well draws its supply. It is well known and a well estab- 
lished fact that the upper layers of earth, the sub-surface to a depth 
of one or two feet, are pre-eminently fit, owing to the oxygen con- 
tained in the pores of the soil, to oxygenize and render innocuous 
sewage matters delivered into the same. In this purifying process 
the ground is assisted during the summer season by the action of 
vegetation, and furthermore by the action of the bacteria contained 
in the upper layers of the soil. Hence it is much preferable to keep 
all sewage on the surface or just under the surface, and this can be 
done with success in several ways. 

In the case of small cottage lots the only safe method is to build 
absolutely tight cesspools. I should construct these cesspools not in 
the usual way, but with two chambers, the first and smaller one to 
act as a retaining chamber for solids and grease, while the second and 
larger one is to receive, by means of an overflow, dipping well down 
below the water level of the first chamber, only the liquid sewage. 
Much of the latter can be pumped out at intervals and used to water 
the lawn or flower beds, and the first chamber should be frequently 
emptied, at night, and the contents mixed with charcoal, gypsum, 
and ashes, and dug into the ground. All flow of rain or surface 
water into the cesspool should be avoided. Another scheme applica- 
ble to larger lots, would be to carry from the liquid chamber a num- 
ber of outlet pipes all placed on the same level, distributing the 
sewage close under the surface of the ground, but under no circum- 
stances should an overflow be taken from any sewage cesspool to the 
beach. 

Where plenty of land is available around a cottage, and where the 
soil is of a suitable character, excellent results may be obtained by 
using the sub-surface sewage irrigation system, which consists essen- 
tially of a small flush tank, having a capacity equal to the daily sew- 



1880.] secretary's REPORT. 167 

age of the house and a net work of open jointed, small agricultural 
drain tiles, laid only a few inches below the surface of the ground. 
preferably under grass land or a lawn. The flush-tank dischargi 
soon as it is full automatically and intermittently — usually by means 
of some form of automat it- siphon — and sufficient time is thus given 
between consecutive discharges for the soaking away of the liquid 
Bewage, the ground acting as strainer, and the oxygen contained in 
the pores of the soil acting as a destroyer of all organic matter attach- 
ing to the particles of the soil. A quick intermittent discharge from 
such a flush-tank is obviously much to he preferred to the slow ami 
irregular oozing out through a number of overflow pipes. 

It seems tome that many of the present cottages have sufficient 
ground about them to adopt the system of sub-surface irrigation 
recommended, and a trial of this method, which, in many country 
places wit hunt sewers, has given good results, would seem to me to 
be worth while.* 

In all cases, I should advise the discontinuance of the use of well- 
water for drinking purposes, except where the well can be put at 
least one hundred feet away from the sewage held. Rain-water, 
stored in perfectly tight and well-kept cisterns, can be made very 
palatable by lilt ration, or by boiling and subsequent aeration and 
cooling with ice. I would strongly urge the consideration of intro- 
ducing and distributing water to all hotels and cottages, under pres- 
sure, at an early day. As the place grows, the need of such a public 
water supply will become more apparent from season to season. 

[NTERIOR 8ANITART ARRANGEMENTS OK THE HOTELS AND 

C01TAGES. 

Apart from the liquid refuse of slop water, which are most easily 
disposed of by sewers, two methods may he adopted in dealing with 
the excreta from the houses and the hotels. One system applies the 
deodorizing and absorbent power of dry earth or of ashes, while the 
Other uses water as the vehicle for the removal of fecal matter. In 
one case, the receptacles for removing tilth are earth or ash closets, 
or tubs or pails; in tie- other case, the receptacle used is the water- 
closet. 'The first method necessitates a temporary retention and stor- 
age of fecal matters on the premises, while in the second, these latter 



♦The question of the " Disposal of Si wagt from Ttolatt d Country Wount "to dhouaed by t he 

writer sit great*! length io a paper, which will he found in Appendix ('. in this Report 



168 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

are immediately and completely removed through well constructed, 
well-flushed, and amply ventilated underground pipe channels. Of 
the two methods, the removal by water carriage is certainly the bet- 
ter, cleaner, and more efficient. 

The advantages of the earth-closet are, briefly, that its first cost is 
less ; that the quantity of water used in the house is much reduced ; 
that the closet, itself, is not so liable to get out of order as many forms 
of water closets ; that stoppages, from improperly introduced sub- 
stances, will cause less damage, and that there is less danger of in- 
jury to the apparatus by frost. Finally, the man u rial value of the 
excreta and urine are saved, and the dry-earth manure may readily 
be stored (at some distance from habitations) until needed on the 
land. On the other hand, the earth closet is undoubtedly inferior in 
point of cleanliness and appearance to a well kept and well flushed 
water-closet. It is also less free from objectionable odors. The use 
of the dry earth system on a large scale, especially in two-story closet 
structures as required by the hotels, is attended with some difficulty. 
A large quantity of suitable dry earth or loam is required. The 
method of throwing earth by a scoop to cover the deposits, is hardly 
sufficient and reliable in the case of hotels, and more or less compli- 
cated mechanical arrangements for distributing the earth, to enable 
each user of the closet to cover the excreta at once, must be provided ; 
and these, although obtainable in the market, may prove, in the 
end, almost as difficult and troublesome to take care of, as a simple 
flushing-rim hopper water-closet. The collection and removal of the 
earth boxes or pails must be attended to with regularity and fre- 
quency ; and thus the management of such dry systems may also 
prove an obstacle in the case of the larger hotels. 

Taken as a whole, I believe that ultimately all hotels should be 
fitted up with a system of interior plumbing and water-closets. Two 
of the hotels have already taken the lead in this respect, and while it 
would be unreasonable to expect to find at summer hotels, where the 
season is only short, all the refinements of plumbing work, such as 
are becoming more usual in the larger cities, the leading principles of 
safe sanitary house drainage should be observed in the construction 
and arrangement of the water-closets, sinks, bath tubs, and wash 
basins. 

The amount of plumbing work in the hotels should, preferably, be 
as small as possible, and all the sanitary arrangements should be of 
the most simple yet efficient character. Plumbing fixtures should be 
confined to the water-closets and urinals, the slop-sinks, possibly a 



1889. J secretary's report. 169 

few bath-rooms, the kitchen, scullery, pantry, and laundry. No 
plumbing fixtures should be put in bed rooms under any considera- 
tion. But wherever sinks or basins are placed, with waste-pipes and 
traps, the pipes should have the fullest possible ventilation up through 
the main roof, and the traps should be rendered safe against siphon- 
age or back-pressure, and this applies particularly to the kitchen and. 
laundry department of hotels, where, as a rule, the plumbing work 
is found to be in a more neglected state than in the apartments ac- 
cessible to the hotel guests. 

As regards the proper arrangement of plumbing work, of the 
drains, waste-pipes, traps, and fixtures, in the hotels as well as in the 
cottages, I may be permitted to refer to a Report on "House Drain- 
age and Sanitary Plumbing," prepared by me for, and published in, 
the Fourth Annual Report of the Rhode Island State Board of Health 
for the year 1881.* 

In concluding this report, I would say that it is safe to assume 
that, at least in some cases, defective sanitary conditions may be 
attributed not to indifference or carelessnes of owners, but to the ex- 
isting doubts as to which course to pursue or what remedy to adopt. 
It is a frequent experience elsewhere, that where a feasible, practical, 
inexpensive, and not too radical remedy is suggested, hotel keepers, 
as a rule, are quite ready and even anxious to adopt the suggestions 
and to introduce sanitary improvements. The earnest desire of some 
of the Watch Hill hotel keepers to have their sanitary arrangements 
perfect, was apparent to me during my visit of inspection. 

Each succeeding year will undoubtedly bring more attention to 
the details of sanitary construction. Meanwhile, let all hotel keepers 
bear in mind that it is their sacred duty to provide for their guests a 
pure and wholesome water supply, good food, pure air, thorough 
drainage, anil neat surroundings free from all soil pollution. Let 
them spare neither pains nor expense to realize this ; let thorn secure 
the best expert talent to have their places annually re-inspected, and 

* I also refer those who may be anxious for further details, to my book* : Wows* Drainage and 
Sanitary Plumbing, J«i edition. D. Van Noatrand Co., 23 Murray St., X. V. City. Hints on the 
Drainagt and s, vosrage of Dwellings, 2d edition. Win. '1'. Comatook, '23 Warren St., N. Y. city. 
.1 Quid* i" Sanitary Roust Inspection, 2d edition. John Wiley & Sons, 16 Astor Palce, N. V. 
city. Recent Practice in the Sanitary Drainag %gs. I> \':<u Noatrand Co., 28 Mur- 

ray St.. N. v. City. Sanitary Qui ttions: A Chapter on the Water Supply, Drainage, Sewerage, 
Heating, Ventilation, and other sanitary aueattona, contributed to Oottage*, or Hints on SconomU 
eal Building. W.T. Comatook, N. v. city, rite Disp isal < Sox - \\old Wastes: A discussion 
of thf heal methods "f treatment of the sewage from isolated country houses or institutions, and of 
the modes of removal and disposal of solid house refuse, such as garbage and ashes. 
22 



170 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

when the more palpable defects are pointed out, let them engage 
good mechanics to obtain the best possible workmanship in the put- 
ting in order of their sanitary arrangements. 

It is believed that a simple and readily carried out remedy for the 
present unsanitary conditions, is outlined in my report. Should it 
not be sufficiently definite in any of its suggestions, I shall be glad to 
offer such further advice as I may be able, through many years' expe- 
rience with sanitary works, to offer. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WM. FAUL GERHARD, 

Consulting Engineer for Sanitary Works. 

39 Union Square, New York City, Sept. 24, 1889. 



APPENDIX C. 



THE DISPOSAL 



Sewage of Isolated Country Houses, 



WM. PAUL GERHARD, C. E., 

Consulting Knoihbkb for Banitabt Wobks, 

New York ClTT. 



Copyright by Win. Paul Gerhard, 1886. All rights reserved. 



So large a proportion of houses of the better class are scattered about all over the State, and 
especially just outside of, and at different distances from, the cities and compact villages, and 
where connections with public sewers are impossible, that plans and suggestions in regard to the 
drainage of such isolated properties, must be of great interest and value. The paper in Appendix 
C. will be found to present methods in a practical manner. — (Sec. S. B. H.) 



THE DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE 



ISOLATED COUNTRY HOUBI-H 



A serious and all-important problem presents itself to all builders 
or occu])ier8 of suburban and country residences, not located within 
reach of sewers. I refer to the question what method should be 
adopted by architects or householders to get rid of the liquid wastes 
from the household in a manner calculated to avoid at once all nui- 
Bance to sight or smell, all danger to health arising from the pollution 
of the soil, the water and the air, and all causes of contamination of 
water courses, whether flowing streams, or ponds, lakes, estuaries and 
harbors. The problem is not at all a novel one, for nearly two thou- 
sand years ago Hippocrates discussed the same subject of the relation 
existing between health and soil, air and water, yet, if we contem- 
plate, for a moment, the numberless filth-reeking and disease breed- 
ing privies and barbarous leaching cesspools which wc still encounter 
everywhere, and which apparently are accepted as necessary adjuncts 
to farm houses, summer residences, mechanics' dwellings, etc., we 
hope to be considered justified in again calling attention to the evil 
results of improper methods of sewage disposal, ami in discussing 
briefly the proper remedies. 

Let us begin with a consideration of the smaller farm houses, me- 
chanics* cottages and laborers' dwellings. The crude methods usually 
adopted to get rid of all lilth from these are the discharge of the 
Liquids into some open ditch, or into some neighboring water-cou 
brook or pond, and the aeetimmulation of the excreta in privy-vault-. 
[n other cases, slops are retained on the premises by pouring them 
directly in front of the kitchen window on to the surface of the 

ground, which is thus kept continually wet. and quickly becomes 
Baturated with filth, or else the liquid sewage is stored in Leaching 



176 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

cesspools or poured into disused wells. It seems unnecessary to ex- 
plain at length the disadvantages and dangers of privies, vaults and 
stagnant pools of slops, from a health point of view. The objections 
against them are well recognized, and hence such devices are now 
utterly condemned by all sanitarians as relics of primitive stages of 
civilization. The proper disposal of the slop-water of such small 
houses is so easily accomplished, wherever, as is almost always the 
case, a small vegetable garden, or lawn, or grape vine trellis, or an 
•apple orchard adjoin the house, as to make us wonder why better 
methods than those indicated above are adopted as yet in compara- 
tively rare instances. In all such cases, the sewage may, with advan- 
tage, be used to feed plants and fruit trees, or to irrigate the soil. 
The ruling principle should be to keep solid and liquid waste matters, 
as much as possible, apart, for this will facilitate the disposal of both. 
The kitchen water, soapsuds from washing, chamber slops, urine, and 
other fouled water, are easily disposed of, by a daily distribution in 
the garden, either by irrigation, or by subsurface irrigation. The 
slop-water should be collected every day in a tight tank and carried by 
hand, or carted in a wheelbarrow, to the garden, and there used to 
water plants, shrubbery and fruit trees, or to cultivate garden vege- 
tables. Instead of by surface irrigation, the slop-water may be dis- 
charged into one or more lines of absorption drains, laid with open 
joints under the surface. For the smallest oottage, fifty feet of ab- 
sorption tiles are sufficient, and in proportion, as the quantity of 
household sewage increases, the amount of tiles should be increased. 
The principal points of importance are that the sewage be applied to 
the soil while fresh, and before decomposition sets in, that it should 
be applied in moderate quantities only, to prevent oversaturation of 
the soil, that the sewage be applied on or near the surface of the soil, 
within reach of the oxidizing influence of the air and of the bacteria 
in the soil, and, finally, that the application be made intermittent, so 
as to give the soil, after each discharge, a chance to breathe, as it 
were, and to allow the finer solid particles to be oxidized and destroy- 
ed. An easy method of accomplishing the disposal of slop-water, 
where the house contains no plumbing fixtures, is to have near the 
house a hopper or receiver of wood or rustless iron, or, better, of 
earthenware, and provided with a strainer and a proper cover. From 
this a pipe may be carried underground to the absorption tiles, while 
the house sewage may be carried to and discharged into the hopper 
by means of a pail, thus sending rapidly a full volume of slops at 
proper intervals into the absorption tiles. 



1889.] SECRETARY'S UK port. 177 

The solid excrements ;tre taken care of in the case of small cot- 
tages quite as readily and inoffensively by adopting an earth or ash 
closet, in place of the usual privy, still so much en vogue, although 
long ago unanimously condemned by practical sanitarians. In the 
application of the dry earth system sufficient dried earth, garden 
loam, or. sometimes coal ashes are mixed with the excreta to absorb 
all foulness, keep down all odor, and prevent putrefaction. Such 
earth closets work quite satisfactorily with only a little attention, and 
form a simple and cleanly substitute for the privy nuisance. They 
are manufactured in various grades, and with more or less complicated 
mechanism. As a rule, the simpler the arrangement, the better. If 
placed out of doors, the earth closet should not be located too far 
away from the house. The outer structure should be strong, sub- 
stantial, with a good roof to protect it against rain or dampness, well 
lighted, well ventilated, not too much exposed to the rays of the sun, 
and preferably plastered on the inside as a protection in cold weather. 
A carefully kept dry walk should lead to it from the house, and it is 
better to have the walk and the closet shed screened from view and 
from the prevailing winds. The excreta should be received in a mov- 
able wooden box, well tarred, or else in a galvanized iron pail, not too 
large, and of such shape and construction that it can easily be carried. 
The box or pail should lit close up under the seat, and each time the 
closet is used, ashes or dry earth should be used as deodorizers, being 
thrown down either by a handscoop or by a mechanical apparatus. 
There can be scarcely any doubt about the economy, efficiency, and 
convenience of such apparatus in the case of small houses. The 
property of dry earth, of not only deodorizing, but also absorbing, 
and rendering harmless excreta of animals has long been well known. 
Some difficulty has been experienced in cases where the earth was 
kept too damp. According to recent observations a much smaller 
quantity of earth is required for earth closets, if the separation of the 
liquids and solids is at once effected. This may be accomplished by 
intercepting the urine under the seat, and removing it by a v, 
pipe. The closet is thereby more easily kept free from smell, and if 
properly used and well taken care ofj it can lie located in an extension 
of a dwelling without becoming a nuisance. The dry earth manure 
ought to be removed at frequent intervals, and in summer time used 
and dug under the soil in the garden attached to tin; cottage. In 
winter time it may be dried in out-house and can then be applied 
over and over again. Ashes are sometim IS used in place of earth, or 
else finely powdered charcoal, which latter is a well known deodorizer. 



178 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

The latter can be applied with a mechanism similar to the one used 
in earth closets, and it is claimed that only about one-fourth the 
quantity will be needed. As charcoal is rather expensive this is an 
important consideration. Some also claim that removal need not be 
so frequent in the case of charcoal closets, but this is, at best, a doubt- 
ful advantage. 

In cottages, or suburban residences of somewhat more pretension, 
the earth closet is sometimes located, for conveniences sake, in an ex- 
tension of the cottage, and it then usually becomes desirable to have 
also a somewhat more convenient method of disposal of the slop- 
water, which would avoid exposure of the housewife or servant to the 
inclemencies of the weather. This may be secured by arranging a 
properly ventilated and trapped waste-pipe — a pipe two inches diame- 
ter is plenty large enough — to carry the waste from the kitchen sink, 
the laundry tub, and wherever this is provided for, from the bathtub, 
into a small receiving tank, located outside of the house, and placed 
below the depth to which frost usually penetrates. This tank may 
be a plain wooden box, or an earthen or iron tank, or finally a tank 
built of brickwork. It may be emptied in the plainest kind of an 
arrangement by hand, or else it may be discharged by an automatic 
device, such as a siphon, a tumbler tank, or other mechanical appliance. 
It may become useful, even in the case of small houses, to build some 
sort of a grease trap to prevent the grease from being discharged 
and finally clogging the small absorption pipes. It is, of course, 
assumed that the general topography of the lot is favorable to such 
an arrangement, in other words, that there is not a slope from the 
garden, or absorption field, toward the house, in which case disposal 
by gravity becomes impossible. If the earth closet is placed inside of 
a dwelling the same precautions should be observed which are taken 
in the case of water-closets. The ventilation of the apartment is an 
important matter, and should receive careful attention. As a rule, it 
is better to locate an earth closet in an isolated or detached part of 
the cottage. While an earth closet is inferior to the best water-closet, 
I have no hesitation in pronouncing it, if well taken care of, superior 
to many water-closets as usually arranged and kept. 

The question whether a farm house or laborer's small cottage should 
be provided at all with plumbing work, and above all, whether it is 
wise to have a water-closet indoors, which in turn requires a more or 
less complicated system of service pipes and a service cistern, is, more 
than anything else, one of convenience and comfort. The annoyance 
and cost of frequent repairs, and the difficulty in country districts of 



1889.] secretary's report. 170 

getting a mechanic to fix such apparatus when out of order, the dan- 
ger of exposed pipes and traps freezing in mid-winter, or sometimes 
the lack of an abundance of water for flushing, or the necessity of 
raising it by hand-pumping,— all these are considerations which may 
deter many from putting any plumbing work into their homes. It is 
undoubtedly much easier and less troublesome to deal with the sewage 
problem of cottages, if the strict separation of solids and liquids is 
adhered to. A water-closet in a house not only requires a larger dis- 
charge pipe than the two inch waste pipe for slop-water, but it com- 
plicates at once the whole arrangement. That it can be made quite 
safe, perfectly inodorous and inoffensive it is not necessary for me 
here to assert. Those who have followed the recent improvements 
in house drainage and plumbing work will know that it is possible to 
select a good water-closet and fit it up in such a way as to be in all 
respects satisfactory. In points of cleanliness, I think it certainly 
stands ahead of any other device. Its advantages are many, but its 
disadvantages under certain conditions ought not to be overlooked. 
If a water-closet is used in a cottage, the solids should not enter the 
outside tank for slop- water, for they would soon clog the siphon or 
the absorption tiles, but they should be intercepted in a settling cham- 
ber and frequently removed. How this may be done will be explained 
later on when detailed reference is made to larger country houses. 

The proper disposal of the sewage of larger country or suburban 
residences, fitted up with all the usual plumbing appliances, is often, 
indeed in most cases, a much more puzzliiig problem. What shall be, 
done with the more or less large daily volume of sewage of detached 
and isolated country houses, without creating a nuisance either on 
one's own premises or on those of the neighbors ? This is a question 
of much interest to thousands of householders who live in the better 
class of country or suburban houses, and who are often compelled to 
meet the difficulties as best they can. The problem has long engaged 
the attention of civil engineers, who make a specialty of sanitary 
drainage, and while it is possible that the best solution has not vet 
been discovered, there are several methods which arc in more or less 
successful use. Whatever method of disposal of the sewage may be 
adopted, it is obvious that one must decide about it before arranging 
the house drainage system inside of a house, for the best arrangement 
of the main drain and its branches iu the cellar or basement of a 
house will depend npon the direction in which the Bewage tank will 
be erected, or upon the location of the final outlet. General!} speak- 



180 STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

ing, an isolated country house, not in reach of sewers, may dispose of 
its sewage by one or the other of the following methods : 

1. It may discharge its sewage into an open surface ditch or gut- 
ter, removing everything from the house, and carrying the wastes into 
a more or less distant sink hole,, or to some low spot where the sewage 
is allowed to soak away and to evaporate slowly. This method, based 
on the principal of "out of sight, out of mind," is a very primitive 
one, and one that has not a single feature of merit. As a rule, such 
a system becomes highly offensive to the immediate vicinity of the 
house. 

2. The house drain may empty the sewage into a large open or 
leaching cesspool, allowing the liquids to ooze away through under- 
ground porous strata, or by fissures and cracks in the rock. This, 
although a very common method of disposal, is in reality one very 
dangerous to health, particularly so where the water supply is local, 
being derived from a well, a cistern or spring on the premises. It is 
a method uttterly to be condemned as both unsafe and nasty. 

The most primitive form of cesspool is a hole dug in the ground, 
into which all the sewage is continually poured, the result expected 
being that at least the liquid will soak away through unknown under- 
ground recesses, and disappear. Occasionally the sides of such a cess- 
pool are lined with loose stones, laid dry, the liquid sewage escaping 
at the numerous open joints into the surrounding soil, while more or 
less of the solid matter and grease are retained in the cesspool, under- 
going at once a very dangerous process of decomposition,- in the pres- 
ence of moisture, heat and darkness — all conditions known to be par- 
ticularly favorable to the growth of dangerous bacteria or germs of 
disease. In dealing with sewage, a cardinal principle, always to be 
observed, is to avoid all stagnation. In the leaching cesspool we have 
the worst possible example of stagnation and of accumulation of 
putrefying filth on our premises. The great objection to a leaching 
cesspool is not only that it constitutes in itself an abominable nui- 
sance, comparable to a powder magazine, which merely needs a single 
spark to create destruction, but that it unavoidably and. invariably 
pollutes the subsoil in the neighborhood of dwellings, contaminates 
the water supply, and renders the air which we breathe obnoxious by 
its exhalations. If we consider for a moment that such isolated coun- 
try dwellings and farm houses, which are not in reach of sewers, also 
do not usually enjoy the benefit of a public water supply, but must 
derive their potable water from wells, cisterns or springs on the prem- 
ises, the full extent of the evil and the force of our objections become 



1889. J secretary's report. 181 

more apparent. It is, indeed, of the utmost importance that the local 
water supply of isolated dwellings be kept as clear and free from con- 
tamination as possible ; but even supposing that water is introduced 
from a street or public supply, the enormous evils of soil pollution 
and air contamination remain. Two thousand years ago, an old phil- 
osopher, Hippocrates, preached a sanitary formula, which has not 
been improved up to the present day. Recognizing the dangers to 
health resulting from neglect of sanitary precautions, he expressed his 
advice in the words, "pare air, pure water, and a pure soil." What, 
then, shall we say if some of our best architects of the present day 
persist in suggesting as the most convenient and ready means of get- 
ting rid of the sewage of a country house the adoption of a leaching 
cesspool? 

I admit that in sparsely populated country districts a leaching cess- 
pool, located at a great distance from, and at a lower level than, the 
house, may sometimes be used without causing any harm to the occu- 
pants of the house. As a matter of principle, however, sanitary 
science must condemn such devices in every case. If the principle 
is true that we should speedily return all organic dirt and filth to the 
earth, it should be carried out in such a manner that the soil may 
accomplish the complete destruction of organic filth. We shall see, 
further on, that this can be done only near the surface of the soil, 
and by application of the sewage before it becomes putrid. 

In pouring our sewage into leaching cesspools, on the contrary, we 
bury all matter deep in the ground, remote from the cleansing, ox- 
idizing effect of the atmosphere, of the purifying action of plant life, 
ami of the help which is rendered by some of the low organisms, or 
so-called bacteria, in the process of nitrification and destruction of 
organic matter. 

Then, again, another important consideration should not be lost 
sight of, namely, that often where a leaching cesspool cannot work 
any danger to our own house, our own well or spring, it may pollute 
shallow or dee}) wells belonging to adjoining estates. It is, therefore, 
evident that as habitations are grouped closely together, leaching c 
pools become more and more inadmissible. If we are Belfish enough 
to locate such a cesspool in the remotest and lowest corner of our own 
garden, entirely forgetful of its immediate proximity to our neigh- 
bor's drinking-water well, it is hut perfectly proper that our health 
authorities should remind us that, we have some obligations to fulfill 
against our neighbors. 

Occasionally, such cesspools are built with the sides solid, leaving 



182 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

only the bottom loose for the escape of sewage, or in cases where they 
are originally open on the sides, the pores soon clog, and the removal 
of the liquid then takes place in a very imperfect manner. 

3. The house drain may deliver the sewage into a tightly built 
cesspool, provided with an overflow pipe carried into some ditch or 
watercourse. Such an arrangement may be considered a direct out- 
come of the leaching cesspool. Desiring to avoid the pollution of 
the soil, the architect or owner built the cesspool with tight sides and 
bottom, but, finding that it would rapidly fill up, and that frequent 
pumping out would be expensive, an overflow was taken from the 
cesspool, and the surplus of liquid sewage carried away. While such 
a tight cesspool with overflow located far away from the house, and 
with the overflow carried into some large volume of rapidly flowing 
water, may be unobjectionable, where but little water is used in a 
house, the arrangement constitutes in the case of larger houses a 
fearful nuisance, for the sewage is already putrid when removed. 

4. The alternative is to empty the sewage into a cesspool built ab- 
solutely tight, and without overflow. Such a cesspool avoids the pol- 
lution of the water supply, and also the contamination of the subsoil. 
It is, therefore, an arrangement much to be preferred to a leaching 
cesspool, and permissible under certain circumstances. Perhaps I 
should rather call it a sometimes necessary evil, for it should be 
borne in mind that it involves a long temporary storage, and does 
not effect an immediate or nearly immediate disposal. Hence it can- 
not be approved from a sanitary jioint of view, and its objections are 
many and serious ones. Since it is the object of all good drainage to 
get rid of filth from the premises at once, or else to dispose of it on 
the premises while fresh, so as to be completely taken up by vegeta- 
tion and purified by the soil, it is evident that a vast receptacle of 
accumulated filth cannot be considered a sanitary device. The stag- 
nating sewage within the walls of the cesspool undergoes a process of 
decomposition, and the gases generated are extremely unwholesome, 
often causing, by improper escape, or by entrance into houses through 
the sewer pipes, a nuisance. To ventilate such a cesspool successfully 
is rather a difficult, and often an impossible, matter. 

To overcome some of these objections, it is the habit of some archi- 
tects to use two cesspools for a single house, delivering into the one 
all water-closet wastes, while the other one is intended for the recep- 
tion of kitchen and laundry water. I do not approve of such an 
arrangement. Practically, it is found that after awhile both cess- 
pools do not differ materially, as regards the degree of putrefaction 



1889.] secretary's report. L83 

and offensive ness of their contents ; nor can I see any sense in dupli- 
cating or multiplying the dangers which adhere to all cesspool 
arrangements. 

There are some cases where no good feasible way of dealing with 
sewage may be advised other than to run it into a tight cesspool. In 
that case, the following precautions are to be observed : The eese 
should be located as far away from the house as possible, and there 
should be proper disconnection between the house and the i 
Tlic latter should be built in two compartments, the first of which 
constitutes an intercepting chamber for the solids, while the second 
and larger chamber will receive the liquids. Both chambers should 
be built thoroughly tight, of hard-bnrned brick, laid in hydraulic 
cement, preferably of a circular shape, and the walls should be well 
rendered inside and outside with Portland cement. Each chamber 
should be arched over and topped with a manhole, covered with a 
tight iron cover. The cesspool should be as well ventilated as it is 
possible to do, and it should be emptied, cleaned and disinfected at 
frequent intervals. The separation of the liquid from the solid mat- 
ter facilitates much the disposal of both. The liquids may be bailed, 
or better, pumped out, and used to sprinkle and irrigate the lawn, 
or kitchen garden, shrubbery, vine trellis or apple orchard. The 
solids should be removed and dug as fertilizers under the soil. The 
oftener this is done the better, and the less offense will be caused by 
the application of sewage to land. 

Some objections to a cesspool always remain. If it is built, as it 
should be, absolutely tight, and of moderate size only, to avoid the 
retention of too large a volume of sewage, then the necessity of fre- 
quent pumping arises, and with it the annoyance of constant atten- 
tion and of manual labor. If we enlarge the dimensions of the 
pool to avoid the frequency of pumping out, we increase the dan 
alwaps resulting from stagnant sewage, and create, as it were, a I 
gasometer for noxious gases. 

5. If a stream of running water, either a brook, river, canal or 
tidal estuary is available, at not too great a distance, a single house 
may sometimes discharge its sewage into it, trusting to the dilation 
of the sewage and to the self-purification of the stream to render the 
Bewage innocuous. This method, simple and convenient as it may 
appear, cannot be regarded as permissible in all cases. It is a 
method which, especially if the current is not rapid, and the volume 
of water in the stream not large, may cause serious annoyance and 
offense, and hence must be condemned as crude and imperfect : for. 



184 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

by pouring the filth into the nearest water course, we simply remove 
the fevil from one place to another, without attempting to abate the 
nuisance. Again, it should be remembered, that what may be feasi- 
ble and unobjectionable for a single house, is not practicable in the 
case of a number of adjoining isolated country houses. The pollution 
of creeks, rivers and streams must be avoided, especially of those 
water courses serving as a source of supply of potable water for villages 
and towns located along the banks of these streams, and from which 
canal boats or river craft draw their drinking and cooking water. 
Riparian dwellers always suffer by direct discharge of unpurified sew- 
age into water courses. The watering of cattle, and washing and 
bathing in the river are thereby often rendered impossible ; while 
more or less damage is done to fish culture, particularly where the 
sevvase is discharged in a putrid condition. "While it is a well-known 
fact that some kinds of fish feed on fresh sewage matter, others, par- 
ticularly salmon and trout, appear to be very delicate, and usually 
suffer from the pollution of streams. 

Channels with tidal flow, finally, should not receive sewage, for 
much of the solid matter discharged into them will repeatedly float 
up and down with the ebb and flow of the tide, instead of being at 
once removed. Offensive odors pervade the air, the banks will become 
defiled, the river beds silt up, and the channels gradually become ob- 
structed. 

6. Houses located at or near the seashore have, sometimes, no 
other available outlet for the discharge of their sewage than the 
ocean ; but, although at first blush a ready means of getting rid of 
sewage, such a discharge is seldom permissible. Experience has 
demonstrated the unpleasant fact that floating sewage matter, dis- 
charged into the sea, may return to the shore with the tide, or 
through the action of eddies, currents, winds and waves. The sandy 
beaches become polluted, and the damage inflicted may seriously 
interfere with the use of the beach for bathing or recreation pur- 
poses. The direct discharge into the sea is only practicable where 
the sewage outfall from houses on the cliffs or near the beach is car- 
ried far out into deep water, and all sewage matter carried away by 
some strong currents setting in at right angles to the sewage outfall, 
or about parallel to the line of the beach. 

7. It is obvious, therefore, that in the majority of instances, house 
sewage cannot be directly admitted into water courses or streams of 
any kind, nor into the sea, without creating a nuisance to sight, smell, 
or a danger to health. As far as practicable it should first be purified 



1880.] secretary's report. 185 

by removing the suspended impurities, and at least a part of the mat- 
ters in solution. The purification may be effected by various meth- 
ods, such as artificial filtration, chemical treatment, or by the appli- 
cation of sewage to land. After being purified by mechanical or 
chemical processes, sewage can sometimes be admitted directly into 
streams, in other cases, however, it becomes desirable that it be fur- 
ther purified or utilized on land. 

I shall not stop to consider the question of artificial filter-beds, for, 
to my knowledge, such a system has never been used in the United 
States, in connection with the sewage from houses. I desire only to 
refer to a very ingenious mechanical filter, invented in England, and 
recently introduced into fliis country. It is known as the Farquhar- 
Oldham filter. The chief characteristic of this machine is the re- 
volving cutter, which is so arranged that whenever the surface of the 
filtering medium clogs up with sewage sludge, it can be removed by 
said cutter in a few moments, whereby practically a new filter is estab- 
lished. This operation may be repeated as often as found necessary. 
While I have not personally made use of this filter for purifying* the 
sewage from isolated country houses, I understand that it is in suc- 
cessful use at a country house at Seabright, Xew Jersey, and else- 
where. Wherever no system of sewage purification by application to 
land is possible, I believe this method will form a successful solution 
of the problem, although many will hesitate to adopt it, owing to its 
cost. The best filtering material for such apparatus is sawdust, which, 
when removed, can be readily utilized, to fire up the boilers needed 
for the sewage pumps. 

8. Sewage from isolated country houses may be purified on the 
premises by chemical treatment. By this method the suspended and 
a part of the dissolved impurities are precipitated by means of chem- 
icals. Quite a large number of chemical processes have been in- 
vented, but none of them have attained any very extensive use. 
One <il' the most common processes consists in the addition of milk 
of lime to sewage. Much more effective than this are solutions of 
sulphate of alumina, or of perchloride of iron. Such chemical pre- 
cipitation, while not accomplishing a very thorough purification, re- 
moves the impurities to such an extent as to permit a discharge into 
a tidal river or a large stream. Occasionally, however, as stated 
above, the clarified liquid is applied to land for further rarification. 

In selecting a precipitant, preference should be given to one which 
accomplishes the process of subsidence with rapidity; at the same 
time it should be remembered, in choosing a precipitant, that it 
u 



186 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

should produce a sludge of minimum bulk with maximum amount 
of solid impurities. In both respects, milk of lime is inferior to the 
other chemicals mentioned above. 

A difficulty adhering to all chemical precipitation processes is the 
disposal of the sewage sludge. It usually contains, after precipita- 
tion, from 90 to 95 per cent, of water, and unless the latter is removed 
it soon decomposes and becomes offensive. It has been suggested to 
evaporate this water by artificial heat, bat such a process is expensive. 
Others have proposed the separation of the liquid matter from the 
solid in centrifugal machines. In some instances, sludge is pumped 
directly from the precipitation tanks to land, where it is left exposed 
to the air, and when comparatively dry is dug into the ground. In 
some patented processes, such chemicals are added as enable the man- 
ufacture of brick or of cement from the sludge. More recently, 
powerful filter-presses have been used, which offer great advantages. 
By means of these the sludge is quickly pressed into cakes, which 
may be sold as manure to farmers, and not being bulky, enable a bet- 
ter transportation for long distances. 

Chemical treatment must sometimes be adopted where land is not 
available for purification purposes, or where its high price precludes 
any efforts to obtain an area sufficiently large for irrigation. It may, 
at times, become necessary to resort to it, where the soil is underlaid 
with rocks. Again, chemical precipitation may be combined with 
the application of sewage to land, in which case a much smaller irri- 
gation or filtration area is sufficient. But all this refers more to the 
sewage from large institutions or from villages or towns. 

Chemical treatment is not well adapted to single, isolated dwell- 
ings. The process implies the construction of tanks, the provision 
of suitable chemicals, the careful and thorough mixing of the sewage 
with the chemicals, all of which calls for considerable expense. Apart 
from this consideration, such a manipulation of sewage is not desir- 
able on the premises, and in the vicinity of dwelling-houses. 

It may be said in general, that whatever the chemical treatment 
may be, it Avill be wise not to have too much faith in the realization 
of a large commercial profit from the sewage treatment. Far better 
to make the ultimate purification of the sewage the chief end in view. 
It is also well to remember that in certain chemical processes, the 
effluent water is of such a character that, if discharged into brooks 
or rivers, it may kill fish and cause an injury to fish culture. Chlo- 
ride of lime is particularly objectionable. Sulphurous and hydro- 
chloric acids are also said to be very hurtful. 



1889.] secretary's report. 18*3 

9. Wherever a Bufflcieni ;iro.'i of land is available, and the layout 
of the land and the character of the soil are favorable, sewage may 
be disposed of, and purified on the premises by applying it to the 
land. Generally speaking, the application of sewage to land forms 
the best solution of the problem of sewage disposal. N >t thai it 
enables us to derive much profit from its utilization — this should al- 
ways be a secondary consideration, in the case of larger institutions 
or towns not less than in the ea.se of single houses — but by appl; 
sewage to land it is always possible to effect its purification to such an 
extent as to avoid the usual fouling of surface or subterranean water 
courses. While chemical precipitation and mechanical filtration may 
be considered artificial processes, the purification of sewage by the 
soil is a natural process, completing one of the constant round 
circulations going on in Nature. The water on the globe furnishes 
an example of such a circulation going on forever. Arising as a 
vapor from the ocean, and from large exposed surfaces of flowing 
water, it is carried along in the upper strata of the atmosphere by 
currents of air, and forms clouds, from which it is again precipitated 
upon the surface of the earth in the form of rain, snow, hail, or dew. 
A part of this storm water is immediately evaporated and returns to 
the clouds, another pari flows off on the surface forming ively 

springs, brooks, rivers, streams — all flowing toward the great ocean, 
while a third part soaks into the ground, and is partially absorbed by 
tation, and partly forms underground streams of water with an in- 
clination toward some stream, or else forms springs, which finally 
come out at the surface. 

Another example of a constant round in Nature is afforded by the 
circulation going on between animal and vegetable life. Plants are 
nourished, and grow upon decomposed animal matter, effect] 
change of tho mces which might become dangerous to animal 

life, into harmless food substances for the roots of plants. The same 
plants, perhaps, form the nourishment for man and animals, and are 
again discarded to Eei d vegetal ion. 

The whole process of water circulation has never been better de- 
scribed than in the words of Mr. F. 0. Ward, at the General Cong 
of Hygiene, at Brussels, in 1856. These words, quoted by Mr. Edwin 
Ghadwick, the nestoj of Banitary science in England, in an address 
on " Circulation or Stagnation," are as follows : 

"The water which falls on the hills in a state of purity undergoes 
a natural process of filtration through sand, enters the rural collecting 



188 STATE BOARD OP HEALTH. [1889. 

pipes, and passing through the aqueduct to the metropolitan distri- 
bution pipes, finds its way to every story of every house in the town ; 
whence again, after having supplied the wants of the inhabitants, it 
runs off, enriched with fertilizing matter, which it carries away before 
allowing it time to ferment. This manure, driven along irrigation 
pipes, is deposited in the soil, leaving the water to pass into drainage 
pipes, and flow on to the rivers. The rivers conduct it to the ocean, 
where it rises as vapor under the heat of the sun, to redescend as rain 
on the hills, enter again the collection pipes, and recommence its vast 
and useful course of circulation." 

But let us return to the consideration of the application of sewage 
from isolated country houses to land. The conditions of successful- 
application are a sufficiently large area of suitable, absorbent, well 
aerated, properly prepared and thoroughly under drained soil. I 
should, perhaps, add to these a few other conditions, namely, the 
proper and judicious management, careful and equal distribution, 
and, before all, the intermittent application of sewage to the soil, 
which latter is so needed to insure its aeration. 

The land selected for the purification of the sewage should not be 
located too near a dwelling. In particular, if wells are used, it should 
be kept at a safe distance from them, the exact distance depending 
not so much on the configuration or slope of the surface as upon the 
inclination of the underground geological formation and strata. 

We may distinguish several systems, namely, broad sewage irriga- 
tion, intermittent downward filtration and sub-surface irrigation. 
The Eeport of the Royal Commission on Metropolitan Sewage Dis- 
charge, published in 1884, defines broad irrigation as "the distribu- 
tion of sewage over a large surface of ordinary agricultural ground, 
having in view a maximum growth of vegetation, consistent with due 
purification, for the amount of sewage supplied." The same report 
speaks of intermittent downward filtration as " the concentration of 
sewage at short intervals on an area of especially chosen porous 
ground, as small as will absorb and retain it, not excluding vegeta- 
tion, but making the produce of secondary importance." In the first 
system, the sewage flows principally over the land, in the latter sys- 
tem it passes through the land. Sub-surface irrigation is a modifica- 
tion of the filtration system, in which the sewage is distributed in a 
network of tile pipes, close under the surface of the ground, whereby 
all offense to sight or smell is at once overcome. It is obvious that 
this is an important consideration wherever sewage irrigation is to be 
practiced close to a dwelling-house. 



1889.] secretary's report. 189 

Broad irrigation requires very Large areas of land. The land must 
not be continuously Hooded, so that in order to manage an irrigation 
farm successfully, it is, at least, advisable to have pieces of fallow 
laud, and to distribute the sewage on different portions on alternating 
days. By passing sewage through a properly prepared filtration area, 
we are enabled to effect the purification of a much larger volume, 
provided we maintain an intermittent discharge, so as to secure 
thorough aeration. 

In all methods of application of sewage to land, it is advisable to 
intercept, at least, the coarser suspended organic matters contained 
in sewage, which should be dealt with separately. The irrigation 
Held must in all cases be properly and thoroughly under drained. 
The preparation of the surface of the land should be simple and in- 
expensive, and must depend somewhat on the general topography of 
the field, as well as upon the kind of vegetation which it is intended 
to raise from sewage. It is important that the sewage be distributed 
evenly and in as fresh condition as possible. Much the best plan to 
secure an intermittent discharge and to avoid an irregular and trick- 
ling flow, is to collect the sewage from the house in a self-acting flush- 
tank. Wherever possible the sewage should be conveyed to the latter 
by gravitation, and the location of the irrigation field should be se- 
lected accordingly. Occasionally, however, pumping becomes a ne- 
cessity, and this may be accomplished either by a steam pump, a gas 
or hot air engine, or a windmill. 

I shall, hereafter, dwell more at length upon the sub-surface irriga- 
tion system, and shall explain some of its details, because I regard it 
as *he best available system for the disposal of liquid and semi-liquid 
wastes of isolated country houses. Before doing so, it may be well 
to sum up what I have said about the methods available for disposing 
of sewage of isolated country houses. 

Such houses as are not in reach of sewers can dispose of their liquid 
sewage in some cases by a direct discharge into a stream (taking this 
wmd in its widest significance) or into the sea. As a rule, however, 
it is absolutely necessary, and vastly better to adopt some system of 
purification on the premises. Of systems of sewage purification, ap- 
plication to the soil is [(referable to mechanical lilt ration, or to chem- 
ical precipitation. The latter methods should only be resorted to 
where no land suitable for disposal is obtainable. Of the methods 
of applying sewage to land, broad irrigation is least favorable, as it 
requires a large area of land, and m eases where the Held is located 
close to the house, it becomes objectionable. Intermittent downward 



190 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

filtration, while requiring a much smaller surface, is yet open to the 
second objection made to surface irrigation. Far preferable, for single 
houses and isolated institutions, is the sub-surface irrigation system. 
Leaching cesspools are absolutely inadmissible, and the same is true of 
tight cesspools with overflows into a ditch or water course. In a few 
cases it may be necessary to adopt a perfectly tight cesspool without 
overflow, and to pump the liquid out at frequent intervals, distrib- 
uting it on the land. This alternative should be resorted to only 
where all other methods prove objectionable or impracticable. 

In the following I shall dwell more at length upon the disposal of 
sewage hy sub-surface irrigation, for, in my judgment, this is the most 
available system for the disposal of liquid and semi-liquid wastes of 
isolated country houses. The system has long ago attracted public 
attention, and has, in recent years, been taken up by the foremost 
sanitary engineers, for more than any other method, it promises the 
entirely successful solution of the problem of sewage disposal for iso- 
lated houses. It certainly recommends itself, owing to the peculiar 
facilities for disposing of sewage without creating an offense to sight 
or smell, for it is only too well known that open or surface irrigation 
becomes, in many cases, exceedingly objectionable in close contiguity 
to mansions or dwellings. 

The origin of the sub-surface irrigation system is usually attributed 
to the Eev. Henry Moale, Vicar of Fordington, the inventor of the 
earth-closet. He looked upon it as the best solution of the slop- 
water disposal question for cottages which adopted the earth-closet 
system. But according to Mr. Edwin (J had wick, sub-surface irriga- 
tion had previously been tried independently and systematically on«a 
large scale by M. Charpentier, a French vine-grower, near Bordeaux. 
Mr. Chadwick states that the results which the latter obtained with 
vines and fruits, as well as with market-garden produce, were most 
satisfactory. The system would probably never have grown to its 
present popularity had it not been for Mr. Sogers Field, Mem. Inst. 
C. E., who, recognizing the desirability of intermittent action, in- 
vented his automatic flush-tank, which he applied successfully to the 
disposal of liquid household wastes. His first experiments were made 
at some laborers' cottages, belonging to his own estate at Sheffield, in 
Essex. Since then the system has been adapted to all possible condi- 
tions, and has given such satisfaction that it is now considered admir- 
ably suited to isolated houses not in reach of a sewer, but having 
sufficient porous or well-drained ground about them, with favorable 
lay of the land. Col. Geo. E. Waring, Jr., was the first to try the 



1839.] secretary's report. 191 

system in this country, about liftccn years ago. Finding that it 
worked satisfactorily in the case of his own residence in Newport. R. 
I., then not in reach of a sewer, he adopted it afterward with, bui 
for the disposal of sewage of cottages and suburban residences, and 
on a larger scale for the purification of sewage at the women's reform- 
atory prison at Sherburne, Mass., the Keystone Hotel, at Bryn Miwr, 
Pa., and at Lenox, Mass., for the sewage of the whole village. Since 
a Dumber of years the system has been extensively applied by many 
sanitary and landscape engineers, and by a few progressive archit. 
for the disposal of sewage of isolated country houses or institutions 
not within reach of sewers, but liberally supplied with water and 
plumbing appliances. 

The system is based upon the well-known fact that the aerated lay- 
ers of soil next to the surface, the sub-surface as it were, possess in a 
high degree the power of destroying organic substances buried in them, 
by nitrification and oxidation, aided during a part of the year by 
vegetation, and assisted at all times by minute organisms or bacteria. 
The latter play an important part in the round of changes in Nature. 
"They are," says Tyndall, "by no means purely useless or purely 
mischievous in the economy of nature. They are only noxious when 
out of their proper place. They exercise a useful and valuable 
function as the burner* ii ltd consu /tiers of dead matter, animal and 
vegetable, reducing such matter with a rapidity otherwise unattain- 
able to innocent carbonic acid and water. Furthermore, they are not 
all alike, and it is only restricted classes of them that are really dan- 
gerous to man. One difference in their habits is worthy of special 
reference here. Air, or rather the oxygen of the air, which is ab- 
solutely necessary to the support of the bacteria of putrefaction, is, 
according to Pasteur, absolutely deadly to the vibrios which provoke 
butyric acid fermentation." 

I lay particular stress upon the importance of distributing the sew- 
close to the surface of the soil, at a depth not exceeding It) or 12 
inches. Aeration is a conditio sine qua non of the whole system. 
A' greater depths oxidation and purification become very much 
slower, until they finally cease altogether. The subsoil is not able 
to effect a complete purification of Bewage, as the oxidizing influence 
of the atmosphere does not so freely reach it. It is the layer of 
earth next to the surface, the sub-su rf'ace, which acts on the Bewage. 
Hence the name of the sy-teni is derived, and it is an error, commit- 
ted quite frequently, and to which I have more than once called at- 
tention, to call the system " subsoil" irrigation. 



192 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

We see, then, that only where sewage is distributed close to the 
surface, where sufficient oxygen attaches to the particles of the soil, 
are the organic matters in it taken up as nourishment by the roots of 
plants, and reduced or destroyed by the bacteria in the soil. The 
liquid sewage, freed of its coarser impurities, soaks away into the 
porous ground, and thus becomes still more clarified by filtration, so 
that when removed by deep under-drains, it is generally found to be 
quite clear, colorless, free of taste or smell. By arranging an inter- 
mittent discharge, the upper layers of the soil are enabled to take up 
oxygen during intervals between discharges, and to prepare for the 
next volume of sewage, while the ground is prevented from becoming 
saturated, wet and swampy. 

There is a radical difference between such a system and a loose or 
leaching cesspool. With the latter the area of soil used for purifica- 
tion is quite small as compared with the former, where the surface 
can be chosen in proportion to the amount of sewage to be disposed 
of, which is not a feasible thing to do with a cesspool. "We all know 
that even in the case of a leaching cesspool, newly built and first put 
to use, some purification of the sewage which oozes out at its pores is 
accomplished by mechanical filtration. After some use, however, its 
pores clog up, and the soil around the cesspool becomes saturated 
with sewage matter, undergoing, in the absence of oxygen, a very 
slow process of decomposition. The sewage soaks away unpurified, 
polluting springs and wells, and the unwholesome gases generated 
taint the ground air, and, being given off at the surface, frequently 
enter our houses. It is for these reasons that all sanitarians look 
upon a leaching cesspool as a nuisance and a standing danger to 
health. 

Briefly described, the sub-surface irrigation system consists of two 
parts : First— An absolutely tight receptacle, or sewage tank for 
liquid household wastes, including the contents of water-closets. 
Second — A network of common distribution drain tiles, laid a few 
inches below the surface of the ground, with open joints, so as to 
permit the liquid to ooze out at numerous points. This network 
of pipes, buried in the ground, constitutes the irrigation field. 

As stated heretofore, it is an important condition to insure the suc- 
cessful working of the system, that the discharge of sewage from the 
sewage tank to the irrigation field be intermittent, and that, instead 
of a constant, dribbling stream from the tank, there be a powerful 
rush of sewage in a large volume, so as to secure an even distribution 
and the perfect filling up of all pipes. It is, to say the least, desir- 



1889.] secretary's bepobt. 193 

altle that the discharge should not occur more frequently than once a 
day, that is, every twenty-four hours, and the size of the tank should 
be governed hereby. 

The soil of the field should, preferably, be gravelly and porous. 
All tight clay soils, and ground liable to dampness, should be prop- 
erly under drained by deep land drains. The sub-irrigation field 
should not be located too near a house, wherever there is abund- 
ance of land favorably located, permitting the sewage to flow away 
by gravity. As a matter of precaution, it is well that some attention 
be paid, in locating the irrigation field, to the direction of the pre- 
vailing winds, although as a matter of fact, a properly working irri- 
gation field is quite inodorous. So much is this the case that the 
tiles may be, and in practice often are, laid under the well-kept 
lawns adjoining summer residences, without ever causing an offense. 
Another precaution to be observed where the water supply of a conn- 
try house is derived from wells or springs, is, that the field should 
not be located near them. 

The preparation of the sub-surface of the field is accomplished in 
the following manner : Common un glazed agricultural tiles, two 
inches inside diameter and one foot in length, are laid 8 or 10 inches 
below the surface on continuous boards, or, better, in gutters of earth- 
enware, laid accurately in the trenches at the uniform grade required. 
Should the tiles ever clog up, it thus becomes an easy task to take 
them up, to clean them and to relay them in the gutters, an opera- 
tion readily performed by a common laborer. It is quite important 
that there should be between the tiles at each joint, a space of abont 
£ inch to facilitate the oozing out of the sewage. Small earthen caps 
about 3 inches long are placed over the ends of tilee at each joint to 
protect it from dirt or earth falling from above. It is not necessary to 
give the absorption tiles a greater fall than about two or three inches 
per 100 feet, for if laid at too steep a grade the sewage would rush to 
the lowest level and saturate that part of the irrigation field. It 
should be noted that much of the success of the system depends 
upon the accuracy with which the distribution tiles are laid. They 
should branch out from the bottom of the main carrying conduit, 
and special T or Y branches are manufactured for this purpose. The 
main drain should be laid at least two feet deep, and the '-3-inch 
branches should be cemented until they strike the proper depth of 8 
or 10 inches. The main drain conducting the sewage from the flush- 
tank to the irrigation Held should be I inches in diameter, except in 
the cnse of large institutions, when the size of the tlush-tank often 



194 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

requires a 6-inch main conduit. It can be laid with as much fall as 
the layout of the land will require, but where it approaches the ab- 
sorption field its fall should be limited to 4 or 6 inches in 100 feet, to 
prevent the sewage from running to the lower part of the field, over- 
charging the lower lines of drains. The distance between the lines 
should average about 5 feet. The ramification and the general layout 
of the lines will depend on the contour lines of the land. In the case 
of level ground the lines may be parallel to each other. 

The number of feet of tiles which it is necessary to lay will depend 
upon the quantity of sewage delivered each day. It will vary, more- 
over, for like quantities of sewage, with the general character and 
porosity of the soil of the absorption field. Wherever the soil con- 
sists of a heavy clay or is liable to be wet or swampy, it is absolutely 
necessary to thoroughly under drain the field by a complete system of 
agricultural tiles, laid at a depth of from 4 to 5 feet, removing and 
discharging the purified sewage as well as any excess of soil moisture. 

The flush-tank is usually built of hard-burnt brick, laid ill hydraulic 
cement mortar, and made perfectly water tight. 

An important and most necessary precaution to prevent the clog- 
ging of the siphon, which empties the tank, or of the distribution 
tiles, is to build in connection with the flush-tank, and between the 
house and the latter, an intercepting chamber or grease trap, intended 
to intercept all solids, undissolved paper and fatty waste matters from 
the kitchen. Such a chamber is, in a certain sense, a cesspool, al- 
though it differs from the ordinary objectionable device of this kind 
in having its liquid contents frequently changed, and in being built 
of small size. Its emptying and cleaning must, of course, by no 
means be neglected. Much of the solid matter and -paper, etc., is 
reduced by maceration and decomposition, and flows dissolved by 
water into the liquid sewage chamber. The overflow pipe connecting 
both must dip well below the surface of the water level in the first 
chamber to prevent scum or grease from over-flowing into the flush- 
tank. The flush-tank proper should, generally, be built circular in 
shape, and of a size to hold one day's volume of sewage. The liquid 
wastes from the household are retained in this tank until it is filled, 
when its whole contents are suddenly delivered into the main drain, 
and thence into the irrigation tiles, whereby all the rows of tiles are 
uniformly charged, and the whole' of the absorption field is brought 
into use each time the tank is emptied. If the sewage is discharged 
suddenly in a large volume, it oozes out, not only at the bottom, but 
also at the sides and top of each joint. The purification begins at 



1889.] secretary's report. 195 

once. The clarified liquid soaks away into the ground, the impurities 
being retained by the earth, where they are quickly destroyed. Air 
enters the pores of the soil and prepares it for future use, while the 
tank is gradually filling for the next discharge. 

The interval required between two consecutive discharges, the exact 
proportion between capacity of tank and size of house, between size 
of tank and number of feet of drain tiles, etc., are details requiring 
judgment, skill and experience, and which must be left to be deter- 
mined in each individual case separately. 

To discharge the flush-tank, recourse may be had to various me- 
chanical appliances. The simplest arrangement, but one that requires 
daily attendance and some manual labor, is to place a gate valve at 
the outlet pipe leading from the bottom of the tank, which valve is 
opened or closed by hand whenever the tank becomes filled. This 
arrangement may answer for smaller country houses, in which the 
amount of water used is limited, being usually pumped into the tank 
by hand. An automatic device is preferable in many respects. This 
may be either a tumbler or tilting tank, or one of several siphon de- 
vices now in the market. I have, so far, found none better nor 
cheaper than ihe annular siphon, as devised by Mr. Rogers Field, 
C. E. If space would permit, I should illustrate and describe the 
manner in which I usually arrange it, but this is not possible. 

My description of the system of sewage disposal by sub-surface irri- 
gation is, I trust, sufiiciently definite to give a correct general idea of 
it. Having spoken so much in its favor, it is but proper that I should 
notice and mention the objections which are, at times, brought for- 
ward both by professional and by laymen against the system. 

1. It is sometimes feared that the land into which sewage is con- 
tinually poured will, after some years, become saturated with sew 
its surface wet or swampy, and the whole of the irrigation field a 
huge eesspOol, spread out laterally instead of downward. Tin ir 
however, absolutely no reason for apprehending such trouble. Where- 
ever the sod is not naturally loose and porous, under drainage is essen- 
tial and must be provided for. If properly carried out, all superfluous 
moisture in the ground will be removed. Aeration is another essen- 
tial condition, and wherever it is neglected the soil maj become satu- 
rated with sewage matters. Finally, intermitfency of discharge is 

required, with intervals of at least twenty-four hours between CO! 

utive emptyings of the flush-tank. Under drainage of the soil and 
intermittent action of the flush-tank secure the much desired aera- 
tion of the sub-surface. This secured, oxidation and nitrification, 



196 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

and the destruction of the organic particles attaching to the earth 
will follow with regularity. 

2. Much apprehension is often felt lest such a system will not 
work properly in winter time, and fear is expressed about the freezing 
up of the ground about the absorption tiles. Experience with the 
system in the coldest parts of the New England States has fully re- 
moved any doubts on this point. Where the system has been in con- 
tinuous use, summer and winter, it is found by practical experience 
that the warmth of the sewage is sufficient to keep the ground at the 
disposal field from freezing. 

3. It is often objected that the necessary intercepting chamber for 
solids is in reality a cesspool. This is true to some extent ; neverthe- 
less, I always advise to build this chamber in connection with the 
flush-tank, but I use the utmost precaution in its construction to 
make it perfectly tight. As regards this intercepting chamber, it 
should be remembered that the liquid sewage in it is constantly 
changed, for a large volume of water passes through it every day. 
Although the chamber retains organic waste matter partially putre- 
fied, the amount cannot be compared with that in a cesspool. Some 
of the solid matter is undoubtedly reduced by maceration, and being 
dissolved, passes into the liquid chamber, from where it is discharged 
into the absorption drains, to be finally oxidized and rendered innoc- 
uous. By cleaning the intercepting chamber once a month, the 
amount of solid putrid matter may be kept down to a minimum ; 
consequently there will be little if any exhalation of gases of putrefac- 
tion, and inasmuch as the water level remains constant — the intercep- 
ting chamber being always filled to the overflow level — gases are not 
forced out as in the case of ordinary cesspools. By means of proper 
ventilation the intercepting chamber may be kept quite free from 
offense. 

Perhaps I should mention here that owing to these objections at- 
tempts have repeatedly been made to do away with the intercepting 
chamber. But in all cases where water-closets are used and their 
contents discharged into the tank, it becomes imperative to prevent 
the solid portions of the sewage from clogging the tiles, and the siphon 
which discharges the flush-tank. 

I well remember an attempt made some years ago to do entirely 
without intercepting chamber by simply surrounding the siphon (a 
Field annular siphon) with a double cylindrical wire screen of both 
coarse and fine mesh. In less than six months the tiles were entirely 
choked. The only alternative would seem to be to strain the solids. 



1889.] :;i:taky"s kkporT. 197 

English sanitary engineers, among them such well-known authorities 
as Mr. Rogers Field and Mr. Wm. Eassie, prefer a straining chamber. 
To quote Mr. Field : "The distinguishing feature of this arrange- 
ment is that there is no tank or depression for the sewage to collect 
in, but that the bottom of the chamber is on the same level as the 
bottom of the drain, so that liquid sewage passes through the cham- 
ber without any obstruction. The interception of the solids is ef- 
fected by two strainers, which consist of small iron rods fixed in an 
iron frame, and so arranged as to be movable. The bottom of the 
chamber is constructed of concrete, smoothly cemented and rounded, 
so as to form a sort of channel for the passage of the liquid, and to 
enable the solids to be more readily cleaned out. This bottom also 
has a rapid fall from the inlet to the outlet, which still further facili- 
tates the rapid passage of the liquid. The sides are usually formed 
of brick-work, and the whole is covered by a light wooden lid, open- 
ing on a hinge." With such an arrangement a man can easily remove 
the solids by scraping them up by means of a hoe over the edge and 
mixing them with dry earth. To prevent such a chamber from be- 
coming offensive, the solids should be removed daily. 

A different arrangement from the above, which has also been re- 
peatedly suggested, is that of having in a straining chamber a perfor- 
ated pail or movable iron basket, which intercepts all the solids and 
which must be emptied and cleaned every day. 

Of the two devices, the plain strainer appears to me to be far prefer- 
able. Personally, I have not yet tried either of the arrangements 
described. I should be willing to substitute the straining chamber 
for the intercepting chamber if I could rely explicitly upon daily re- 
moval. The trouble involved is not large, it is true, but servants are 
proverbially neglectful, and the arrangement suggested certainly robs 
the system of one of its best features, namely, that of being automatic. 
If daily attendance is required, it might be just as well to require the 
help to empty the sewage tank daily by opening a stop-valve, and thus 
do away with every kind of automatic siphon or other device, while 
retaining the features of intermittent discharge, and of a discharge 
of a large volume suddenly distributed over the whole of the irriga- 
tion field. 

4. Owners of country residences find an objection to the system in 
the necessity of frequent emptying of the intercepting chamber just 
referred to, which, they claim, causes more or less of a nuisance. As 
an answer to this objection, I would say that of the t wo evils of clean- 
ing out a large, ordinary open cesspool and the comparatively speak- 



198 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

ing small intercepting chamber, the latter is far preferable. But in 
doing so I probably overlook the fact that the same people who raise 
such an objection would probably never see to it that their large cess- 
pool is cleaned, paying no attention to it as long as the sewage runs 
off, no matter where to. 

5. It is sometimes objected that the tiles will choke and must be 
taken up and relaid. I cannot deny the possibility of such an occur- 
rence, although this may only become necessary about every three 
years on the average. They will choke sooner if they lack the cleans- 
ing effect of a flush delivered at intervals from the sewage tank. Even 
supposing for a moment that the tiles would have to be cleaned and 
relaid every year, how little amount of labor, trouble and expense is 
involved in doing: so, owing to their being laid in permanent gutters 
and close to the surface. Compare this with the trouble and annoy- 
ance of having to empty and clean a disgusting overflowing cesspool ! 

6. The system is objected to because the ground where the tiles 
are buried cannot be plowed, nor can heavy wagons drive over it 
without risk of breaking or displacing the pipes. This objection 
cannot be denied, but it is a slight one, if one at all. 

7. Many people object to the cost of the automatic siphon. How- 
ever expensive this may be, it cannot be considered a valid and sound 
objection against the system. As a matter of fact, the annular siphon, 
at least in the case of isolated suburban and country houses, does not 
cost very much. But, where this expense is objected to, the mistake 
should not be made of providing only one large overflow pipe from 
the liquid sewage tank, from which a constant small stream dribbles 
toward the irrigation field. This is a very imperfect and faulty ar- 
rangement. Only a short length of the tiles w r ould receive an almost 
constant trickling flow of sew r age, saturating the ground around it to 
the surface and keeping it in unwholesome condition. Moreover, the 
tiles would rapidly choke up with such an arrangement. Aeration, 
intermittent action, oxidation, powerful flushing, the uniform and 
entire filling of the tiles, all these conditions essential to the success 
of the system, would be absent. 

As indicated heretofore, a stop-valve in the outlet pipe, worked by 
hand, may take the place of an automatic siphon. The only other 
admissible arrangement, and one which I have adopted with perfect 



Note.- Since writing the above the author has constructed such a straining chamber as is de- 
scribed in the preceding pages in connection with a 30,000 gallon flush-tank for sewage disposal at 
the ^tate Homeopathic Asylum for the Insane, at iliddletown, Orange county, New York. 



1880.] secretary's report. 199 

success, for smaller country houses, where the owners objected to the 
cost of an automatic flush- tank, is a sewage tank, provided with a 
large number of overflow pipes, all placed exactly at the same level in 
the tank— nut a very easy thing to do, by the way— and all discharg- 
ing simultaneously equal or nearly equal portions of the sewage into 
the various lines of absorption drains, thus securing a better distribu- 
tion of the sewage. In this arrangement the tiles are likely to choke 
sooner than in the system with intermittent flush-tank, since they 
lack the cleansing effect of a sudden rush of water from the tank. 

IS. Another objection is the cost of the system. The first expense 
is, of course, more than that for a cesspool of moderate dimensions, 
but the frequently recurring expense of cleaning and emptying the 
latter, soon renders the sub-surface irrigation system cheaper than the 
ordinary cesspool. For a small country house its whole expense should 
not exceed $250, and for a larger country residence the system ought 
not to cost more than $500, which prices include the royalty on some 
of the better class of patented automatic flush-tanks. 

9. It is sometimes stated that the sub-surface irrigation system is 
impracticable in the case of level ground, or where the lawn rises at 
the rear of the house, or where the main sod-pipe leaves the house at 
a depth below the cellar floor. To this I answer that some conces- 
sions must, under such circumstances, be made. For instance, in 
places where the available fall from the house to the irrigation field is 
slight, no plumbing fixtures should be placed in the basement, and 
the soil-pipe should leave the house as near the surface as practicable. 
In. some cases it may even become necessary to build the flush-tank in 
embankment, hiding it in a sort of artificial terrace at the side of the 
house. By making the tank of a shallow depth it is usually possible 
to effect a suitable arrangement. In extreme cases it may become 
necessary to lift the sewage, after straining, and this may be accom- 
plished by a variety of mechanical devices. Where a small air com- 
pressor may be operated in the cellar of the house, Shonc's sewage 
ejector appears to offer a simple solution of the problem. Where 
steam is available, a pulsometer pump could be used for lifting the 
sewage. If gas is laid on to the house, or a gasoline gas maohine is 
in operation, a gas engine or hot-air engine may prove economical. 
Finally, the motive force of the wind may be used for such purposes 
by erecting a windmill with suitable pumping apparatus. Whatever 
the special difficulties may be in each case they can usually be over- 
come at a slight sacrifice. Certainly they should not be considered 
objections to the system as such. 



200 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

10. The objection that the sub surface irrigation system poisons 
wells, may be removed by simply locating the field away from wells, 
or where it must necessarily be close to a house, by abolishing wells, 
and depending on rainwater collected in tight, underground cisterns, 
as a source of water supply. 

11. Some think that it is impossible to purify sewage by turning 
it into agricultural drains located at a depth below the roots of the 
plants. It is hardly worth while to consider this objection, as many 
years of successful working of the system seem to amply contradict it. 

12. The system has received condemnation because "sub-irriga- 
tion is a process faulty in principle, as it feeds vegetation by the up- 
ward rising of moisture, accompanied by evaporation, with all the 
chilling influences which are so injurious to vegetation as well as to 
human beings." I can only answer that, so far as my personal obser- 
vation goes, practically no harm has ever been done to vegetation ; on 
the contrary, it stimulates the growth of grass, of shrubbery and of 
fruit trees, which statement, I am confident, is borne out by the ex- 
perience of other sanitary engineers. 

13. Where the irrigation field is under drained, it frequently 
happens that at first the sewage leaks away too quickly and without 
being purified, at the points where the distribution tiles cross the 
lines of agricultural tiles. This can be remedied after a while, 
when the earth in the deep trenches for the land tiles settles down 
and solidifies. 

This, I believe, comprises all the criticisms raised against the sub- 
surface irrigation system. While I do not wish to be understood as 
claiming this method of sewage disposal as a panacea for all the evils 
incident to country house drainage, I hold that the system is an excel- 
lent one wherever suitable land, of suitable character and of sufficient 
area, properly located, may be obtained. For a further detailed dis- 
cussion of the whole subject I may be permitted to refer to a small 
volume, soon to be issued, entitled "The Disposal of Household 
Wastes." 



APPENDIX D. 



PUBLIC STATUTES. 



CHAPTER 88. 



OF Till-: STATE IJOAHl) OF HEAl.TIf. 



SECTION 1. The governor with the advice and consent of the senate shall ap- 
point six persons, two from the county of Providence and one from each of the 
other counties, who shall constitute the state board of health, one of whom shall 
lie appointed in each year for the term of six years from the first day of July. 
Any appointment to fill a vacancy shall be for the remainder of the term. Of 
the persons so appointed, at least three shall be well educated physicians and 
members of some medical society incorporated by the state. The governor may 
remove any member for cause, ;>\ any lime, upon the written request of two- 
thirds of the board. 

Bec. 2. The board shall take cognizance of the interests of life and health 
among the citizens of the stale; they shall make investigation into the causes of 
disease, and especially of epidemics and endemics among the people, the sources 
of mortality, and the effects <>( localities, employments, conditions and circum- 
stances on the public health, and shall do all in their power to ascertain the 
causes and the best means for the prevention of diseases of every kind in the 
state. They shall publish and circulate, from time to time, such information as 
they may deem to be important and useful for diffusion among the people of the 
state, and shall investigate and give advice in relation to such subjects relating 
to the public health, OS may be referred to them by the general assembly or by 
the governor when the general assembly is not in session. 

BBC. 15. The state board of health shall also investigate the subject of diseases 
among cattle or other animals. 

Sec. 4. The board shall meet in the city of Providence once in three months, 
and as much oftener as they may deem necessary. No member of the board, 
except the Becretary, shall receive any compensation for his serviC68; but the 
actual personal expenses of any member, while engaged in the duties of the 
board, .-hall be paid by the -tale. 



202 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1839. 

Sec. 5. The board shall elect a well qualified physician as their secretary, 
who shall be ex-offlcio a member of the board, the commissioner of public health 
and state registrar, but he shall not be permitted to vote on any question in 
which he is personally interested or be entitled to any additional compensation 
for mileage or expenses. 

Sec 6. The secretary of the board shall make inquiry from time to time, of 
the clerks of town and local boards of health and practising physicians in rela- 
tion to the prevalence of any disease, or knowledge of any known or generally 
believed source of disease or causes of general ill-health, and also in relation to 
the proceedings of the said boards of health, in respect of acts for the promotion 
and protection of the public health, and also in relation to diseases among do- 
mestic animals in their several towns; and the said clerks of town and local 
boards of health and said practising physicians shall give information, in reply 
to said inquiries, of such facts and circumstances as shall have come to their 
knowledge. 

"Sec. 7. The secretary shall perform and superintend the work prescribed 
for said board by law and such other duties as the board may require; he shall 
prepare and publish in every calendar month a general summary of all the deaths 
and causes of the same which had occurred in the state during the preceding 
month, the same to be made up from returns of deaths which shall be sent to 
him on or before the tenth day of the month following the date of such deaths, 
by the several town and city clerks and the city registrar of Providence city; 
he shall also prepare and publish for general distribution a monthly circular 
giving information and advice in regard to the preservation of health, suitable 
for each particular season, and giving also such information as he shall deem of 
advantage to the public, as to the prevalence and character of infectious diseases 
of domestic animals, and for such service he shall receive the sum of seventeen 
hundred dollars annually, or such proportion thereof as the said board may de- 
termine. He shall hold his office during the pleasure of the board and may be 
removed at any regular meeting by a majority vote of the members of said board.'' 

Sec. 8. The governor shall provide a suitable office for the board in the city 
of Providence, and the actual expenses of the board and of the members thereof, 
when certified by the chairman and approved by the governor, shall be paid 
from the state treasury. 

Sec. 9. The board shall make a report in print to the general assembly, an- 
nually, of its proceedings during the year ending on the thirty-first day of De- 
cember next preceding, with such suggestions in relation to the sanitary laws 
and interests of the state as they shall deem important. 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY 



BOOK EXCHANGES, 1889. 



Mass. Annual Report (20th) of the State Board of Health. 

Conn. Annual Report (11th) of the State Board of Health. 

N. Y. Annual Report (9th) of the State Board of Health. 

N. J. Annual Report (12th) of the State Board of Health. 

N. H. Annual Report (8th) of the State Board of Health. 

S. C. Annual Report (9th) of the State Board of Health. 

Ind. Annual Report (7th) of the State Board of Health. 

111. Annual Report (10th) of the State Board of Health. 

Wis. Annual Report (12th) of the State Board of Health. 

Iowa. Biennial Report (4th) of the State Board of Health. 

Min. Annual Report (13fh) of the State Board of Health. 

Michigan. Annual Report (lGth) of the State Board of Health. 

Can. Annual Report (7th) of the Provincial Board of Health. Ontario. 

D. C. Annual report of Health Officer, 1888. 

Eans. Annual Report (4th) of the State Board of Health. 

Md. Biennial Report (8th) of the State Board of Health. 

La. Biennial Report of the State Board of Health. 

Del. Annual Report (4th) of the State Board of Health. 

Penn. Annual Report (4th) of the State Board of Health. 

N. C. Biennial Report (2d) of the State Board of Health. 

Maine. Annual Report (4th) of the State Board of Health. 

U. S. Proceedings of National Conference of State Boards of Health, 1888. 

Germany. Statistical Report, Imperial, 1888. 

Penn. Trans. State Sanitary Convention. 

Ohio. State Sanitary Association Report, 1889. 

Ohio. Annual Report (8d) of the State Board of Health. 

Vt. Annual Report (2d) State Board of Health. 

Miss. Annual Report, State Board of Health. 

111. Official Register of Physicians and Midwives. 

Md. Trans. 90th Annual Session of the State Medical Society. 



204 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

D. C. Annual Report Supervising Surgeon General Marine Hospital Service, 

1888. 
D. C. Annual Report Surgeon General of the Army. 1888. 
D. C. Circulars, Sanitary Reports, &c, of Marine Hospital Service, 1888. 
Mich. Proceedings of Sanitary Conventions, 1888. 
N. Y. Report, Trustees of State Library, 1888. 
Mich. Trans. State Medical Society, 1888. » 

Mass. Forty-seventh Registration Report. 
N. H. Seventh Registration Report. 

Italy. Movements of the Population, Births, Deaths, etc., 1888. 
Germany. Vital Statistics, Imperial, Berlin, 1888. 
Austria. Vital Statistics, Buda-Pesth, 1888. 
Ireland. Vital Statistics, Report of Registrar General, 1888. 
K H. Trans. State Medical Society, 98th Session, G. P. Conn., Sec, 1888. 
R. I. Manual of State Officers, Institutions, etc., 1889. 
R. I. City Manual, Providence, 1889. 
R. I. Report Commissioner of Public Schools, 1888. 
R. I. Report State Auditor, 1888. 
Registration Report, Mass., 1888. 
N. H., 1888. 
Vt., 1888. 
Mich., 1887. 
Ont., Can., 1887. 
" (51st) Registrar General, Eng. 
" (25th) Registrar General, Ireland. 

Kingdom of Italy, 1888. 
" Dominion of Canada, — Mortality of Cities. 1888. 
" Austro-Hungary, 1888. 
U. S. Index Catalogue, Library Surgeon General's Office, U. S. A., Vol. ix, 

M. to N. 
U. S. Agricultural Department. Rep. 1888. 
" Report, Sorghum Manufacture. 
" " Foods, and adulterants of. 

" " Crop Reports. 

" " Bureau' of Animal Industry. 

U. S. Annual Report (2d) Commissioner of Labor Statistics. 1888. 
Mass. Annual Report (19th) Commissioner of Labor Statistics. 1888. 
R. I. Annual Report (3d) Commissioner of Labor Statistics. 



1889.] SECBETABY's BBPOBt. 

PAMPHLETS. 

Annual Report, Board of Live Btoch Commissioners, 111., 1888. 

U. S. Bureau of Education, Circulars and Report. 

Ala. Proc. Quarantine Conf. 1889 

Wis. Rep. Com. on Water Supplies. 1888. 

Mich. Proc. San. Conven. Otsego, Tecumseh and Ludington. 1889. 

Mass. State Census, 1885. Vols. 1, 2, and 3. 

Pa. Contagious Diseases, National Defence against, Benj. Lee. 

Col. Phthisis, Climate for— Chas. Denison. 

Trans. State Med. Soc's. Pa. Mis. [nd. Mich. Vt. Ala. d al. 

111. Med. Education, Med. Coll., and Reg. of Prac. U. S. & Can. J. H. Rauch. 

Tenn. State Med. J. 15 Lindsley. 

Mexico. Med. Geography and climate of. 2 Vols. Atlas and Text. 1888. 

Can. Proc. Ex. Health Oilicers Assoc. 1889. 

Fa. Rep. Jacksonville Aux. San. Assoc. 1888. 

Mass, Statistics of Manufacturers. 1886-1888. 

" Reprints of Bureau of Statistics and proceedings of National Conven- 
tions. 1830-1889. 
Italy. Statistics of causes of death. 1885-1887. 

REPORTS OP SUPERINTENDENTS, AND BOARDS OF HEALTH; VITAL STATISTICS 

OF CITIES, ETC. 

Providence, R. I.; Boston, Mass.; Berlin, Germany, Buda-Pesth, Hungary; 
Rome, Italy; Dublin, Ireland; Dtica, N. Y. ; Atlanta, Qa.; Brooklyn, N. Y. ; 
Coventry, Eng. ; New Haven, Conn. ; Boston, Mass. ; Richmond, Va. ; Memphis, 
Tenn.; Hudson County, N. J.; St. Paul, Minn.; Cincinnati, Ohio) Charleston, 
S. C; Nashville, Tenn.; Baltimore, Md.; St. Louis, Ma; Wilmington, Del.; 
Washington, D. C. ; New Orleans, La.; Lansing, Mich.; Manchester, N. H. ; 
Newark, N. J.; Salem, Mass.; Prow Ontario, Can.; [leading, Pa.; Pater SOU, 
N. J.; Augusta, Ga. ; Cleveland, 0.; Detroit, Mich.; Minneapolis, Minn.; New- 
ark, N. J.; Toronto, Can.; Newport, R. L; Montreal, Can.; Philadelphia, Pa. 

REPORTS OP iNsTrrr-i ions, CONVENTIONS, BOCIBTIEB, BUREAUX 

Butler Hospital, Athenaeum, Public Library, Historical Society, R. 1. Medical 
Society, Brown University, City Manual, Bureau of Education, D. C, National 
Plumbers Association. 



206 STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

CIRCULARS, WEEKLY AND MONTHLY BULLETINS, QUARTERLY REPORTS, ETC. 

From the State Boards of Health of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Mas- 
sachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Dis- 
trict Columbia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Michi- 
gan, Ohio, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, Minnesota, California, 
and the Ohio State Sanitary Association, National Association of Master Plumb- 
ers, U. S. Marine Hospital Service, U. S. Treasury Department, U. S. Agricul- 
tural Department, Mass. and Kansas Agricultural Colleges. 

PERIODICAL EXCHANGES. 

The Sanitary News Chicago, 111. 

The Sanitarian New York, N. Y. 

The North Carolina Medical Journal Wilmington, N. C. 

The Popular Science News Boston, Mass. 

The Medical Bulletin Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Therapeutic Gazette " " 

The American Lancet Detroit, Mich. 

The New York Medical Abstract New York, N. Y. 

The Medical Chronicle Baltimore, Md. 

The American "Veterinary Review New York, N. Y. 

The Manufacturer and Builder " " 

The Analyst 

The New England Medical Gazette " " 

The Medical World Philadelphia, Pa. 

Building, the Journal of Architecture New York, N. Y. 

The Journal of the American Medical Association Chicago, 111. 

The Sanitary Era New York, N. Y. 

The Medical Herald Louisville, Ky. 

The Anti-Adulteration Journal Philadelphia, Pa. 

The School Journal Chicago, 111. 

The Open Court 

The Sanitary Record London, Eng. 

The Veterinary Journal " 

The Journal of Comparative Medicine and Surgery Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Industrialist Manhattan, Kan. 

The Boston Journal of Health Boston, Mass. 

The Times and Register Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Dietetic Gazette New York, N. Y. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Annual Reports of Medical Correspondents 24-40 

" Town Clerks 46 -I 

" Health Officers 90-180 

Barker, II. R 67 

Barometer, readings of, 1881-1889 140-143 

Block Island, temperature of 143 

Board, work of 2 

Cattle Commission 10 

Chandler, A 01 

Chapin, C: V., Superintendent of Health of Providence City 104 

Cholera Infantum* 182 

Cloud, amount of, 1889 141 

Comparative prevalence of acute diseases, 6 years 182 

Croup* 182 

and Diphtheria • 113 

Darling, Edwin, Superintendent's Report 61 

Dead, the transportation of 7 

Diarrhoea* 132 

Diphtheria* 182 

Disposal of Sewage of Isolated Country Houses 173 

t-^es, comparative prevalence of twelve acute, 1884-1889 132 

I >y entery * 132 

Fever, intermittent 182 

" typhoid * 182 

Gerhard, W. P 171 

Glanders 11 

Gray, S. M 66 

Health, officers of, in Rhode Island, reports of 87-180 

Humidity, monthly means of, 1881-1889 140 

* Sec [ndei to Thirty-Sixth Registration Report l'nrt II of thla Report. 



208 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

Intermittent fever* 132 

Kinnecom. S. E 104 

Lee, G. A 103 

Library, additions to 203 

Malarial diseases * 132 

Measles* 132 

Meteorology 138 

Meteorological tables 130-143 

Milliken, H. S 100 

Mowry, H. F 101 

Pawtucket Water Commission, extracts from report of Superintendent 61 

Pawtuxet water, analysis of 127 

Peckham, J 92 

Pneumonia* 132 

Pierce, T. W 129 

Pond, D. B 71 

Quigiey, 8. P L03 

Rainfall, 1881-1889 130-143 

Rankin, F. H 92 

Reports for 1889. 

" annual of physicians 20 

" " " town clerks 43 

" medical correspondents, annual 22 

" of doctors: Arnold, B. . . 34 

Arnold, H 55. 102 

Ballou, E. A 32 

Briggs, A. B 40 

Chapin, C. V 104 

Church, G. L 25 

Eldredge, J. H 27, 90 

Garvin, L. F. C 30 

Harris, G. A 32 

Haines, G. B 30 

Hersey, G. D 35 

Jenckes, G. W 3(3 

Maryott, C. E 39 

Perry, J. E 38 

Rankin, F. H 92 

* See Index to Thirty-Sixth Registration Report. 



1880.] INDEX. 209 

Reports of Doctors— Continued. 

Redfield, P. S 3-1 

Rose, II. W 40, 130 

Saunders, A. A 37, 129 

Smith, F. B 27 

Smith, W. J 33 

Bprague, A. G 85, 91 

Swan, H. S 24 

Taylor, P. K 39 

Turner, II. E 29 

Winsor, J 28 

Yale, C. H 29 

Reports from towns for 1889 24-130 

" Town clerks (clerks of local boards of health) 40-84 

Allen, E. R 73 

Andrews, B. A 50 

Angell, T. H 56 

Bennett, H. F 46 

Browuell, F. R 49 

Caswell, W. II 7:; 

Chase, A. L U 

Chase, P. B 51 

Clarke. II. P 84 

Cook, J. T 51 

Crombe, C. T 82 

Cross, G. C 72 

Edwards, J. II 72 

Farnum, C. W 55 

Greene, A. E 70 

Griffin, S. W 47 

Hoxsey, W 84 

King, W. F 55 

Kinion, P. F 54 

Lockwood, J. T 48 

Lyou, E. D 55 

M son, 0. B 47 

Mowry, Alvah 54 

Perry, II. B 83 

Rose, A.N 51 

87 



210 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1889. 

Reports of Town Clerks — Continued. 

Smith, E. B 56 

Stanhope, E 48 

Sweet, W. N 48 

Sweetland, T. A 55 

Tobey, O. A 70 

Waterman, D. D 54 

Weeden, C. E 48 

Wood, Mark H 45 

Sanitary condition of Watch Hill 129 

Scarlatina * 132 

Sewerage, Providence 68 

Pawtucket 57 

Smith, J 128 

State Board of Health, Statute Law 201 

Sweet, A. R " 61 

Tables, showing prevalence of acute diseases, 1884-1889 132 

Water analysis 127-128 

" Meteorological 139-143 

Temperature, 1881-1889 140-143 

Towns, reports from, for 1889 — 

Barrington 24, 46 

Bristol 24, 46, 90 

Burrillville 53, 100 

Charlestown 36, 129 

Coventry 25, 47 

Cumberland 30, 54 

Cranston 54 

East Greenwich 27, 47, 90 

East Providence 54, 101 

Foster 33, 55, 102 

Glocester , 55, 103 

Hopkinton 31, 39, 73, 129 

Jamestown 28, 48, 91 

Middletown 28, 49, 92 

Johnston 55 

Lincoln 30, 56, 103 

Little Compton 49 

* Bee Index to Thirty-Sixth Registration Report. 



1889.] index. 211 

Towns, reports from, 1889 — Continued. 

Narragansett 73 

North Smithfield 68, 1<>4 

North Kingstown 82, 129 

Newport City 28, 52, 92 

New Shoreham 51, 100 

North Providence. 56, 104 

Portsmouth 51 

Pawtueket 57 

Providence 34, 104 

Richmond. . . .'. 30, 83 

Scituate 33, 70 

Smithfield 32, 128 

South Kingstown 37, 38, 82 

Tiverton 29, 51, 100 

Warren 24, 47 

Warwick 25, 48, 91 

West Greeuwich 48 

Westerly 39, 40, 84, 130 

Woonsocket. 36, 70 

Tuberculosis in cattle 11 

Turner, II. E. Jr 92 

Typhoid fever * 132 

Vital statistics 5 

Water, Pawtuxet, analysis of monthly 128 

Water supply, Providence 126 

Water Works in Rhode Island 145 

Watch Hill, sanitary report on 157 

Walker, J. II., report of 64 

Wardle, J 104 

Whooping cough * 132 

Winds, direction and velocity of, 1881-1889 140-143 

Wood, M. B 102 

*t?cc Index to Thirty-Sixth Registration Report. 



Thirty-Sixth Report 



UPON THE 



REGISTRATION 



Births, Marriages and Deaths, 



STATE OF RHODE ISLAND 



TEAM ENDING DECEMBER SI, 1SSS. 



I'ICKI-AIIKD BY 



CHARLES H. FISHER, M. D., 

STATE BBSI8TRAB OF VITAL BTATI8TK - j SBCBBTABT OF THF. STATE BOARD OF HEALTH 
COmtlSSIONBB of PUBLIC UEALT11. 



PROVIDENCE: 

E. L. FBEEMAN A SON, STATE PRINTERS. 
1 889. 



MEMBERS 



Rhode Island State Board of Health 



Post Office Address. 

HENRY E. TURNER, M. D, Chairman Newport Newport County. 

SAMUEL M. GRAY, C. E Providence Providence Co. 

ALBERT G. SPRAGUE, M. D River Point Kent County. 

ALVIN H. ECCLESTON, M. D Wood River Junc. Washington Co. 

PAUL S. REDFIELD, M. D Providence Providence Co. 

HENRY S. SWAN, M. D Bristol Bristol County. 

CHARLES H. FISHER, M. D., ex officio and Secretary. .Providence Providence Co. 



<§/;*/£ of §hadc Mldi\d and fjraiidcncq jJkmfatians. 



Office of the State Registrab of Vital Statistics. 

Providence, December, 1889. 
To (lie Honorable tin- General Assembly: 

The Thirty-Sixth Annual Report upon the Registration of Births, Marriages 
and Deaths in Rhode Island, during the year 1888, with compendial^ Tables of 
the results of registration in previous years, is herewith respectfully submitted. 

The plan of preceding years, in regard to the general arrangement of the 
Tables, summaries and comments, has been followed in this report, with the 
addition of fifteen special Tallies, and 8 lew special changes made to meet cer- 
tain requirements. 

In the special Tables the object has been to present the important facts of many 
years of registration, as well as of single years, in such manner as to make them 
readily apparent, and relieve the reader of the statistics of much of the labor of 
personal examination of the general Tables of the preceding reports, for the 
purpose of ascertaining the relation the various fa< Is bear to each other. 

In the computation of the ratios of births, marriages and deaths, in proportion 
to the population, it will be obvious that absolutely exact results cannot be ob- 
tained for non -census years, inasmuch as the exact population cannot be known 
in other than those years in which a census of the population is taken. 

The plan, therefore, adopted of late years in the preparation of the reports, 
has been to obtain from the officials of the different towns and cities the esti- 
mated population of their respective towns and cities in the middle of the yen, 
according to their best knowledge and belief. The data thus obtained has served 
as a basis for the rate-computations for the different civil divisions. 

The estimate of the population of the State, at the middle of the year, and 
upon which the birth, marriage and death rates for the State are computed, is 
obtained by assuming that the rate of increase of population, since the taking of 
the census in the middle of the year lb^O, has been the same as during the years 
between the two last census enumerations. 



T THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1888. 

No other method has seemed to present results so approximate and trustworthy. 

The reports upon the records of the vital movements of the population of 
Rhode Island have acquired a reputation not confined to our own country, as 
statisticians in several countries in Europe, as well as in America, have been 
annual solicitors for copies for governmental and private use. It is the aim of 
the Registrar to make them as perfect as possible, and, therefore, entirely trust- 
worthy. 

With great respect, 

CHAS. H. FISHER, 

Slate Registrar. 



CONTENTS. 



General Tables. 



Table I. General summary of the births, marriages and deaths, in 1888, 
showing the number of births, the sex and parentage of those born ; 
the number of marriages, with the nativity of those married ; the num- 
ber of deaths, with the sex and parentage of those who died ; the ag- 
gregate and average age of the decedents of each sex, and of the whole 
number of decedents whose age was given 2-3 

Table II. Births ; showing the number of each sex born in each month 

of the year, in the several divisions of the State 4-5 

Table III. Plurality births ; arranged by months, sexes and divisions 

of the State, and showing the nativity of the parents 6 

Table IV. Marriages ; the number in each month, and in each quarter 
of the year, in the several divisions of the State 7 

Table V. Deaths ; showing the number of each sex that died in each 
month, in the several divisions of the State 8-9 

Table VI. Deaths ; showing the number of each sex that died at cer- 
tain stated periods of life, in each town and division of the State; also 
the estimated population of every town and division, with the percent- 
age of deaths to population 10-15 

Table VII. Causes of death, and season, in 1888; arranged alphabeti- 
cally, showing the number of each sex who died from each cause, in 
each month and in the whole year, and also the number of American 
and of foreign parentage for the whole year 10-25 

TABLE VIII. Causes of death and age; arranged alphabetically, and 
showing the number of each sex who died from each cause, in each 
period of life 20-35 

Table IX. Classification and percentage ; showing the number and per- 
centage of deaths from each cause and in each class of causes, in the 
whole State, and in each division of the State 30-43 

TABLB X. Occupations and ages at death ; showing the number and the 
aggregate and average agg at death, of the decedents in each occupation 
and class of occupations, in the whole State, ages under 20 omitted. . . 44-50 

Table XI. Occupations, and causes of death ; showing the number in 
each occupation and class of occupations, who died by each specified 
cause, omitting ages under 20 51-00 



Viii THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1888. 

Special Tables and Comments. 

Births, Marriages and Deaths 69-78 

Diagram I. Birth Rates 80 

Births. Special Results. Tables XVI-XXIX 83-99 

Marriages. Special Results. Tables XXX-XLII 100-112 

Divorces. Tables XLIII-XLIV 113-119 

" Ratio of to marriage, different States 118 

Deaths. Special Results. Tables XLVI-LXXXIX 192 

Diagram II. Death Rates 136 

Diagram III. " " 195 

Nomenclature of Diseases. Appendix 199 

Suggestions Concerning Physicians' Certificates of Death 208 

Laws in Relation to Vital Statistics 211 

"Divorce 216 

Index 221 



REPORT UPON THE REGISTRATION 



BIRTHS, MARRIAGES AND DEATHS 



RHODE ISLAND, 



YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1888, 



FOR VARIOUS l'KHIOPS I'KoM IS.'):! |o 1SSS \\r\.\ M \ r 





00 




ffi 




H 




<d 




W 




Q 




Q * 








00 H 




w S 




o H 




< £ 




m {z; 




vc a 




cr: g 




< « 


M 


^g 




-^ <J 


w 


^ ^ 


J 


^r 1 co 

M-l 1— I 


PQ 


b w 


<* 


& § 


H 


'— i o 




PQ W 




tf 




fe 1 ^ 




O o 




^ E3 

v H 




p£ < 








S H 




^ 3 




^ t 




00 ^ 




i— i 




J 




< 




Ctf 




w 




£ 




w 




o 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION" REPORT. 



[1888. 



CO 
CO 
CO 



•apug - rav 
•raoo'jo - joj 



• — — I 0* — • 



•apug uo^ I —roro 
•moojf) ray I 



•nSraao^ 



•jaqninj^ ajoq^ 



o* co : 



t- to tore c» 



oo co m in -r — o x 



CON <T< O0 



•jaqjojn 'my | ^Ja 

M.iqjoiv 'JO j 
•jaqjBj -rav 



V5(0O I » 



•uSpjo^ 



•uBOuatny 



•saiBtna^ 



•sapjj^ 



i- 00 CO • CJ CO 



os to -r © -r 

CS ^-*5^0 



OJ CO — — CO tO t~ 

5} o; — t- oi 



to Ci co X — oo o* co 



•jaqmn^j apqAl 



t- © t- ^" CO CO © OJ ao O! tr cs o: to c 



CN O CO — I Ot-CJ: 

— e* — 



C* Cft w « B 



a? pa 






U| 


I[B JO SJB3/C 
83 V 03Bi3AV 


^■TCft I CO cs o> to 00 1 CO © lO -T OS © CO © 1 CO 

tt o* oo 10 i- oo — in 1 i- o — io — o so o c. 

r-^ xi ~- its oo — ' co cjs I c» f- in -f x -r co i.o c: 

CNCOCO'CO COCOOT*|CO in in O » if) »T 73 CO 


J[B JO «JB3jC 

ui a3y 3}B8do33v 


522 
4,860 
3,381 

8,763 

3.026 

2,164 

758 

7,101 

13,049 

456 
717 

1,101 
11,820 

1,136 
886 

1,775 


X 

a 

00 

'-' 


60 . 
<fi co 

01 « 
Mil 

ea >> 

"4 


•asiBcao^ 


27.00 
39.98 
35.67 

37.16 

38.69 
36.71 
62 24 
32.53 


34 92 

65.33 
51 62 
53 84 
41.68 
64.77 

91 11 


re 

C. 

CO 


•93[BW 


28.30 
37.87 
28.12 

32.54 

38.93 
24.69 
63 62 
26.36 

31.18 

32.00 
68 00 
49 55 
34.27 
46 08 
88 68 
81 25 


ce 

in 

CO 


DQ 

OS 1> 

Ea 

61— 

Mas 

< M 

< 


•BOIBUIO^ 


324 
2,839 
1,891 

5,054 

1,780 

1,515 

249 

4,174 

7,718 

392 
413 
655 

6,921) 
5*3 
485 

1,056 


o 


•S3[BHI 


CO — © 

as Of en 
— c; t_ 


3,709 

1,246 
649 
509 

2,927 


5,331 

64 
304 
446 
4,900 
553 
403 
719 


T. 
X 

CO 

1- 


3 § 

<53 


■sapjmg^ 


o> — co i as oojtcx 
— t- io co -^> -v o» 

r 


— to 00 co -o cs o t- 

0» <-i to " c» 
CM — 


CS 


* - S8IBK 


iom 


T C* KSOO — 
— COOJ — 


t- 0» lO OS •«• o» OJ CO 


a 
c^ 


R 

O 
■4 

w 

OS 

■«] 


•aStaioj 




at cooso*-*- 


00 i— t • CO ■ ^* OS 

to • -co • e* 




•uBOuauiy 


cscot- 

O0->3< 


CS CO O OJ o 
co to o — — 


O t-C0c»O-OC* 
t)> r^ CI X CI CT M 

et — 


St 


H 
m 


'saiBuia^ 


O* — TO 


to t^oj^ce 

CO "^ *J* o* 


— rH 00 CO C- CS © CO 
C* ^ tO t-cJN 

e* — 


CD 
Ci 


•89[«re 


00 to — 

lOO 


o — t-oto 

•" CO OJ •- — 


r- 1'-»ocscmt*'^co 

oo o — i-i a* 


B9 

-.i 


•J 


)qiun>i 3[oqA\. 


rn 0>0 


in oo£ — -r 


OO 00 CO O* CS — «T ^t 

© ««MC(«0 
T CO 


r 
•r. 

— 



co cb ^i cs cs coin*nin'^ , ©oi -r 



oj — — <n co 



.« — 00 00— © 
.-.OS rnCO 



c3 c; — p« x & 

£■=-5 ^SSS 
5 .r — o <u c .- 



L888.] 



BIRTH8, HA RBI AGES AND DEATHS. 



I— — to co -• — to -o c-j to t- c — I « H-0--OXS 

- - ,-,.,- TO - St 3S5 - Z«8c TO B [« T * T C- -T .- 

<m — -m cc — cr. x — . ».~ -r to x to to r- to x Ci — X 00 o 

to -r to to t- t r* 7' to to to to o to cm to t i." -t to t -t t -t 

i to cc i- x to o o i- o gs n -» — o i o booeeo 

i - - —.-::.»- — r. — — t — , O t» yj 9) — -r t / 

TOVe'T«'-''ta->-'xT':i'i:i3 o" "' B*o» — -T 

— oo — m 



. ::i r- in 

c~ f- ~ TO TO * 

.-' 7/ 9 

TO TO TO TO T TO 



•|[B JO 

UI -i"\ 



< XI 

a a 



■, ..;i:mi.i_.[ 



S?> -r — - x t» x - -r — 7 • to to x i — or 
3 j o o — «o co iftcc x o x o o 71 — 7< / _ 

.- ->■-;-) — 9) c in — t — "-T -r — o -r to » so c - ■ 



'TOT30TTO7*TTOTOTOi.':TO: 






§85 3 



< M 



ft I 

<5 



•ao[t?uiaj[ 



•HOjBJ^ 



•801BIU0J 



■83|«1V 



C — O ■.- O — — "-■ — TO ■ 

/ SB ■_ • - -- r. — to — — .-' •- 7i .r — 

7> TO at TO ( - -T 7-J 7* TO TO : 

i- — — cr. -.o t c - ci -r — 7* to '.o 33 x 

< - — — /: — . to — z-. -^ -? to 'ix 

— q co t o x t to -^ CO — 

71 O OlQi-1 •- 



*r — -T "i -r t -r T 

go — ~ . - — e >ii o 



TO ^T"T*-'7TO*T*i7j"TTO 

< - "^ -1 T_ — -J 3 ~. .7 

33 r-TOCCTOOO — CC 

00 MVIl^J i-^ 



O 7< TO — TO 3: -T 

- 3 7» l- 

c- -r to — co <- o 

TO TO "T TO T T I TO 

i." — TO O TO 7* — 

-' — ■—.' — *' TO 

TO TO TO TO -T 7t | TO 

T X -1M- TO — I CO 

■ -.' . -' d — ' x'— ' oo' 



t — 7( 7j .-. — i- to :o x ( - r cc >- o co 
' • -. '. "'. — -. ~.'~: '" '" -: — °. '^. a i *%. 
^ M ^- ! DC i-T^^i i-a:—' «^-r «J 



O TO O 3> = X S". O 

cc oc w ».-: — d x t* 



33 — OS C 

TO ■-'(-' — 1- — ' 



— XX»©C-<--r:O00!T*TOTX'N ISO SCt- VOX — 3SV-0 — 

CT0!O'-«.;-«r-C^?«II- O Of TO TO — » 

O* OTTO 0* •V 

« Bt 

— I — TO -T I- X I- 03 — Tf 

51 | — ^i C< TO — — KO 



in t-c op o o» — ( 



i — VI Zl T» — TO <M < 



BD — — " OS C c- i o 

GO TO "V TO — X TO — 

« ^CJO* ^r — TO 



TO -T (- — . —TO I- 

eo — l- o — o w 

« — — K T* — 



•aSiojo^ 



•OOTOTO'^Xt— — 

IT« 

TO 83 



"XTCICI-iM 



•UB0IJ8UIV 



gc 'N o c ~ t~ — x — -r x t- -^ — 
;c;£X — Nt-o>" "— — VCX — 



•80(BOI3J 



'- -'I'-'IV 



•joqiunij 0[oqAi 



S/- r? - - / t t-toooo-igoo-fl 

—> CT OTTO CJ 



OOL-O C< 03 C C» T» TO = TO C» 



T* TO 1 C^ TO ~ L" X 
"- TO = TOC» ■?{ 



noi-ooo-fXTX-^inn! 

Ct 5 i- -:» — TO -X TO TO T O -r o t- - 
— — . ^-•H' O^ ' 



— t-> ■TMXt" 



= 



IN X <- — 1 

— -X -X (_^ . 



— CO SO 1 1- ■£ u 



TO X — 50 TO — 71 'J T 
TO — — i TT — -O lO M l- 



TO — C: TO ~ TO 
— C< T( O TO 



— Ot-OX-iOiOffl 

io at ot-ot — co 



So — CO — t <- 
CC ?* TO — -r. TO 
— — T» T( O — 



TO TOTOXXO-^O 



S01"CC033'-5X 
— — 3— noioo* — 



o i-c* TO t : 

— X T* IP C- C 

— — at t — 



— xx — r .- 

ooecc: 

CN "V TT O TO — 



ID 




r 


H 




H 






'/ 


>- 


Si 


H 


\: 


■< 


< 


K 






- 




- 




< 




-■ 


M3 



•apug 'uiv « ;S W 

1 1 ->oa I : 
■apug -joj I «--o»osv 

•UKiuJ;, 'UIV I 

I vr : — tj 



■H(00!iHiM3-7)^0> I ?» 

—. CNO< — 1 Of 

^^ CM 

■ TO ( - ■» « C>» JJ I — ~ 



— • "^ CO 

7 > - — TO I— CO 
i-i X — I X ?» 



4< 

l- TO 



OJ CO O 0» 7) 
t- T> C73 — O 



X TO CO O X 
— CI T ~ —• 



•aBDUoiuv 



— iN — XC3XCO0D— (t-00(-00 
TtClCl-T — 55 tt tt to at o 



O CO X CO "5" Oi lO — ■ 



■ -IT ■ — 



J.t<liilii^ BIOCM 



5C- '- 33 O TO «n TO i 
c-co i-iOTio e 



JBOO'J' I — 

> — ->r to t- co 

'5 "p 



CO X — X t- O CO TO 
— • OT Mt l- 



-» t» x ob co — 



at ri 



u.ii( )!(_.{ ioj I : 95 i B 

j»H j<»IV -J«'.i I x ~^~ :°?J'-; : '' it ?. " ^ S I S 

■j.i|ii,'.{ my i : : c ' |* 

53S1 o o o o> t- m to co o o a> 

ifl^oo • — i c- x .-^ rr -r to — • co ^r 



'D8|9JOJ 



UB.iu.nuv 



: S?5 



•T TO TO33 .O 
. Ot OT « 33 OT if} — 



02 9° ^ — °> oo »Q — — i a — r. — - — 
^'""cji 



^t-<0 0>ri-,a5-i-.r-W 



S ^^gStSK?}^ 



T l~ N ?> O 

1 - . -- I — , - 

at to to 



L5SS8S 



«D[BIU0J 






•jaciuitiN o[oi|.w 



•h —7i co-<r e< 
:"ogoci-n:rco-:i 

>003 OJX — — TOT XOTOJ0O 
O «0 *T 70 



TO mCOCpTOC033-»33 



J ■' I C 7» 



- TO ^ ■- / 
CM TOT 






— CJ TO O iM 



-.- — r . - — -w C3 — to 3 t , 

— — CM « i^O COO 



TO X TO 33 ^^ «-• t» at w* 



t«= 



~-r 



ir -5 



8f£ 



' t- d 






rf M - 



= a 
if is 

o o 



|s|illli=- 9 



_ tlfc-.^-l_ — 7* — 



- i 



— / eot» 



B9 a 






= ^ 7T r r 



S 5 3 H 

7 - ~ ■■ T i : 

c ~ i £ ~ 3 ~ 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



Table II.— BIRTHS, 1888. 
Arranged by Months, Sexes and Divisions of the State. 



MONTHS. 



January. 



SEX. 



Males. . . 
Females 
Total. .. 



February . . . Males. . . 
Females 
Total. . . 



March . 



April 



May 



June. 



July 



Males. . . 
Females 
Total. . . 



Males. . . 
Females 
Total. . . 



Males. . . 
Females 
Total. . . 



Males. . . 
Females 
Total. . . 



Males.. . 
Females 
Total. . . 



E 



313 
299 
612 



DIVISIONS OP THE STATE. 



305 

602 



336 
312 
648 



296 
266 
562 



305 
296 
601 



355 
315 

670 



374 
320 

694 



12 
6 

is 



297 11 



7 

is 



6 

11 

i; 



15 
11 
26 



9 
10 
19 



II 



16 

24 
40 



25 
80 

45 



25 
20 

45 



6 26 

5 19 

11 45 



30 
22 
52 



4 

6 

10 



9 

11 
20 



2 * 

- — 

T3~ 



33 

25 
58 



15 
32 
37 



16 

25 
41 



6 17 
2 23 
8 40 



•21 
26 
47 



3D 
20 
59 



64 

57 

121 



60 

65 

125 



69 

74 

143 



65 

62 

127 



75 

74 

149 



78 

70 

148 



71 

74 
145 



124 
125 
249 



122 21 
120 25 
242 46 



137 
113 
250 



115 
100 
215 



122 
119 

241 



145 
125 
270 



143 
122 
265 



22 23 10 
19 28 13 
41 51 23 



28 
17 

45 



29 

22 

51 



31 
34 

65 



32 
22 
54 



22 
23 
45 



16 

16 
32 



15 

14 
29 



19 
20 
39 



23 

17 
40 



7 
18 
25 



17 

9 

26 



17 
22 
39 



18 
9 

27 



23 
13 

36 



20 
14 
34 



1888.] 



HIKTHS. 



TABLB II.— BIRTHS, 1888.— Continued. 









DIVISIONS OF THE STATK. 


MONTHS. 


SEX. 


Whole State. 


a 
= 
o 
O 

o 
.2 

« 


a 
s 
o 
O 

c 
6 

M 


>> 

c 

9 

u 

i 

S5 


5 

E 

O 

P. 

£ 

0) 

S5 


Providence County 
Towns. 


5 

V 

9 

c 

4> 

2 

o 


= 
% 

a 

a. 


o 
M 

u 

o 

s 
o 
o 


a 
s 
o 
O 

a 
2 
to 
c 

3 




Males — 


353 


5 


24 


3 


31 


73 


141 


35 


22 


19 




Females . 


337 


11 


15 


7 


25 


79 


132 


24 


30 


14 




Total. . . . 


690 


16 


39 


10 


56 


152 


273 


59 


52 


33 


September. . 


Males. . . . 


348 


11 


22 


5 


24 


75 


135 


25 


27 


24 




Females . 


352 


6 


25 


3 


23 


74 


158 


25 


16 


22 




Total. . . . 


700 


17 


47 


8 


47 


149 


293 


50 


43 


Jti 


October .... 


Males. . . . 


363 


7 


19 


6 


37 


78 


136 


38 


28 


14 




Females . 


346 


9 


28 


5 


20 


85 


125 


31 


24 


19 




Total. . . . 


709 


16 


47 


11 


5? 


163 


261 


69 


52 


33 


November . . 


Males 


348 


8 


30 


6 


31 


66 


133 


-.':> 


28 


21 




Females . 


329 


15 


29 


rv 
I 


27 


84 


105 


22 


22 


18 




Total. . . . 


677 


23 


59 


13 


58 


150 


238 


47 


50 


39 


December . . 


Males 


335 


7 


22 


8 


27 


74 


128 


29 


26 


14 




Females . 


340 


10 


28 


4 


31 


61 


128 


42 


22 


14 




Total. . . . 

Males.. . . 


675 
4,023 


17 


50 


12 


58 


135 


256 


71 


48 


28 


Whole Year. 


106 


286 


76 


301 


848 


1,581 


340 


281 


204 




Females . 


3,81? 


108 


272 


61 


•J its 


859 


1,472 


308 


254 


185 




Total. . . . 


7,840 


214 


558 


137 


599 


1,707 


:{.!»:•:{ 


648 


535 


389 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



00 

H 

« 

Oh 

s 

a 

Eh 

ft 
O 

1* 
H 


•8paB[SI UJD583AV 














• t— 1 








I r- 1 




•jaqjojv qsui 
uaq^Bji qojobs 








*" ' • 












rH 




uaqjow qsqKua 
uaqiB^ qsui 


















r-< 




rH 




•jaqiow 'jaiuy 
•jaqiv^ qsui 










i—( r- 1 


I— 1 






CO 




•jaqiojv '-Tainy 
■jaqiBji qouoj^ 














• t— 1 






rH 




•jaqioiv q-ui 
uaqjBji qsuSua 


















r-1 r-i 


O? 






rH 




















•jaqiojv; qsiJI 
•jaq^B^uBauauiv 










CNJ T-l 




rH 




»a 




•jaqiopv qansjjj; 
•jaqju^uBoi.iauiv 


















rH 




r—i 




•jaqjOK qsiiSug 
uaqiB^UBauoiuv 








i— I 








rH 




cv 




•ssu\s 












I— I 








rH 




■nciniji 


i— 1 






'- 


• I— I 








CO 




•qsui 


• r-( 




• (M t-i • rH 


i— t 


O 




•qouaaj[ 


T— 1 


i— 1 i— 1 i— < • i— I i— l 


: : |« 




•qsilSag- 1 ; rH 


• rH -1—1 • • I— 1 1— 1 1— 1 I «0 




•auouarav |>-(«N^wmNH^is • tH 1 «a 








«J 
02 
H 
S3 
H 
ft. 
O 
<D 
K 

o 

p 


•oq aojSaiqsBAi 1 ■ <— i • | ^ 




•AUO aoaapiAoaj J-i^rHW^c^corHO* • r-f eo | *■ 




•oo oouapi.vojj j ^ | 




<* CO ■<* t— i C<J CO CN} CO -I-*! 

• 1 ^ 




•a"iio iiodAva^i 1 '""' 




r— * rH « 


rH C* 


• ©* I 00 




•Ajcmoo i-iod^a^ | 






• T— 1 I— 1 




-H 




CO 




•^■junoo 1Q32 














C* 




•jfjunoo jojsug 












CO 




•uaapiiqo jo aaqran^i 


C0O)-H^00(0O0000O(SO 
r- 1 t— 1 rH rH i— I t— 1 i— 1 


CO 
rH 




02 


1 Males 3 

| Females. . . 5 

J Males 4 


1< TJ< 

= 1 

■h SB 


J Males 9 

| Females 5 

j Males 10 

1 Females 8 

j Males 6 

1 Females 10 

j Males , , , . 4 
| Females 6 

J Males 3 

/ Females 5 

j Males 11 


i SB 
CO 


j Females 7 

| Females 7 


.- eg 

80 SB 

— - 


U 

13 

O 


•sasBO jo aaqranj^ 


T* T* 


t- Ci OO O ■<* J. 


--o <o 


CO 






go 
W 
Eh 

o 
3 


> 
- 

e 


> 
F 


f 

1 


1 






<1 a: 


C 

a 
C 


O a. 




cs 

CD 


o 

Eel 

* 



1888.] MARRIAGES. 

Table IV.— MARRIAGES, 1888. 
Arranged by Month* and Divisions of the State. 



MONTHS. 



January 

February 

March 

First Quarter 



April 

May 

June 

Second Quarter. 

July 

August 

September 

Third Quarter. . 



October 

November . 

December 

Fourth Quarter. 

Whole Year.... 



270 
215 
100 
615 

302 
222 
294 
818 

224 
244 
273 
741 

288 
341 
177 
80G 



3,022 



DIVISIONS OF THE STATE. 



4 
8 

3 

15 

4 

6 

7 
17 



9 

2-1 



5 
18 

74 



L3 

9 

9 

31 

25 
13 
17 
55 

22 
13 
24 
59 

10 
17 
17 

11 



'->a 



7 

6 

5 

18 

3 
3 
3 

9 

3 

6 

3 

12 

9 

7 

4 

20 



189 59 



7 

10 

5 1 

9 
5 

10 
24 

10 

4 

13 

27 

1G 
23 
13 
52 



93 

86 

31 

210 

109 

69 

102 

280 

78 

92 

87 

257 

97 
115 

53 
855 



125 1,012 



124 22 



108 

39 

271 

132 
110 
138 
380 

94 
106 
117 
311 

149 

162 

70 

381 



1,349 



18 

8 

48 

20 
16 
17 
53 

Ki 
15 
20 
45 

18 
26 
24 
68 



•Ml 



* Including the iitie*of Pawtuckct >nd Woonsocket. 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



Table V.— DEATHS, 1888. 
Arranged by Months; Sexes and Divisions of the State. 













DIVISIONS OF THE 


STATE. 








MONTHS. 


SEX. 


6 

in 

<B 

"3 

■a 


a 
a 
o 
o 

o 

X 


a 
a 
o 
O 

a 

o 

M 


a 

B 

i! 

or 1 


5 

o 

— 

cu 


>> 

a 

B 

o 
o ffl - 

gg 
a o 

!2 
'> 
o 


o 

s 

% 

33 


s 

o 
u 

a 
o 

<a 
'> 

O 

k 

Oh 

147 


o 

O 

o 
o 

* 

28 


a 
a 
o 
O 

a 
o 

M 
a 

* 

13 


CO 

a 
© 

a 
a 

02 


January . . . 


Males . . 


297 


6 


7 


5 


16 


53 


14 


8 




Females 


318 


15 


16 


5 


15 


52 


25 


133 


31 


20 


6 




Total . . 


615 


21 


23 


10 


31 


105 


39 


280 


59 


33 


14 


February . . 


Males . . 


250 


6 


14 


5 


10 


52 


22 


105 


20 


10 


6 




Females 


262 


7 


19 


3 


16 


49 


26 


111 


15 


13 


3 




Total . . 


512 


13 


33 


8 


26 


101 


48 


216 


35 


23 


9 


March 


Males . . 


280 


13 


11 


5 


10 


7* 


19 


110 


19 


16 


5 




Females 


302 


14 


20 


6 


20 


50 


39 


118 


16 


17 


2 




Total . . 


582 


27 


31 


11 


30 


122 


58 


228 


35 


33 


7 


April 


Males . . 


258 


11 


20 


5 


15 


45 


21 


97 


16 


21 


7 




Females 


268 


10 


24 


8 


10 


58 


24 


100 


20 


10 


4 




Total . . 


526 


21 


44 


13 


25 


103 


45 


197 


36 


31 


11 


May 


Males . . 


247 


4 


23 


5 


10 


50 


19 


97 


13 


22 


4 




Females 


262 


1 


15 


4 


8 


57 


27 


122 


14 


13 


1 




Total . . 


509 


5 


38 


9 


18 


107 


46 


219 


27 


35 


5 


June 


Males . . 


226 


4 


11 


8 


13 


48 


17 


88 


23 


9 


5 




Females 


235 


4 


13 


10 


15 


54 


15 


89 


18 


15 


2 




Total . . 


461 


8 


24 


18 


28 


102 


32 


177 


41 


24 


7 




Males . . 


312 


12 


16 


4 


11 


69 


27 


121 


25 


19 


8 




Females 


334 


22 


22 


5 


10 


81 


28 


128 


20 


15 


3 




Total . . 


646 


34 


38 


9 


21 


150 


55 


249 


45 


34 


11 



1888.] 



Dl. v ras. 



Table V.— DEATHS, 1888.— Continued. 













DIVISIONS OF THE 


STATE. 




MONTHS. 


SEX. 


6 

3 
w 
o 
"o 
£ 


= 
o 
O 

"o 

'u 

n 


>> 

= 

O 

c 
s 
M 

24 


1 


5 , 

u S 
8)8 
z 

12 


B 

o 
a, 

> 

18 


i 

1 Providence Count y 
_ 7 Towns. 

o 


.a 

1 

as 

- 

25 


ence City. 


9 
U 

o 

a 
o 


= 
o 

- 
a 


- 

00 

s 

SB 




Males. . 


342 


22 


125 20 


20 


6 


Females 


380 


29 


26 


15 


17 


72 


33 


131 


29 


4 




Total .. 


722 


51 


50 


•.•; 


35 


142 


58 


255 


4:. 


4'J 


10 


September . 


Males . . 


261 


12 


20 


5 


15 


64 


19 


97 


1." 


12 


4 


Females 


282 


15 


19 


5 


15 


66 


22 


102 


If 


18 


4 




Total . . 


543 


27 


39 


10 


30 


130 


41 


199 


29 


30 


8 


October . . . 


Males . . 


255 


9 


21 


5 


n 


60 


19 


95 


L5 


12 


8 




Females 


281 


10 


26 


6 


19 


64 


2'.' 




L5 


14 






Total .. 


536 


19 


47 


11 


30 


124 


48 


190 




26 


11 


November. . 


Males . . 


222 


12 


s 


3 


12 


41 


24 


96 


15 


E 


3 


Females 


220 


7 


7 


2 


11 


44 


25 


94 11 


13 


3 


Total . . 


442 


in 


15 


5 


23 


85 


49 


190 


29 


21 




December. . Males . . 


254 


4 


12 


3 


11 


49 


13 


125 


21 


12 


4 


Females 


246 


2 


14 


5 


11 


41 




119 


10 


17 


2 




Total . . 


5U0 


6 


26 

187 


8 
65 


22 

152 


90 
673 


38 


244 


31 


29 


6 


Whole Year Males . . 


3,204 


li:. 




1,803 




Females 


3,3fl0 




221 


74 


if,; 


688 


318 


1,341 


214 194 




Total .. 


6,594 


251 




139 


319 


1,361 




2,644 




l < >:> 



10 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



Table VI.— DEATHS, 1888. 

Exhibiting the Wliole Number, the Proportion to Population, the 

Number of each Sex, and the Number in each Period of 

Life, in every Town and Division of the State. 





a 

.2* 

~z *> 

sod 

o 
Pu, 


Deaths. 


es 

u 

V 

•a 
P 




TOWNS 

AND DIVISIONS OP THB 
STATE. 


Whole 
Number. 


!-■ Per 1000 of 
** 1 population. 
CO 1 


SEX. 


San 
E o 

P 3S 


o 


Barrington 


1,400 


Males 

Females. . . 


8 
12 


2 
2 


1 

1 




6,000 


127 


21.2 


Males 

Females. . . 


56 

71 


9 

7 


3 
2 




4,400 


104 


23.6 


Males 

Females. . . 


51 
53 


17 
10 


4 




4 


Bristol County. . 


11,800 


251 


21.3 


Males 

Females. . . 


115 
13*) 


2S 
19 


8 

7 


Coventry 


5,000 


81 


16.2 


Males 

Females. . . 


3. 

47 


4 

8 






1 


East Greenwich. . . 


2,800 


69 


24.6 


Males 

Females. . . 


27 
42 


5 
5 


4 

2 


West Greenwich . . 


850 


14 


16.5 


Males 

Females. . . 


10 

4 


A) 







14,018 


244 


17.4 


Males 

Females. . . 


116 

128 


34 

26 


10 
6 


Kent County 


22,668 


408 


18.4 


Males 

Females. . . 


187 
221 


45 

39 


14 

9 




520 


8 


15.4 


Males 

Females. . . 


2 

6 








. . . 


Little Compton . . . 


1,050 


13 


12.4 


Males 

Females. . . 


5 

8 




i 


Middletown 


1,205 


22 


18.3 


Males 

Females. . . 


9 
13 


1 


i 


Newport City. . . 


21,266 


319 


15.0 


Males 

Females. . . 


152 

167 


33 
31 


13 
9 


New Shoreham . . . 


1,312 


21 


16.0 


Males. . . . 
Females. . . 


12 
9 






1 


• • • • 


Portsmouth 


2,000 


24 


12.0 


Males. .. 
Females. . . 


14 
10 


5 
2 




Tiverton 


2,775 


51 


18.3 


Males 

Females. . . 


23 

28 


5 

4 


- • . 




2 


Newport County. 


30,128 


458 


18.1 


Males 

Females. . . 


217 
241 


43 
39 


13 
13 




5,400 


123 


22. S 


Males 

Females. . . 


59 
64 


19 
14 


2 
5 


f Cranston 


5,000 


100 


20.0 


Males. 

Females. . . 


52 

48 


8 

n 

i 


4 
2 


Cumberland 


7,263 


177 


24.4 


Males 

Females. . . 


74 
103 


24 
19 


2 

6 


* Egtima 


ted. 


tN( 


>t includ 


ng State Institut 


ions. 







1888.] 



DEATHS. 



11 



Table VI.— DEATHS, 1888.— Continued. 



O 


o 

00 


6 
o 
•a 

1 
1 


o 
o 


o 
o» 

o 

1.-3 


o 

05 

o 

o 
'.I 


o 

o 

8 


8 





0" 



3 


g 



8 

1 
1 


i 

2 


1- 


8' 



8 


I. 



= 

s 


— ' 

s 

"wo 



C 
O 

< 








1 
1 


1 
1 


1 


1 
1 










1 


1 




1 








2 


1 


2 
4 


J 

2 


2 

1 


3 
12 


6 
6 


5 

7 


2 

7 


5 
3 


10 

8 


5 

7 






2 


3 






1 

' 2 


2 
2 
5 


1 
2 
2 


3 
2 
5 


1 

7 
5 






2 
6 

5 


2 
4 

8 


14 
4 

24 


3 
9 

8 


1 




1 


"7 


2 
5 




2 


1 




3 


1 


7 


5 


3 


20 


7 


10 


14 


8 


13 


16 


3 




1 


3 


3 


.... 


2 


1 


1 


3 


2 


4 


6 


3 


. • . . 


1 


2 


.... 


1 


1 


1 


6 


6 


3 


3 


4 


6 


4 


1 






2 

5 


3 

4 


1 

1 


... 


4 
2 


1 
3 


'2 


1 
3 


1 

2 


4 

4 


1 

3 






1 


5 










1 












4 
1 

8 


2 

1 
4 


1 
1 
4 













1 
6 


"*6 


12 




2 


1 


2 


5 


8 


12 


2 




1 


8 


9 


2 


7 


11 


3 


13 


7 


13 


8 


12 


2 




3 


6 


8 


7 


10 


17 


8 


9 


15 


17 


16 


9 


2 


1 


4 


13 


14 


4 


8 

1 


19 

1 


13 

1 


18 


13 


20 


19 


20 


8 
















2 

1 
2 

1 

1 

22 


2 

1 

4 
15 


1 
1 

1 
1 

b 










1 










1 

3 
2 

10 


1 














1 




1 


1 
1 
8 








] 
1 
5 




1 












1 
10 


8 




5 


8 


.... 


5 


1 


1 


4 


.... 


7 


4 


5 


10 


10 


3 


22 


20 


20 


12 


4 














2 


1 


1 

1 


2 

1 


2 
2 

"3 
1 
2 


4 
2 
1 
2 
3 
5 






1 












3 

2 

1 
3 










1 

1 

2 
1 






1 


1 
1 

3 
2 


1 


1 












2 


"i 


1 


1 
3 


"i 


2 

1 


2 




2 


1 




s 


!■ 


12 


1 


7 


9 


15 


12 


19 


27 




1 a 


3 


3 


6 


2 


9 


4 


8 


13 


14 


9 


24 


38 


36 


21 


6 




3 


.... 


5 


1 


2 


5 


2 


1 


4 


5 


6 


3 






2 


1 


.... 


1 


4 


8 


4 


2 


1 


6 


6 


3 


1 




.... 


1 


2 


2 




7 


5 


3 


2 


3 


11 


3 






1 


.... 


2 


.... 


2 


6 


1 


2 


4 


6 


8 


5 


2 




2 


6 


4 


1 


4 


2 


3 


li 


7 


7 


2 


3 


1 




2 


2 


5 


4 


2 


5 


12 


12 


6 


12 


8 


- 


. . . . 





12 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 

Table VI. —DEATHS, 1888.— Continued. 



[1888. 



TOWNS 

AND DIVISIONS OF THE 

STATE. 

East Providence. . 

Foster 

Glocester , 

Johnston 

Lincoln 

North Providence. 
North Smithfield., 

Pawtucket 

Providence City 

Scituate 

Smithfield 

Woonsocket 

Providence Co . . 

Charlestown 

Exeter 

Hopkinton 

Narragansett 

N. Kingstown . . . . 
S. Kingstown. 

Richmond 

Westerly 

Washington Co. 
State Ins. Cranston 

* Estimated. 



7,800 
1,390 
2,100 
8,500 

20,000 
1,550 
3,160 

25,500 

125,000 

3,600 

2,500 

20,000 
238,763 
1,050 
1,050 
2,767 
1,000 
3,870 
4, GOO 

i,eoo 

6,800 

22,937 

1,400 



Deaths. 



120 

19 

39 

161 

434 

38 

42 

557 

2,644 

55 

53 

442 

5,004 

19 

11 

50 

16 

69 

59 

26 

118 

368 

105 



0h a 



15.4 



13.7 



18.6 



18.9 
21.7 



24.5 



13.3 



21.8 



21.1 



15.3 



21.2 



22.1 



21.0 



18.1 



10.5 



18.1 



16.0 



17.5 



12.8 



14.4 



17.4 



16.0 



r5.o 



SEX. 



Males. . . 
Females. 
Males. .. 
Females. 
Males. .. 
Females. 
Males . . . 
Females. 
Males. . . 
Females. 
Males... 
Females. 
Males. .. 
Females. 
Males. .. 
Females. 
Males. .. 
Females. 
Males. . . 
Females. 
Males. . . 
Females. 
Males. . . 
Females. 
Males. .. 
Females. 
Males. .. 
Females. 
Males . . . 
Females. 
Males. .. 
Females. 
Males... 
Females. 
Males. .. 
Females. 
Males. . . 
Females. 
Males... 
Females. 
Males. . . 
Females. 
Males. .. 
Females. 
Males... 
Females. 



I-S 



60 

60 

9 

10 

21 

18 

91 

70 

207 

227 

22 

16 

23 

19 

239 

318 

1,303 

1,341 

30 

25 

25 

28 

228 

214 

2,443 

2,561 

13 

6 

4 

7 

25 

25 

8 

8 

38 

31 

20 

39 

11 

15 

55 

63 

174 

194 

68 

37 



10 

7 



1 

3 

24 

6 

60 

56 

2 

3 

2 

56 

70 

259 

215 

1 

' 2 
10 
61 
59 

529 
469 



3 

4 
1 
2 
6 
4 
4 
7 
3 
1 
8 
10 
2fi 
28 
4 
3 



2 

1 

6 

6 

15 

30 

2 

2 

1 

3 

20 

12 

78 

69 

1 

1 

1 

20 

13 

156 

154 

1 



1888.] DEATHS. 

Table VI.— DEATHS, 1888.— Continued. 



13 



CO 

o 


in 
o 

CO 


o 

o 


in 

O 
o 

2 


S3 

o 
o 


o 

3 


o 

T 

o 
o 

CO 

6 


s 

o 

o 

4 


5' 
o 

o 
2 

8 



§ 

10 


2 


?- 
5 


© 

oa 





at 

2 


u 
I 

> 


•3 
□ 

a 



CI 


•a 
^< 

CO 

O 
- 

< 


1 


1 


2 


3 


2 




1 


1 


.... 


1 


4 


3 


2 


6 


• 6 

1 

1 


7 

"2 
2 
2 
5 
2 
15 
22 


6 
3 
2 

4 
1 
5 
7 
13 
12 


6 

1 
1 
5 
3 
8 
6 
13 
9 


5 
3 

4 

1 
3 
1 
7 
2 
3 


3 

1 


1 














1 














3 

2 

4 

5 

19 

19 


1 
1 


1 






J 

5 
12 

11 


1 
H 
3 
3 
4 


4 

9 
12 




3 


7 

5 
•9 

11 


5 

7 
5 

18 


5 
5 

17 
15 




2 






Iff 






3 


2 




.... 


3 


.... 


2 


.... 


2 


2 


1 


.... 


3 


5 










:; 


2 


1 


1 




1 

2 

13 


. 1 

2 


1 


4 

1 

1 

34 


3 

2 

1 

20 


1 
3 
3 

12 






1 




4 








1 
3 


4 
6 


3 

22 


1 


1 


2 


g 


5 


■ 8 


28 




3 


19 


9 


•6 


12 


33 


26 


18 


30 


29 


27 


17 


5 


2 


45 


55 


60 


27 


37 


134 


107 


142 


114 


111 


87 


44 


3 




34 


53 


54 


34 


48 


145 


125 


L23 


124 


136 


96 


75 


10 




1 


1 


1 
1 






4 
2 


2 


1 
4 


2 
2 


7 
3 


7 
3 


3 
3 











2 


2 


1 


1 


3 


1 

2 

15 


5 


1 
1 
3 


1 

1 
24 


1 
1 

17 


1 

2 

14 


1 

2 

11 


5 
1 
9 


6 

3 

13 


2 

2 
5 








1 
2 




i:; 


15 


1 


6 


19 


11 


3 


11 


15 


13 


18 


9 


14 


13 


8 


2 


• . • 


87 


112 


111 


52 


65 


233 


169 


207 


200 


220 


191 


87 


9 


5 


54 


111 


102 


62 


106 


246 


216 


208 


2 1 9 


240 


19:3 


u; 


29 


5 








1 




1 
1 


3 


1 
1 

. 1 




1 


2 


3 
1 












1 












2 


1 

2 


1 
2 
6 




1 














1 
3 


1 

•J 






1 


1 


.... 


2 


2 


1 


.... 




1 










4 

1 
1 


1 
"k 

:; 


4 

2 
4 
1 


2 

l 
5 


1 
1 

5 
6 


5 

•J 
1 
5 

»; 


2 


1 




1 














1 
2 
















1 

2 


6 
3 






1 


1 


.... 


3 












3 
1 






1 
1 


1 
:; 
1 

.... 


2 
3 

1 
1 
6 


-1 

10 
2 
3 

8 


2 
5 

3 
3 

-l 


3 
1 










1 


3 


1 


•> 












1 


1 
3 








3 


1 

■1 








4 


3 


5 


1 




3 




5 




2 


6 


■1 


5 


5 


6 


8 


7 


1 




1 


3 


4 


5 


9 


9 


i:; 


11 


9 


19 


30 


21 


(i 




6 


2 


7 


1 


7 


15 


11 


L5 


14 


17 


35 


22 


s 


■: 








2 


3 
1 


4 
6 


15 
5 


in 
6 


10 


4 


6 

8 


3 
3 






1 























14 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



Table VI Continued.— DEATHS, 1888.— Kecapitulation. 



DIVISIONS 

OF 

THE STATE. 



Bristol County. 



Kent County. 



Newport County. 



Providence Co . . 



Washington Co. . 



State Inst's 



Whole State. 



11,800 



22,668 



30,128 



238,763 



22,937 



1,400 



Deaths. 



251 



408 



ga 



21.3 



18.4 



458 18.1 



5,004 21.0 



368 



105 



323,416 6,594 



16.0 



75.0 



20.4 



SEX. 



Males 

Females. . . 

Males 

Females. . . 

Males 

Females. . . 

Males 

Females. . . 

Males 

Females. . . 

Males 

Females. . . 

Males 

Females. . . 



115 
136 



187 
221 



217 
241 



2,443 
2,561 



174 
194 



68 

a: 



3,204 
3,390 



28 
19 



45 
39 



43 
39 



529 
469 



26 
28 



675 
597 



14 
9 



13 
13 



156 
154 



201 

187 



* Estimated. 



1888.] 



DEATHS. 



15 



Table VI Continued. — DEATHS, 1K88.— Recai-iti "latiox. 



























> 




co 
O 


10 

2 

CO 

2 


© 
o 
1ft 

5 


m 

e 
© 

2' 


S 



5 




CO 
O 

O 







CO 








5 






5 




2 


2 


3 

g 


1- 



«- 


S 


•9 
= 

c! 

O 
cs 




a 
9 

OS 

< 


2 


5 


7 


8 


24 


8 


1 




3 


1 


7 


5 


3 


20 


7 


10 


14 


8 


13 


16 


3 




3 


6 


8 


7 


10 


17 


8 


9 


15 


17 


16 


9 


2 


1 


4 


13 


14 


4 


8 


19 


13 


18 


13 


20 


19 


20 


X 


.... 


8 


9 


12 


1 


7 


9 


15 


12 


19 


27 


23 


13 


3 


3 


6 


2 


9 


4 


8 


13 


14 


9 


24 


38 


36 


20 


6 


.... 


87 


112 


111 


52 


65 


233 


169 


217 


210 


220 


191 


87 


9 


5 


54 


111 


102 


62 


106 


246 


216 


208 


219 


240 


193 


147 


29 


5 


1 


3 


4 


5 


9 


9 


13 


11 


9 


19 


30 


21 


6 




6 


2 


7 


1 


7 


15 


11 


15 


14 


17 


35 


22 


8 


2 








2 


3 

1 


4 
6 


15 
5 


10 
6 


10 


9 
4 


6 

8 


3 
3 






1 








101 


132 


140 


69 


99 


271 


227 


25 1 


268 


300 


290 


141 


21 


9 


74 


129 


139 


70 


133 


i 319 


266 


266 


284 


327 






54 


7 



16 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



Si 



5S 



co -o 



«L 



<S 



tt 


«5 


« 


ton 


-a 


<3 










c 




•~ 


» 










■•> 


S 


.-!• 


•S> 


i>sS 


«s 


§ 




S? 


k, 




V- 


rS? 


^ 


^ 




C 


B 



^ 






I? 



go 







N iO f^ O H O) 0DH««5« 


i- 


'S 


T 


os i— 


— 


CO CO i—l 




"3 


-^T^^^H i— I Ti i— 1 r* I— 1 




o 
Eh 




M 

« 








i—l • O? O r- 1 i— I iO "*'*r- li- 1 • <7i 00 • O 00 • 




h 


rH : ^ * : : : 




•^ O O rH • t- M ri » -H H • 5<i -H H son H 




« 


CO ^h "* • rH T^i • • rH 








OtfO-lHO IQ <— IOOO^i— iWNNrtCSOnr- 1 




I- 


C^J C^ CO rH i—l r-l rH 


-1 


ft 






CDH£^iO • 00 CO 


. so f> 






■ i> 


O* CO • • 


K 


Fl 


rH i— 1 • 






• 








•0 


<3 


• 






• 


























i— )• • as ■ i-i rH 
















o 




fe 




















a 


W ri M CO 


(7i 




« 




- 1 






" 




o 


ft 


" I ! ! 


1 ! 














c>< 








a 


i© • • o 


o* 














p-H 




! ^ ! 


o 

O 


& 


CO • <-> • 


• I 
















— rH . . 


M 


C* ■ TP 0» 


I— 1 T— 1 


rH O 








W 




; >-" ; 






• • CM 7* 


T—t 


—1 












, . 




ft 






















a 
























CO 


a 


CO '«H 


CO 




— 1 — 






















.... 






r— . 








^_t 








so 
s 


ft 






















■ | 


a 


i— • . -* 


— 




T> -f" 








— H 


T— 1 




: 






rH • rH rH 












I— 1 1— 1 






. 


>. 


&i 








• • 












• 


3 


- 


(N • rH lC 


^ 




rH — fl 








r-l e>* 




• • C^ rH 


1— • 


. _ 






^-1 


• ro 




<0 


ft' 










































3 
1-B 


a 


COH HTji 




; rt ; ; 












y—i i— l 


a 


Gel 


<?*••• 




CN 


f r< 








CT* 








a 


CO i— 1 ■— i <x> 


CO t-1 


CO CO 








-?i 1— 1 f— 1 rH 








rH • N rH 












• • T—t ■— 1 






&j 
























a, 
























a 


-* • • CO 


1—1 










y—\ 


1-1 












IH • rH • 


• 






c?« 








rH 








fe 






















































a 


a 


T— 1 rH rH rH 


I—l 






• 








I— 1 














C* • • ■ 






. — i 


T-\ 


T-t I— 1 




,— ! 




,0 


ft 






















a 


— 4 i— ' 




t— 1 






■"• 




















- rH 






















I—l 




>-a 


ft 


























a 


rjt • CO i— 




1-1 




TT 








CO 


CO 




— 














1 












rl 




















. co 


rrj 


o 












o 




















■ "73 


O 


O 












Uj 














E- 
< 

P 
C 

V 




a 
'£ 

c 
a 


w ° o 

■hS| 

co C - 


o 

-4-> 

Dp 

co „. 

O J- 


S £ 

D C 
O - 


a 


c 
-/ 

c 

p. 


c 

— 
PC 


7i C 

be? 
n c 

« - 


o 

6 

c2 


a 
"E 

c 
a 


E 

c 
-t- 








a 

S 
o 

< 


< 
C 




c/T 

fl C 


co co 

co ^^ . ^ 


1 


o 






CD ■" ■» ° n l 






o * o co >< re a) 










<; 






















<■ 


< 




<■ 


< 


< 





1888.] 



C \ i SE8 "K DEATH. 



17 




18 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



o 
D 



00 
00 
X 



Q 
O 

£> 

o 






s 


o 


r— 


-— 


T 1 






CO 

(TV. 




C 


<T3 


5Q 


I— 


<o 


-t 1 C r— 

CO 


co i— 


CO 


T^ 


^2 


i— i 


SQ 


.1 i—l • • • ■ «* • i— 1 i— i <?t i— ( O* t*i • •COrHiMi-H«0«OG<i'3Q 


.1 -rtr-rt H© HH I— 1 • • CO © TV r— i ■ 1— 1 

a | : : . ; « ::::::: 


a 

a 

H 
S5 

w 
K 

< 




ft 


i— 1 i— 1 I— 1 - • CS • i— 1 • i-H • -«0>— 1 -CO • I— I T ' . " -h TV i— 1 

• 'I-H • i— 1 r-( 


S 




I— (i— l-^li— (I— c « ri rt O "j n H O H ?( r. ri ?( -i— 
r— i r-i t— 1 


6 

> 



& 

o 
O 


&" 


r -' 








t< 












CV 


Tf 




T< 


> i—i 


S 






































ft 












<r< • 












-H 


CV 








i— i 




a 1 












T^f ■ 












■51" • 


; 












ft 












r_l 










— t o* • 


r-i 




T- 


C<! 




3 












o< • 










• 7^ • 












c. 


ft 












CO • 






— ' 


:" ■ 


CO ■ 




- 1 


- 




s 1 






















.—i -h 














Eh 1 












1—1 


— ' 










•7* 




c (M • 


"— 


a 












— ' ; 












7i ■ 










►3 


ft 












c*> 








•2 


o< • 


— ' 




C — i — i 




a 1 












i-H 










« C^ -i-H • 








0) 

a 

3 


a 


























1—1 


SO 




: ' — -r< — ■-( 


F— 1 ' 


^H 


: 


























a 


ft 




























; -< 


<TJ 




i— 1 




a 












i—i 


i— 1 








CO • 












"l-i 


ft 
























c 


— i 


i-H — . i-t (M 




?. 












i—i 












1—1 1—1 




'.'.'.'. 






fe 












•—I 




rt 










— i C* ^-i TV 




a 




















■ r-i CO — i 












,0 


ft 












■ .— i 










• c^< 




CO 


■ CO 




a 












- 1 •"• 


r— 1 




• • c<? ■ 












9 


ft 












■ I-H 






• — ' 


• — 1 CO • 


• CO 




T-! 


'- , 




a 






: ^ 


. 1— 1 


















• i—i 








< 
6 
f 

C 

a 

& 

■J 

H 


i 

H 

3 
J. 

> 

3 

4 
i 


c 

a 
c 


a 

. C 

; t 

* c 
3 <3 

^ 
3 


3 

3 

t 

z 


; r 

| E 

1 1— 


; e 


> 

: o 


7 


• a 

• E 

• 

: 1 
IJ 


• a) 

. r ^ 

J 43 J 

> s* 

] S 3 

JO 


c 


2 a 

1 r 

; E 


j E 

-. a 


Sec HE- 


a 

C 


i 
i 

: c 

3 i 
- 


J — 


c 





r 

5 

CI 

! 


1 
i 

1 


_ci 

s 

o 



1888.] 



CAl SES OP DEATH. 



19 



c? o o 

70 0' 



:; o h t -t :> r. >: r. z • - v — 



ifi O O i— I 2> ■" 



* I 5 



—i ,— I 
7' 



t— i CO i— < < - 



to — • vr » i— i co cc . 
*- to eo «o cc 



"* CO iQ «.o — 

co o 7 • — 



/ . MnCIJ 



•-I rH CO t- CO * t< O -f TV 

30 T HlO ^ 



— ? • ..- io ' - / • - : ■ 

CO GO t— ?> 



7 • 7 — 7 • ? • — 

a: 7- 



oetoHiN x -+ — < >o ^h 

35 -f i— I CO < f 



— 7 • — . ~ 7 • • - • - 7 • 

CO — 7 • 



— -7 _- . .- r. z i 
■ - 



<— i i— i -r J. 



x tv — i -f o» 



lO *> 77 7- 



rl CO - — 



:: :• : r 



:7 — 
CO 



- - TO TO 



■o — Ob -r ?•» 



<o r> t« — 



o 

77 



co <— i o- — 



COHrHrt-f -O 



7- — X 7- - 



?• ~- OS CO 



t- - GO CO GO 



i— l r— i- 7" 



t-t • r-t CO <* —i 



CO e-H I— < -H T\> — i 



CO • 

'". 7- 



7 • ■ : — i cv 



o> • — < cc i— i o i-h 



0>> — i TV — ■ 






•a s 

• — : 
— - — 



3! 



. _. O "• " O •— <— r- — 



~ O 





B 

r. 



PQ 

•S g s 

- _- 0> 



— i • -. -r 



o ^z 



_ 



00 .2J *j> 

-— £ t: — 

z ~ >■ — 

- '-■ > -_- 
« — 



| . 



- 



4-3 -I- 



• — 



9 .^ 

Qfi 



— : - 

C ~ — o 

s - - <■ 

5 £££' 



20 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 







Hi HI t-I CO C35 -7? 


>* 


co 


c> 


•c 


CJS 


rH 


^ CO CO 


«# 


I ~ 


rH 


T> 


lO 


-h 


t- iO 


rH 






UO CO r-H r-l CO I— 1 Hi CO -H I— 1 CO 






CO 










H 










I 


CO CO •t-35HCOiO-iN«DCO'WCOO<<-05 ■ CO t- CO SO CO 




fa 1 


• CO — * —> CO © ■— 


. I 


nWHtDOrtMHHWCOOONiO • 


t- CO r-l • CO CO i—i GO r-i 




* 1 


CO CO rH rH GO • 


i-H • r— 1 

tH 






» 




H CCl H O 'X> « CO Ci H C» -f O CO O ■ 


V - r-l r— 1 H H< • ■"# «0 • 




CO CO t— 1 ■— 1 CO 


CO rH -r-l 


< 
w 


fa 




i— 1 




CO t— 1 • CO CO i— 1 CO i> i— ICOiOr- ii— 1 CO CO 4- CO •. i— i i— i •«# CO • i— I 


K 






(7? i—t r- 1 i—l CO < 


r-H rH 




2 <i 


















. 1 .• 




f— ( 






•— 1 


co • Ci 




• i-H — 




n 


















30 








S 


• i— I 


50 • 






•- , 


I-H 




CO 
CO 




■ CO 








.—I 


CO r-l 




r-l 


GO 






i-H 




I— c 


CO 




> 


fa 1 


















1—1 












fc 


a 






i— i co 








r— 1 


CO 


o 

r— 1 
















fa 


i— i 




■*** ■ 


i— i r-i 


1— 1 CO CO r-l GO 


H< 














-e 












— « 












o 


a 






GO CO • 


: rH 






r-l Hi 


Hi r-i 
CO 
















i—i 




T> r-1 


r— 1 






t— I Hi 


GO CO • 


r-l 




y—K 




a> 


fa | 
















i—i 








a 


rH ■ 




|Q« - -co 


•^ ' 




i—l CO 


o — 
CO 






r-H r-H rH 






• GO 


V - CO — < CO • T-i 1— 1 




• CO 


CO r-1 • 






• CO • - 


P 

< 


&i 
















rH 










a 




r - 


CO «0 r-H HI ■ 




• i—l 




CO 


Hi • 








rH • • 








rH -* 








Hi 


.-, CO 




r-i 


CO — 1 • 


>, 


fa 


























1-5 


s 








CO CO 


CO r-l ■ 


GO -H GO ■ 


rH 


— rH 




rH 














CO — 


• rH 


• i-H 


GO 


CO i-H 




• HH • • 


a 


En' 






















i-s 


a 








co co 


• i— i i— 1 CO 


CO 


-r 


r-. r-l 




•^ 


• I-H t-H 






" 






r-1 H 


i-H i— ' • r— 1 




~> 


O r-1 




SO 


r-H 


>> 


fa 






























a" 








CO • 




r- 1 


•H 






Hi 


CO rH 




l-H 


T—t 




p. 

< 


fa 








• i-H 




1— 1 


CO 






CO 


HJ< ■ 




H 






s 








CO • 




i— 1 


I— 1 






rH 


tHNih 


70 


r-1 












CO • 






rH 






CO 


CO • • 


rl 


CO 




« 


fa 
































S 


a 






rH CO rH 




CO 




rt 




■<* 






H 


co 




rf3 


fa 








CO rH 






• CO • 


- • CO rH 








• rH GO • 


fa 


r3 








•H 




I— 1 


CO r-l • 


r-l 


• Hi 






• rH Hi 












CO CO 






CO i— 1 rH 




■ CO r-H 




CO • CO 




a 


fa 






























g 








50 r-l 


co 




• CO 






GO 


• £- I-H 








1-1 






















1 






















. 


. . 




w 


































oj 












EH 














































fa 
P 












s 










' T 


J c 

5 (D 
















• =rH 


fa 
O 

CD 
fa 

CO 

t= 

<: 


a 




< £ 

1 a 

) r; 


| 't 
! : 


3 
l 

j a 


c 

a 

c 


1 

H — 


! 
> P 


• 

"VI- 


. a 


H- 


: £* 5 ? S Aft 
) PrH^tfHH 


a 

■ - 


> 

: a 
i P 


1 a 

. a 
y 


; . .^ o 

> <^ c a> 

' 3 r- CS 

- .O J3 0> 
co 




case s a&i?n « .2 es ci cs .-=; 






P= 


IP 


IPs 


}K 


1 




^ 


IPs 


IPs 


3P= 


IP* 


Ifr 


i 










p= 


<s 


a 


5 


o 


O 



1888.] 



CAUSES OF DKATH. 



21 



H 
M 

■ 


5 
o 


c 2 99<^COeO0009e9^<rHC — 

— i I— i ^-. T' ■- ?' 

CO 


i-H -+ T? CC ~s. 


BC 




•c 








lO C5 


.1 H"OrHiOTOOTQO«N« -COH •H««U5B5 • H OS • 
d, 1 rl r-i Oi . _ . 


?• 35 


.1 t-H ?"- i— I <X> CO O O • ■Nrti* • i— 1 CO • i— 1 CO • co ■** —« ^ ~ :~ z. 

JB 1 CO HCO • • • • • ?• — 


M 

a 

-<! 

K 
1 

H 

•< 
h 


o 

fa 


■-( 7 • — < -+ O CC > -H — . i-i ?> ^ — — T • 7 • 7 - 7 • iH ? ' -r X -h . r-l CC 

CO r-l CO l-H ■ ■— I 

T— 1 


a 


1-1 0t IH • - — < - C- l-H I— 1 CV 

I— 1 


. os • — ?• 


— -,: ?f — i — . ■?? 

i-H 


i— t 










o 
o 
Q 

> 
o 

a 

O 

a. 
u 

CO 

M 

= 
< 

>> 

a 
>-i 

Q 

a 

3 

►a 


fa 




. OS • ■ 


• • C* i-h 






! I I 


• 




l-H 






— 




• — 


a 




r. • t* 


i-H CO 








■n - 


• 












c>i 




i-H l-H 


fa 




i— t 




N 








<o •— I 


l-H 












~^ 






cv 


- 




CO 


I— < 








i-H 






'. 








l-H 








*~ 


fa 










«ra 




1—1 






\ 












GVJ 






1 — 


a 




-. 




i—l i-H 












r-H 




















— 


fa 




— -< 


<—l CO i—i — t 1 








i-H 










l-H 




^ 








— 


- 




- • — 


• • CO 








i-H 










— ' 




; 








?* 


fa 


i-H 




r-H 7' — 


- 




-■■ 
















• 






o* — 


^ 


.-H 




1— 1 1— 1 Tjt 
























— «-"-" 


rt ; 


fa 




3S 


I— I 1— > l-H I— 1 








—1 








1—1 






; ; 






■ 




•- 


... CO 








; 
















— X 






l-H 


fa 




i— I 


• i-H O* Ti i-H 






- 1 


















B4 








- 




CO 


I-H • O* T* 






i— i i—i 


















r-H 






• 


« 

< 

as 

a 


fa 




1— 1 


: ■ -: 








• 










- ' ' ■ 












l-H 


a 




o 




CO • 








i-H 


l-H 










" 












fa 




ca 


— 


■ -.-. 














cv 






; 








— ' 


a 




- 


i-H 


. co 








l-H 




i-H 








l-H 


ri 








fa 




~H 


! 


r-H -P 








• 








— — 






— ' 






; 


a 




O 


— 


•-• co 








'"' 








'. "™ 






X 






cv 


D 

FN 

d 

a 


fa 

a 




PH 






•O -Tf 


— rH 


N 








- i— 1 










• 




t 




i-H • 7* 






; 




i-H 


l-H l-H 




— » - 


<—> 


• 


fa 




ov 




•*J1 i-H • 




'. 


i— i 
















• CNt 






— 


a 




CS 
I— ( 




1— 1 1— 1 -H 




1—1 


















-H CO 




— ?• 


B 
E- 
■< 
b. 

c 

h. 

Z 
i 

u 

1 

< 
c 


• 


g 

'c 

5 


< 

- 
1 

•/ 



*a 
« 

tc 


: 
— 

- 
4 




: 
— 
- 
- 

a 


> 

1 

1 


■I 

' 9 


a 
a 

• 

p 


a 
= 

a 
E 

- 
- 


St 
7. 

- 


1 

'7 

> 

- c 

r 
- 

— 


E 

- — i 
— 


QJ 0. 

' 3 -- 
i 

S g 

— ■— 

o 

bo 

- 

o 

E 

— 
— 


£ 
3 


■- 

~~ 

• 
1 — 


•< 

2 


a 


* 

c 

- •- 
X 

— 


- 

E 

■ 

I — 


a 

I 
i 

p 


_ E 


or 

1 




" C 


E 

c 
— 

c 
- 

. — 
- 


• 
o 

'5 



22 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 







£~ CO 


so 


77 


>o 


cc 


O CO 


N 


rH 


C. 


co 


Hh r» 


1C CO r-l 


T' 


C? O? CO 


IO 


-1 


»# 




_' 


■^ i— 1 lO CO i— « i—l i— ' CD r»* .— 






i—l i— 1 




o 






E-l 




m 






1 


ff»«H • ^ iO CO •* 'O ■ CO i— t -* GV CO i- • O* • O- CO O/ CD — 




*• 1 


S>i • 00 i— 1 ■ O lO 




1 


iCriWK)r-iCOt"?i^riCON • • 0* CO i— i • O/ .O i.O CO «0 CO 




* ! 


O* CD i—i i—l • • CO 




H 




iOCJH«H!>HT)i'* ■ H ?) TJ fl H O . . <?$ CO O C$ CO i— 1 




i— c CO i—l • i—i CO CD 


< 


& 


. : : 




N^NH^COCSOJCOr-lCCH?; • «* i - i— 1 7-i • CO CO CO CO oc 


« 


a 


O* 00 r-l 


co >o 


P. 


< 














• O* • • • • i— t r- 1 i— 1 


-r • ■ <c 


01 

P 


p=i 1 






• 1— 1 














• 




s 1 


C3 rH • 




1—1 -1—1 • 


1— 1 


5* • 










on ■ 


co • • 


•o 




• o? ■ 




•Ht- • 
















iCi i— i • 


«o 


r- 

c 


^ 1 


- 




























s 1 


i—i co • 






r-i CO • 


1-1 








: ^ : 








CO • 


-7/ HI 


fe 1 




CO • 








COh . . 


-* • 












7' T- 


i-i 00 


O 


* 1 




T-l 


1-1 : 




< - 


— ' 


IN ■ 






• 1—1 1— I 




r- (N 


o? «o 






,_, 






CO • 










. r— 1 




T" T' 


, 




fe 1 






























a. 

CO 




























s 1 




- 1—1 1—1 


O* r-l 


CO 


rH 






; "-" 






i—l m 




■* 








1—1 • • 


rH O: 


1—1 


r-l 








1 — 1 


■ 7' 




CO 


tii 


fe 1 






























< 


rS J 




CO 






r~ 1 -f 


- 1 


—> 1—1 




• I—l 






CO CO • 




CO 








,_, 






•* 


o* 


. — 




. ,— | 






i— I N rH 


•7 


>> 


fe 






























s 

1-3 


S | 




Oi 


rH 




"* 


-rh 


" H : 










• >C i— 1 


CO 








■* 






CO 


r-H 






— r- 






H« — -rj 


C 
l-a 


ft | 






























3 




-+ 






t- 


■?* 1— ' ■ 


r ~ l 




I *"* 






• co 


r-l li- 








, — 1 




1—1 


£- 


1— 1 • • 


■ 1—1 








rH O* 




— 


>> 


ft 
































g 


o> cc. 






co 


1— 1 


<N 












1—1 1—1 


-r 






C? i—l i—l 


r-H 


co 


CO' 


p-i 


I—l 


1—1 r— | 












rr 


^ 


ft 




























p. 


- 






CO 


r-! 


r— | 




. 








co 




- 


■< 




































CO • 




nOHW 




■ 1—1 


I—l 1—1 


1—1 




■ 1—1 


7' M 




ft 


























g 




O? rH 




r-H T>1 • Oi 


















1— 1 




• Oi 








o? • 


.— i <N io : co 








» 1— 1 








Si 




• CO 


O 


ft 






























M 








■ - • GO, i-i - 


; ^ 




'. '. '. "- , 












• co 












rH • O? rH rH 




1—1 r-l . — 








-* 


r-l as 


a 

a 


ft 






















s 




1—1 






CO -f i— i 




• <N 






o? • 








• »C rH 


• CO 
































! ! ' c 


J 
























































































'. '. £ " 






























. a> 














. . «C a3 














C 


3 














CO 














o — 














E 






























• . O -t 


3 












' 


<J 














• CO 




























r 


3 










































f 


3 














■Q 








ce 




• " C^i ^ & 










f 
















. 50 








. r-i 




- — ^ r— 1 C 




0) 




C 


3 

q 






a 

c 


5.2 


. 0- +3 

"J — 

• ci ~ 

• CD fcC 


' a 


J DO 08 

-T - ; O ^i o 


2 


' . CO t« 

• cs C3 B ' • 

"SO C-i - 


3 




c 
C 


(3 





1 > 


ci a> 
^ ° a 


. t/j ■— - — . — i rj cc i-i tr •— ' o • (70 

> ^ • soS < o 1 q £ s £ ~ ~ S-g o 


. cc 

• '--3 

- So 






cS ss.gi.is 5 ^ s is- 5 " 




















Ik- 


! 




H 


-- 


1 






? 




\-p 




- 


2S 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



23 







c? ur: 


c 


1— 


e 


Tv 


rH TJ 


c 


89 


CC 


TJ 


= 


~i 


-r 


rH 


t^ 


-* 


— 


CC 


— 


— 


-- 


rH 


i — 


CO 




_,• 


CO CO ">* riO -f O 


i— ■ CO CO 


CO 




3 


CO i-H 


~v 












K 










1 


-tM>-l '00 • • »<C i?i • iO • C- i— i CJ 


rH -* O -H • • CC r- 


rH • CO 




* 1 


rH rH • <-( • • 00 • CO • CO 


T* rH • • 


• cy 


. 1 


COCOOSrH*3HCOrHt-OOCOCOCOCOi-iCN 




TT -r C- CO rH r-i »C 


• rH — 




* ! 


co o co CO 

rH 




i— ( tD r-i 
TV 


<— i 










co co CO — < cs • ■ o CO • o • co •— i 




T.' — • - r-t rH rH rH 


■ • / 




h 


rH r-t • • CS • t< • CO 




rH i- 


• — ^ 


< 

Z 

H 


a 






-■ 






-* co go ■ *3 « h co "/. :; :- :* f -. n 


rliOOMN CC iG 


.— ^^ ifi 


M 


= 


1— 1 


CV CS O CO 


— ^-i 


rH 




< 




i— I i—i 


CV 










fe 


• 1—1 


CO 


• • co 


tJ< 


— 






• ~J 










• r— 


o 






■ — 










• — •> 












Q 


a 


H«N 




rH CO O 


CO 


_ 






CO CO 




- — 






rH r-t 






• 


-H 










rH 














* 


CO 


T— 1 


CO 


• I—I rH 


<* 


rH 


— 




■ -r 










• rH 


o 
S5 










— ■ 










— -> 
















a 1 






""' 




— X 


CO 


CO rH • 




CO 


















& 


CO 


. 


rH 




• o 


CO 


SO • 






0O 
















o 








. — . 


— 1 










rH 
















a 


1—1 


MriH 




• co 


t- 


CO 


rH 




o 


rH 
















co • -x 




T—1 O 


CO 


CO 






-H CO 














a 
a 

CO 


— 1 










-J 


























?! 


; 


• 


Ti 




• CO 


CO 


CO 






• -* rH 












CO 






1—1 i— 1 • 


CO 




rH lO 


00 


t- 




rH • i> rH 












rH 


p 










CO 






















* I 


• 1—t 1— 1 


CO 




• i— I 


o 


o 






rH HI • 






•-* 








fc 


. . -^ 


i—i 




• CO 


CO 


1-{ 






i— 1 H/i r— i 












"* 


>, 










■ — i 
























a 
>-> 


a 


— ' 




CO rH 


rH CO 


CO 


; 








c-. ■ 












cv 


d 

S 
a 


fe 


CO 


-X 






H05«CO 


:c — i 






CO • 








r-t 


CO 


a I 


CO 


rH 


CO 




rH ao 


CO 


CO 








CO rH 

rH 




r-i rH 










1— 1 


,_, 






• CO 


t- 


CO 








CC r- 




• r- 






~ 


CO 

5 








• 






co 












— 




• 








a 


1— 1 


CO 


CO 






CO 


Tt< 


fTO 






rH O^ T< 
C* 




• rH 




CO 


t5 


a' 


i-h t-t CM 


l—t 






CO 


co 


UO 






• O CO 

• CO 




CO • 




rH 


I— 1 


• 


rH 






CO 


OS 


CO 






CO rH CO rH 




rH 




CO 






. 




CO 






00 


»o 


CO 






• CO CO 












CO 




^ 












-H 










• CO 
















r-t 


Ttl rH 




co 


00 


rH 






TjH C- CO 






rH 




'. 






rH 




rH 




CO 


OS 


■** 






rH lO r-l 












r-t 




ti 












— 1 










ec 












- 


rH 


i-( 


Tjt 




r-l OS 


CO rH 1—t 


rH 


CO "^ CO rH 

CO 










' 






co 




. 




• rH -H< 


CO • CO 






rH CV •<* 




r-l 






CO 


a 
S 

>-3 


Em 

* 












"H 








cc 


















: •"■■ 






rH 


T r-l 








r-f rH 

CO • 


































































, 1 


































to 
















OS 




























CO 




(3 
















a 


























3 




3 














Q 

h 

O 

CO 

w 

CO 


a, 

00 

6 

— r- 

o E 

S '£ 

cr? 
"ft 

.5 - 
S 


rH 
g 

V 

'a 
> 


a 
'— 

r 
1 I 


e 

— 

r> 
— 

C 

■ 

c 

> 


a 

'5 



I 


c 
o'ii 

a 


a 

2 


1 

■ 


■ 
■1 


ei 

"i 

a 


v 

: 
t 


u 

a 

o 
a> 

rQ 

^■£ 
c 

r* 

E 
a 


o 


03 

£ 

09 

w- 1 

.2 

'Sot- 
> F»"E 


01 


rj 

«M 

o 

p I 

o a 

OJ 

CC 

C 
E 


■r 

a 
z 


c3 
O 

'5b 

(H 

— 
O 

a 

99 - 

•— -- 

>- s 

— - > 


■ 
- 


. — 

i 


a 

CO 

c3 

a 

cu 






5b, 




r* 


fe 


y 


^ 


c 


c 


2 


rV 


- 


- 




- 


Ph 


- 


- 




- 


- 


&H 


P— 


3 


'- 


w 



24 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



at) 


o 


« N Oj H< !- 
O GO 
CO 


t- 


■ -HH O rH GO r- 
»-i rH 


CO CO 2> CO ?5 


J> GNi 


r- 


rH r- 


00 cc 


^ 




.1 rH i— 1 »0 ■<* • «0 CO O • »-< r-l ■ ri © N N f- W fi • • CO •■«* 

g j 2 ^ : :** : : : : 






H 

o 

< 

M 

K 

si 


O 

Ph 


i— lO^r- 1 r-T O CO i> • O t— It— 1 CO CO i— I -i— It— t • • i- 
i — I i — i • i— i • • 
rH • ... 


CO rH tO 


s 


CS rH 


GO CO CO rH GO 


rH 


•t^WOHHrt 


O GO O 














Em* 






■ 




• rH 














■ | 








•^ 




a 




i— t 


H 


! 


rH 






; 








GO 








rH 




>' 

o 


Eh 




• 


CO 


rH 










1-H 






















a 




CO GO • 


rH GO 
















r-1 t— i 












GO 


o 

o 


Eh' 




rH • •— i i— 1 








CO 
























rH • 


a 




rH rH • 










• co 


























■ 


p. 


& 




r-l 








GO 








rH 














rH 


CO 


a 






CO 










CO 






■ cv 




















<1 


&; 


1—1 T-H 








i — ( 
























rH 






a 










rH 






rH 










rH GO 


rH 










>-3 


& 




rH i—l 










CO 


rH 






















GO 


a 






GO 


rH 






















GO 












a 

•-5 


p=; 




CO 


CO 


* 


























rH 


i— 1 rH • 


a 


T-H -H 




rH 


rH 




rH 




CO 














rH 




SS 

3 


&; 




lOHH 






rH 


























CO 


a 




CO 


rH 


rH 






CO 








rH 














rH 


a 
<! 


fe 




lO 


rH 


'. 






• 




















rH 




a 




T— 1 

.— 1 


CO 








rH 




rH 


rH 
















" 


03 

a 


&l 




lOHff? 


rH rH 




rH 




GO 


















rH rH 


a* 




-*H« 










GO 




























,0 
S 
Eh 


& 




CO 


T-t 






rH 
























rH 




a 




rH 

rH 


GO 








I 






















rH 




a 

05 
>-5 


Em* 




o 


; 






rH 


CO 




























a 




05 rH rH 






CO 










1— 1 




co 












r " 1 


tr 
E- 
< 

P 

C 

:/ 

1* 
a 

»- 
< 




'p 

c 

s- 

c 

£ 

'43 

£ 
a 


T 
1 


0l 

i 

c 


T 

"i 

s 

e, 
a 

a: 


— 


a 

a 
S 

c 
a: 

.E 


- 

rz 
PC 

p 

"p 


c 

£ 

- 
p 

7 


a 

c 
2 

a 
oe 

P 

<— 

c 
a 

r 

c/: 


ir- 

a 

| 

P 

rC 

a 

£ 


ag 

s 

w 

c 

r- 


c 

'-E 

- 

c 
c 

P 


OS 

£ 

c 


c 
q= 

'c 
a 

a 
J 


C 
DC 

rfl 


K 

C 
-- 

+: 

o 

-> 


6 

D C 

"E 


c 

c 

rJ 


ei 

> 

a 

a 

3 


a 
P 

c 
c 
a 
> 


a 

c 

a 

> > 




^^ 
P 

b 
p 
o 
O 

^ 


as 

_o 

.2 

<u 

QQ 

a> 

^> 
c3 



1888.] 



CAUSKS OP DEATH. 






H 

H 
on 


5 
o 


>0 O CQ to !0 N < 

co co 


• (OHHIOHIKCC 


— 


9 


i— 


so — — 

— 


t 

-• 


.1 mm«t-iT(?jiO'tH • >o — ?* -r • • — r« • - — c: 

fa | -' — i 


.1 cvco^TO^cs-rvsv} -f • • • ?• — ?• • • t-i .3; 

a I ^ ~ : : : : : : - : 






« 

< 

SE 

■ 
- 
< 


O 
fa 


«o — i TO to 50 -r — :~ r — ■ SO — >h^oc 


S 


o >o 

t— i 




— X O CO i-l 

1— 1 




TV ** 


Tx 


:* 


t» 


















i 

Q 


fa 


i— i 






• . .—1 • • 
















_ — 


w 


S 


— 






'.'.'.'.'. 


















• -c 




> 
o 
S5 


fa 








««-Hm 


















• TO 


' — 


a 


""■ 






• 1— 1 












tH 








~ 


; — 


o 

Z 


fa 




; ■""* 




: ■"* 










: rt 








• i—i »o 


o* 


a 




' —' 




—I l-H 


' H 






















| 


o. 

00 


fa 






i— 1 


CO 


























. — i 


S 










CO 














— ' 


• i— < 




• ■* 


. ^H 


a 


fa 


** — 






• rt — 






; '- , 




1-1 








CO 




7. 


TO • 






i—i i—i 






















; " 




-. 


fa 


"*i • 






*-• 


~ 




















• CO 




a 


50 rH 


1—1 


•* 


— ' 














"- 1 






i— 1 


a 


fa 


CO • 




























■ 1— 1 


i—l 


a 


CV i—i 






co 














i—i 






! 


; 




&; 


CO n 








• 




7' 


rH i— 1 • 


T— 1 


• i— i 


CO 


s 


CO 








co 


• 




















• i— t 




- 


fa 


SO 








1 


i—i 




















t—i 




a 


I— 1 








1— t 
























; • 




a 


&J 


CO 








1-1 








t— i 




l-H 








CO i-H O 


a 






1—1 


CO — 1 




















1—1 


TO 


fa 


fa 


CO 








SO SO 






i— i 














1— 1 


i— 1 


a 




i—i 




i— t 
























-* 


30 


S3 

r: 
-5 


fa 


r ~ l 


i— i 






i—l 






""• 


- 1 








CO 


CO 


^ 


•""■ 








i—l 






l-H . 
















rH 


:■ 


c 

fa 

C 

fa 
C 

en 

S 

OE 
P 
< 






b 

c 

X 

r- 


a 


■i 
a 
c 

E 
C 

E- 


a 

5 
EH 


E 
a 

a 

r? 

on 

a 

E- 


1 

z 

a 

— 


c 

E 

E- 


a 

c 

X 
< 

•— 




I 


:_ 
f 


^__ 


a 

£ 


gt 

- 




— 


a 


■— 

3 
X 

— 

s 












O 

a 
- 



26 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



•^ 
S 

^ 






^ 



^5 



CQ 



^ 



*! 



*5» 



^i 



2*5 



<5 







1888.] 



C u 9B8 OF DEATH. 



M 
H 

CO 


Eh 1 


N 


39 


87, 


— 




TV i— 1 


— 


1— 1 


CO i-H 


— 


cot-:*- — — t- i-H -f »o 

i— i eo l -/ ~ -' o 

-r- 


i-i 


1— 1 


fa 




a 


i-i t- EC 
-a • 


NC0HHCOHHOOJ lOCOOHCOOin r • 

i— i •— 1 i— i i— i Ci i-H TV ■ 




tr - z. 
< s a 


fa | 






; ; 


■ — 






















; ; 












a 1 








•"' : 






































&' 1 
a 1 






TV • 


























i— i 
















N 


' ; 


















i— ■ 


H • i— l 












& 






X 


TO ■ 
















-• -• : 


-. — ■ 


-* • 






- 






Z ! 


i— ( 
















<—* 




i— 1 TV -^< ^h -^ 






O 3° 


& | 






fC 


_ -*. 


















B5-HH 


iO • 




-" 


as 




CO (TV ■ 


-* ^H 




N — 


.— . 




TV ■ 




hOO • ■ 


CO TV 




8 1 


&' 


1-H TV — 1 


"* TV 














89 — 


CO — »o 


CI ~H 




s 




— GO 


•— > CO 


~* — 










co • i-i <s* Oi cc 


w — 




s f 


fa 




• TV 












TV p-< TV — 


• TC '- 


CO • •— ' 


7. 




— e^ 


• — 








■ 1—1 




89 — 


CO X TV 


ec — 




© 


fa 




• <c 


— -" 














T 




— CO — 


*" 








- 


-NC- 


1 








— 








~, ~. _ . 


T^ 






d 
s - 


fa 






CO 


— 












'"" l 


i— ( 


FH 


•a • 


T* 






a 






X 


i— 1 












*"* 


— 




CO — 


— 






d 

a* 


&; 






TV 


— 












• — TV 




o — 










a 
























— — ; »■« — 


CO 












15 

to 20. 

M. 1'. 


























•"■ 


— 




















- 1 










i— i 








TV 




* — 








fa' 
























TV 


" 






CN 












a 






; — 
















. ^ 


; *-■ 


















d 


h 






PH — 














7' 


■ -■ — 


• TV i— 










- 


























• ~ TV • 


TV 












3 


fa 
























• TV 


• CO —< • 


:- 




; — 






X 






















; — ' 




• — • TV 


• T 




; -h 






ad 

c 2 . 


fei 




























; "-> ; ; 


• TV 












a 






: r " 1 




















. .-Hrt 


»o 












fc 






















: "-" 


■ " 


— 


TV 












a 






















:*■* 


: " 


:^ 


- - 












- 






; -■ 


TV 












! 


TV 


; ; 














c 


as 






• i—i 


■ ■* 


i— i 








• TV 


• TV TV TV i-i 1" 












0A1 8E9 OT DEATH. 




a 

-t. 

e 
-s 

I 

-i 

c 

< 


i'l 

• 
- 

■ .- 

! 

1* 


i 
i 
> 

> 

■ > 

b : 

i< 


g 
< 


3 

e 
— 

a 
< 


< 


: 

. D 

: j 

- 


— 
<- 

\ U 

\ ~- 

■ c 

- — 


■ : 
. * 
• | 

i - : 

;-- 
in 


i 

a 

c 

c 
c 

c 


• - 
- 

\ ; 

: 

* - - 


— 
1 
> 

1 


> 
: C 

■ — 


. 

C 

-- 


: 

'_ 
g 

- 
— 

i 


. : 
1 

E 

c - 

■5 


1 
. t 

a 

: : 
■ J 


1 

— 

1 - 

- 

.1 

— 

= 

: 
■- 

(-: 


: 
- 


) 

) 
a 


a 

'I 

" 
3 

: I 

; t 
c 


E 

: 

; 

— 

"— 

• : 

J 

i 

1 


> 

) 


• 00 

— 

> 

! O 
- 



28 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION" REPORT. 



[1888. 



fa 


o 


IN 


7 


— 


rH 


1— « 


r- 






<N 


<n 


CN 


r-l 


«o 


-ti <n 

CO 


rH 


CN 


tH 


CO 


ex 


co 


CO 

i— 


cn 


fa 


i— i i— ( • • •«# • i— 1 H« rl N ■* • 'nHW-ivCCN 
^ • • • • r-l • 1—1 • • <M <79„ 


S 






i— 1 r-« t— 1 i— iffii- ii— 1 i—l 




MO«H 
^N 




1—1 


























< c a 


fa 










































i— i 


















































•a . 


fa 


~ 












































a 














































© 

O OS 


fa 


CO 
























-' 


















a 












■"• 












CN r-l 
















© 

©00 


fa 


7^ 










■^ 










— i— 1 




- 1 












a 




T—l 






CO 












CO 




1 












o 

Ol- 


fa 


s> 










l—l 


rH ~ 






CN 




:o 












a 


; 




— rH r-l <?* 


1—4 






co 


rH : 












o 


fa 


CO 










l—l 






T— 1 I— 1 O 




O 












a 












T-H 




i— t 




T—l CO i— 1 














d 
o *o 

^ o 


fa 


CO 










«5 










• CO 




CO 




CO 


- 1 : 


a 












i — . , — i 








CN CN 












d 

©T 


fa 


<N 










<N 






(7* 




i—i 




CO 




O i—i CO i—l 
i-H 


a 














i— 1 












H 










. . . . 


d 

© CO 

5 


fa 




'"' 






















i— 1 










i>-*0> H 


a 














































o 

1-1 o 


fa 




































rt 


rH 






a- 
















































© — 

* H o 


&; 






































l—l 








a 














































d 
O 


fa 














































a 






































r-l 










fa 














i— 1 
































s* 
















































N o 


& 
















































a 


















































fa 
















































a 
















































a" 


&; 






































l-H 








a 
















































a 

<fl 

P 

fa 
O 

GO 

H 

tZ3 
P 

<! 
O 




cr 

a 

<*- 
c 

a 

c 


•z 

C 


a 
a 

= 

|z 

a 
c 

— 


n 


fc 
- 
— 


> 
r* 


a 
5 


a 


DC 

s 

r 
1 


CD 
tcrl 

S 
p > 

~S a 

S a 
O 


.4 

c 


c 

- 


1 

-. i 
ps 


1 


c 

— 


9 

5 

c 


-/ 

Z 
a 
— 

1= 


- 

2 

a 
C 


'.5 

-►. 

X 

(. 

CC 

C 


|~ 

— 

a 


> 

- 
c 

C 

a 

r 

a 


> 
& 
ft 


o 

s 

l-H 



1888.] 

X 

W 

CO 


5 
o 

— 


«N001 


— 


0A1 

r. 


oi nr.vril. 

— ■ r. - r. 


o «> 


EC 
r. 




-• 


f- 


iO O 

e- 


o 


29 

_ . . 

35 — 


fe 


— c r-< • z < - : t eo so ec • - ? • 

7 ' • -f • I— 1 


a 






00 O r- 1 i— i CO 
— — 1 

: • 


~. icot« - z — ex - 

00 00 -r — i .- CO X — 
CO 


Age 1 
not 

Btated. 


fe 






i— i ■ 
















; ; 














: : ■ 




S 


















i-H 






i-H • 


















80 ' 90 and 
to DO. over. 


Ch 








































— _ 




s 


















'. 




























a 








i— i 








00 










?• 




--. 






w 


■ TV 
















tH 










eo 




-*l 






ex 


• * 


© 

©CD 

3 


'- 








CO 




rH r- CC 










CO 




. 






. i-H i-H CC 


a 








• 1— 1 




CO 








■ -. — 




; 






/ :: 


© 


fc 








«o 






eo 








• CO 

• — 




T' 








r • — 


a 








X 




r-H 


00 

T-i 


t— ( 




CO ■<* 




?' 










■ £ 


© 

o <o 

5 


b 








.— 1 








CO 
N 








1— 1 CO 








M — 




. ^ 


a 








■* 








■ -. 

TO 










-r 






^H • rH 




■ 3* 


© 
©35 

- T o 


fe 








■* 








CO 










W 






: ~ : ~~ 




a 








CX 








CO 

»o 
















H« ' • 


-H r-t 


o 

©T 


h 








CX 








■rji rH 
X 








W 








. ^- ?• 


• f-t 


-. 








i— I 








/_ — 

oo 








t— i 








I-H 




— r- 


©co 


?; 




ex 


i— i 




t— ( 


00 
ev 


1 — 1 














— 


rH l— 1 • -T 


w o 


- 














i— t 


CO 

— 1 










rH 










1-1 


—i rH 


©' 


&; 


ex 














00 — 1 


























N • 


" o 


M' 


















CO • 


























CO -H 

- ■ ■ 


" o 


^ 


















-# i-H 

1—4 
























a 


















-t- rH 


















— 






■ • 


© 
S 


h 








*X 


F-H 




:■ ■ . 


■* 






















:- 


a 








i— 1 








-c :- 


00 




— 
















7i ■ 

'Z — ' 


< 


ft 


















»o ex 


"* 


















*i 






■ i— t 










• • «o 


• "* 






<—< 


















& 






• ex 










r-i o- 


*>■ 






! 










•*"■ 


a 






ex 










• to 


i—l 






; 










?' 


— 




&; 
















• • o 

• — 


■ eo 






OS 












TT • 


a 






- 

• CO 




1— ( 




-r z 


■ r- 1 






:- 










— 


— • 


to 

V 

9" 




&; 






■ 7M 

— 






■ i— 1 




«0 00 


- CO 








^r i— i CO • 


a 






• CO 






• I-H 


• O o 

• — -v 




7-t Z. O 








Sn^r. 

rH 


CAUSES OF DEATH. 




s 

'i 

a 

- 

•/ 
r= 

- 

'2. 
C 


i 

a 

- 
— 

- . 
- 

Z- 

a 

i 


i 

E 

- 
- 

— 
►— 

t 

-- 
a 


a 

i — 
1 

) 


9 
9 

E 

• — 

q 


! 

> 

i 

a 

c 


: 

■_z 

: 

>C 


I 


- 


■/ 

> 

c 


C 
z 

> 

> 


) 

- 

c 


■/ 
/ 

_ : 
-- 


.1 


— 


•— 
— 

> 


-z 
-- 

- 


i 

- 






a 


- 

1 

i 

b 

r 

— 
— 


■- 

c 
c 


. ; 
z ■ 

JZ — 

So 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION" REPORT. 



[1888. 



en 


"a 
o 
Eh 


O fl 't ^ H CO ffi « 't 
t- <Q CO i— 


■XKN>OOHtjicO«H>6.h«iO^I» 
rHC^l-H-tO^rH ,_,(?} 

cv 


ft 


» • CO <N •t-CSHCDiOrH«(XICO«CONt'C5 •C^t-T*^> 
rH • • ?t i— 1 — > 7' O i— ■ 


S 


i>WH«H5DOHOO-iHmcOCONiO 
<7^ <M <N rH r-i Ot 


• - X rH 

r-l 
-H 


00 3 1 ' — 










T3 
MO 2 


fa 










































rH 




M 
















































o o 


fa 


























"" 






















S 


















































d 
00 O 


ft 


£~ 


rH 




Ttl 










T-i 












1 — 1 




CO 


— ' 


s 


<?* 








1—1 




























-t T' — 


60 70 
to 70. I to 80. 


fa 


CO 








1-1 -W 








W rH 




CO 


i?4 






-i«M 


a 


CO 








1—1 




^H 


^ : ~ 


"- 1 


rH 






W 


w 


fe 


00 




rH 


"* : 






• r-{ 




CO 


- 1 




1— 1 rH 


« 


s 


r— 1 


i—i i-i 


-* ^ 




r "" 


-r — i 




»o 


^ rH 




; 


w 


d 


fa 


CO 




•<# ^ 








— 




rH CO 


CO CO 




1—1 


« 


M 


'-' 




rH ; 


— ' 




^ 




~ : 


rji i— i i— i 




s* 


o 


ft 


-r 


rH —i 


N — 








— 






r~ — i £- 








— ' 


a 


r_ ' 






— < ; 




1— 1 


— 






CO 


- 






— 


CO 


© 

ro o 


fa 


<r* 


i—l 




-+ TV 




rH 


•^ 






CO 


«o 










1— 1 


a 










■"• ; 




s\{ 


r-i 






»o 


-* (N 










d 

o w 


fa 


"- 1 








(TV rH 




cv 


Ot r-4 




CO 


-~ — 1 
co 








CO 


si 
fa 


l-H rH 






!T* 






rH 
























d 

" o 


I— 1 








1— 1 






! 






— —I 




•^ 










s 












! 






CO rH 




1-1 






rf rH 










5 10 
to 10. to 15. 


fa 














*-' 


" ! 






(?« 


C5 












a 












rH 


rH 


rH • 






CO 


CO 












fa 


















l— 1 rH 




^ 


(N 


-^ 












a 


CO i— 1 






CV rH 




rH 








rH 


i> 












m 3 


fa 


<N 










! 


rH 








— H 




1-1 - 1 










si 


O 










rH 










^ 


T—t 


■* 












CO 

01 S 


fa 


; 










-r* 


r-i 












rH 


-^ 












I-H 












'. 










1-1 C* 


1-1 












n.2 . 

~ a** 
.-. 5 


fa 


«* 








r?i rH 


• ■ r-t 










• l-< 














^ 


■* 




HH rjiX 


i— 1 




1—t 


l—l 


1-1 




1-1 










a~ 

fa- 


fa 


lO 








CO CO 


• "* 




■* 3<f • 






3^ 


^ 




CO 


S 


»o 








CO rH 
rH 


CO 




•* r^ co 


CO 


— 






1-1 


1— ( 


W 

H 

<1 
f£ 

a 

fa 
o 

EC 

a 
t» 
P 
< 






c 
■+■ 


a 
V 

e 


J 

E- 
-a 

> 
> 

\ 


-3 
1 

£ 

— 
E 


9 

c 
) t/ 

> 

) £ 
Z 


1 


a 

|h5 
1 


c 

— 
a 


r 

c 

1 


) 
■i 

c 

f- 
a 

■+. 


> 

% 
1 


V 

D 

- 


B 
9 

| 

_ r^ 


q 
a 

i — 

r^ 


c 

'I 

3 

- 

a 

a 
q 


a 

- 

; IT 

•S 

— 
> 


i 


£ 

r^ 


E- 


3 
is 

c 


-1 
- 
a 


c 
c 
X 


a 

a 
s- 
b. 
P 

& 


a 

X 

3 


i 
< 

"S 

OQ 

cS 





1888.] 



I \ i 8E8 OF DEATH. 



31 



go 


"3 
e 


H Hn^lC T>> 

CO 


r- 


-HOiCOGOCOCO»0 0<— l 

TO 


fa 


| CO •H'Of-iiOCOCOQOOiMO) - CO •— 1 'H««0« 

. — i . 


• i—i r. 


% 


ffvfi— ii— if-t— iOCOOO 

CO •— < CO 
i-H 




C* r- • - 


— CO 


— -.-. 


: ■ — r — i— t 

: • 


— 
oo 

o* 

00 

2 


fa 








; 








; 








—i 








• 






• 




S 








o* 








• 


























1-1 




fa 








— * 








r ~ 
































a 








• 








r-i 
































&j 








• 
— i 




— — . -^ 


i— » 




r-i 










:■ 










a 








— i 


_ — . 
























rH 




a 2 

4 -o 


- 








j — r ■ • -r i—i 

7 ! 


















TV — 








s 








CO 

. 

— 




• — CO 00 




















rH • 








50 ! 60 
to 60. to 70. 


fc 


'■ 






— .-? TV / 


F- 1 fl 














i-H rH 








a 


— • 




3* 


«HHI(3 






























fa 


1—1 






. Hj4 . ^ 




" 


i— 1 i— 1 




















£ 


— 


— » 
o? 


TV • .-H 00 




1— 1 


i— 1 


rH 


















30 to 
to 60. 


fa 






i-i o 


— ?' — i to 








• 






*" H 




~* 








£ 








» 


1— 1 


i— 1 CO 






— T- 










— 










fa 








O* 

— 


; 










-r 








r- « 






— i 












- - • 


; " H 




rH 


i—i 
















! 




to 30. 


fa 








rH 


— IH ^ • r- 1 


; 


rH 






rH 








1 




a 








TO 




. rH -+< 




• 












• _ ' 




— ' 




©' 

I- N 

*" O 


fa 








•H 




i— 1 -H 






i— i 


O* 
















• 










:■ 






i— i 




























— — . 


" o 


&; 








CO 






tv 






























• 


a 














; 






























• -^ 


o 

2 


fa 








rt 




^ - T.' 




























— ; 


a 








CO 






N 


























T' 


— » » 


in 


^ 








; 






































— 


a 








7 • 






































cc 


»J 


fa 








• 






































— 


a 














































— I 


fa 








o< 






































TV • 


a 








— ' 






































rH • 


fa 








o 


















BC 




— 


r-l 








•T. • 


i 




rH 


• - 


















CO 




CO 


-H 




— 1 


— 
— " 


= 
n 

fa 



/ 
H 

1 
fa 
-". 
o 




c 
c 

JZ 

'— 
■1 

"fc 

'» 

r 


-— 

: 

- 
> 

I 

- 

-> 


> 


— 

-- 

— 
— 


-1 

3 
— 


— 


— 


— 


- 
i 


• 
■i 

z 

- 
— 


_ 

1 




B 

a 
C > 

- 


— 
- 


— 

z 

■ 

— 

z 
r. 


> 

- 

< 
— 


• -/ 

E 
- 


a 

- 

z 


) 

) 



a 
- 


) 

1 




E 

— 


- 

a 
~ 

z 


— 
- 


V 

a 
s 

> 


• 

_• 

— 

-r 

. -». 
= 



32 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



CO 


Is 

H 1 


r- 1 


>o 


OS 


J> 


TC 


CO CO 


Ifl 


rH 


O CO 
id 


o? 


H 


c 

rH 


ra-i<NiccoH«««w 

rH rH CO 


. 1 

&H 1 


• Ti OS ff? (N i— 1 • -ti IO TO -+ 'O •© H •* « COO • O* • t- 00 
Oi • QO — i • C8 


g | 


— CO ~ ITS — i W#JrtOOt-«OHCOOJ • 
rH CV CD r-i rH ■ 




Oi CO rH . 


W <C iO 
CO 












M o 3 


& 












































s ! 






















1-1 




















— ; 


13 . 

g o 


^ 












































s ! 












































o 


s 1 




















o< 


— ' 


1-1 


























Oi 






rH CO 






















d 
4 'o 


& | 










Tt< 




rH • X. 


iO 








r-{ 








rH j—i 


•■*• 1 








i — -r 






r-c CO 

— H 


o? 


CO 






-H 










d 


&! 






l-H 


CO 






• i> -H CO 

• — 1 


r-< r-t 




rH 








r- rH 


a 1 










CD ^H 




■ CO rH rH • 
















d 


&! 










CO • 


CO — I - ■ CN 

i — 1 


l-H • 
















a 1 










CO • 




• © rH CO 

• — H 


T* rH 




rH 












30 i 40 
to 40. to 50. 


& 










cc — 




— /. — < CO 


- 1 


■"■' 










^ 










N rH 






CO 


CO 














rH 




&i 










CO 








rH 




rH 


















o? 


s 










CO 


i— i 




o- 


- ' 


o< 
















r^ . 


d 


&i 










Ti 








o 


rH 


1-1 




















r? 










~* 








CO 


rH 




— ' 


















d 

" o 


N 










r ~ l 






rH i—l 








rH 
















fa 




















rH 


















■ rH 




3 5 10 
to 5. t to 10. to 15. 








r-{ 








• CO 




























S 
















rH 




























fa 


















l-H 












rH 














s 








r— I 




i— i 




1-1 


rH 












rH 








rH 


fa" 










































« 


fa 








' " 




r—i 


rH rH 


























- 1 


a? 




















• rH 


























^ 




















• • 1-H 
























11 


fa 




















• rH 


















■ rH 




co 


a 


i— 1 




. .—1 










■ T-< 




















• ^1 Tfl 


TJ ■ 

B>h 


fe 




• WQOH 








■ <M ■ • 








•CsJ rH rH t- 


: ■"■' 


»o CO 


a 




• CO O i— 1 






• I— 1 


• • r-\ 














•O rH 




■ <T* OS 


W 

< 
■A 

a 
o 

H 

as 
t= 
<! 
O 




- 

c 


c 

-1- 
• ct 

- c 

c 

V 
% 

-. — 
c 


) 
) 

1 - 


T 
- 


> 

\ a 


a 

c 



. \ 

a 


j 

I 

a 

D 

V 

) - 


> 

> 

a 




a 

a 

c 
— 


CO 

03 
OS 
en 

Q 

CO 

*^ 

"So 
5;| 

■s 'b 

r- 
I 
r- 


a 
a 

3 
oc 

<.— 

■ I 

> 


> 

< 


■1 

' a 

: 

c 


>- 

< 

c 

I 

c 
c 
c 


'1 



•/ 
cc 

g 

P 
- 
- 


- 

a 

r» 



r 


a 
c= 

'Z 

a 

V 

■i 

c 
'— 

I 

'— 

r 

ri 


- 
- 

c 

: 


> 
> 

i 
i 

-u 

« 

- 


1 

) a 

-i- 
j 

— 

cc 
C 
b 

1 


c 

r. r 
1 


CO 

s 

CO 

i 



18*8.] 



\ I 8E8 OF DEATH. 



33 



- 
i. 


5 
o 

:- 


i »o - 


- — 7.' 


- ~> 7 

— 


/ — 7< d e» at n : 7^ -f — • — - — 

~ ~ -r o pi ao o 
7> ^ -r 


" r 


.1 s ■ -z — -r ?.' — x • ■.--•?■.- • • -' r — -r • -co 


*j 


r: - - r. r - — ■ . - / 

— 


7 — : • 

> «C 7- 


' . — r 

p-t » 1-^ 




fa 
















; ; 






; ; 


; ; 






















< = ~ 


33 














































PO |90 and 
ho. to !R). over. 


fa 
















! ! 






• -7* 


■ — 






















a 






















• '7 
























fa 


■ — 












; , " H 






I 


• — 












' —4 






a 


~ ■ 












! '. 






-: 
f 


• 77 












• 05 • 






fa 


i— i 












• ph 






• -^ 














7- 






•- : 


* 


?v 


: • 








• CO — ■ 


7' — 

•* 


: 

— 






p-i -f p- TV pH • 

7' 


S 2 


»i 








• ~ 






• V=> 




• <M t— 7' ■-. 


— 






— 7{ • 




s 














- ■ '. 


. « 


! ZL 


— 






• • Xl — ( — 




© 


- 
















7- 




TV 




: • 


• CO 






• -7* 








as 
















• -* 




• BV 




• e- 


• T— 1 












40 
U I 






■— i 








. '- 




• ph 




• U7 


• o 


• •— i 


i — | . — i 
:7 












?t >— i i-h 




. «* i-l 


; *■■ 




■ • i— I CO 


• 


— rs — ' 






© 


fa 






; r " 1 






"* 










CO 


-* 


i— i 


pH •<* rt 

7' 






"2 


>- 






-o . 






■ 










• CO 


- 


— 


7^ • 






20 
to 80. 

M 1'. 




: ■ : 


7. 




i— i 


• 










1 • 


~ 


• 


• — . • 










•" 


— 




N 




t— i 




■ — ■* 




-• 


"* X ?4 
7* 






10 S 


fa 






7' — 






<TV 














■* 






• OS 








s 






! ^ 




















• C9 






— -^r 








c — 


- 






•«* ph 


-^ 
















V* pi 




• p-i 








"2 


a 






CO • 




— 










"- 1 


Oi 






pi •<* 








d 


b 




Hffl« 


7" 


; 










iH 


Tt 




i— 1 — < t- 








'i 


s 




. » _ 


• 


:7 














. 






— 77 








■e 

m 

— 5 


fa 




— - - x 


■"■ 
















«— » 








O TV 






s 




• e- • 


















i-H 








00 • 






fa 




• iO •— « ■— i — i 


\ ' 














; 








TV — 






a 




— -41 • 


- ' 


—* 














f— i 








00 pH 






fa 




— . - . . 


tH 


'. 














i— t 












— 


- 




7 • SC 


7.' 


• 










H ■ 


; 






pi JC CV 




; 




&i 




«— 1 Til CT> — — 


— 










; 


• ; 






• »o CO 






- 


sa 




7- X :- — . r-t 


" 




<— i 




w ■ 


i— t 






: TV 




-• 


- 
Z 

r 
< 




a 

/ 

a 

s 
5 


■i. 

- 

- 


■ 
"5 

r 
3 


3 

3D 

s 

— 

- 
■i. 

)'S 

- 




E 
a 

- 


> 
— 
P« 


-i 

■ . 


z 

— 
— 

- 
-< 


"5 


c 




r. 

z 


■i 




_ c 

- 


- 
a 

:. 
-- 

'— 


• 
— ■ 

-- 
— . 


■— 
-. 

z 

S 

— 

'5 

- = 


c 

- 
- 


C 
. : 

E 


t 

■ — 
o 


3 

• -' 

■ 

7 
— 

- 
— 

v. 

c 


— 
r. 


- 
2 

s 

— 
— 

— 
Z. 

a 



34 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



fa 

CO. 


o 
Eh 


so 


i— i 


pH 


co 

CO 


« 


c5 


Ov> 


rH 


?> 


-+ 


33 


rH 


)C 




«CO J> 


o> 


C^ 


J> 


o? 


rH 


i— i 


fa 




a 


•o • 


H -h H H IO T* 

i— i O i— i • 
—I 


iC w o 


^h rH 


— » Tl 7/ i- 7' r-t • 


11 S 03 


fa 




























; 




















a 
















































-C . 
c £ 

§ o 


fa 




























"— < 




















a 
















































— ; 


70 80 
to 80. to 90. 


fe 








r " H 






1-1 






























a 






































" 






fe 








"H 




— ' • 






























a 








:N 




• CO 










^ 












• O? rH 






Pa 








O* 




— ; 












1-1 
















a 


■- 1 




; rH 




I— 1 


rH 






o< 






o< 












o 

8| 


fa 

a" 


~^~ 




«* 


i— I 




OJ 






— 


rH 
































— • 






-~ 


— Of 


^ : 


o 


&; 






rt 


— H 


— ' 








— 
















a 


— 




o* 










o* 








— TV H 


~ 




o 

a 


&; 








i— i 


Oi rH 




.— 1 rH — , 


















~ 


a 


>— I 








~* 


"— 




rH 












: ^ 






o 
©co 


&; 


— ' rH 


ro 


o? 


CO 






-H 




















a 








—' 


ov 






— 


• -" 




Oi 




^ 






o 
*" 


fa 






CO 


o* 












rH 


r - 


- 1 












a 


I— 1 






-H _, rH 
































o— ■ 

' H o 


& 








— ' 


o - • 
































a 








T? 


XH« 






— ' 
























©' 
o 


fa 








F— 1 


CO 


I 






OJ 


. i— 1 




















a 












o? 


-* 
































fa 












OS 

• o> 


• 






• 






















: 


a 












• CO 


•""' 






■— ' 






















: 


"a 


a 












• co 


















; 


. 


;- 










! ! 






■ rH 




50 


• rH 


























r. 3 


fa 












•CO — • 
• 1—1 
































a 








: ,H 


- CO i— 1 










• rH 




















a) 


fa 












. ^ . ,_( 


• o? o» 




: ■""! 




• CN* 














a 












• 'tf' O* rH 


• CO Of 




• «o 




: •"■ 














H 

Eh 
<! 
fa 
fi 

fa 
O 
co 

fa- 
CO 

p 

<S 
O 




e 

1 
8 


if 

►a - 


. -I 

*»'■£ 

3 ■- 

3 - 

; t 


| 

• H- 

I r 

- - 

1 = 
IP 


- 

I i 

i r 


> 
> 

: ; 
: .: 
: •+■ 

ll 


3 7 

; «£ 

-. c 

: t. 

: j. 


jl 

3 a 


I 

| 
> t 

— 


■1 

- 

• a 

ji= 

!.E 

- ■. 

.a 


j 
j 

r 
! — 

iff 

: c 

- ' - 


a 

a 

! o 

Q 



- 

X 


1 2 
) C 

•- 
> 

IS 

; c 

Pa 


a 

' s 

- 

c 

. r 

1 £ 

- c 

ja 


i 

| 

- 

r- 


i 

r 

j 

t — 


' V 

s 
C 

a 


- 

a 
-/ 
z 
"™ 

> a 

'c 

> •-; 


■ '= 

i s 
> j- 

rC 
* 

i 
i 


> c 

i + 

> 


b 

I- z 

:'l 

i — 


r 

r! 


i 


i ■ 

-. • 
) • 

! 
> 

• 

- 

QC" 



1888.] 



OP DKATIf. 



35 



w 


3 

o 

Eh 


i— I 00 CC i— i O !C •COHHtOHNCOHRHCt^lHaO 

i— | T^ CO ^ C> 


fa 

a 


niOC(5l»nMnHNCOO'tH •iOhN^i . • rH SJ t» p- OS 
- . _ . . . ~, _ 




■ X 


• — T* :- — ?> — 

•— i — 


■ i— i 






• N rH <N 




■ e> 


-. 


























Hot 

stati d. 


fa 


















































— 


s 




















































M Mini 

ovei 


& 




















































s 




















































°°o 


fa 




















— M •— 1 


























s 
























! ! 
























• I-H 


eS 


&' 
























- 






"'-••- 














"2 


a 




— 










































?* 


60 
to 70 


&.' 


















— 1 — 


























'. ^ 


a 










.— 1 






• 




•i— ' 










I—l 








• 1— I 


2 


fa 




1-1 






*"' 






>-i ■ M 




— 


— 














> I— 1 


a 














1—1 




— T" .-1 




; 


















• I—l 


o 
c 55 


fa 














• i— i 


•- 1 




•— ■ 


N 




?* 












— 


~o 


a 














• 




• 












i—l 


■"• 











o 
o ^r 


fa 


• 


~ 








~ 












^ 










— 




— 


a 










~ 






^ 












! 












I 


o 


* 




!T* 


: • 










T> — 






i — 




— 




— ^ 






I— 1 


a 


















•o 


i— i 


























© 

"~ o 


fa 


rH iH 














■^ 






























a 


















































■3 

© — 
" o 


fa 




















1— 1 






























a 












rH 






■"• 
















•"■ 












o 
o 


fa 




















• 


























i—i i—i 


a 
















7V 
































in 










i— < 










T* 
























•* 




a 




















'. 
























"H 




CO 


- 










•—1 *H 






■ 
























— 


— 


- 


















J— 
























S* 


" 


1 mid 












^ 






























— --. 





s 


















CO 
























■O 






- 






CC — ~ ' — ' r— 




N ?■ 
























o 


c- 


»' 




?• 


— Sfi 






rH O* 














" 












El 

' 

a 

^. 
o 

gg 
M 

/ 
- 

o 




> 

r 
C 
> 
a: 


1 


- 
- 


*, 
a 

_ 
- 

■ 
a 

r- 


- 

N — ' 


f v 


5- 


/ 
/ 

r 


a 

• 




— 


E 
: 

< 

— 


- 


- 


Z 


c 


-r 
Z 
- 


- 

- 

- 

— 


■— 
a 

X 

— 


a 

— 
- 

7. 


•4-1 

- 
— 

J 

— 

fa 


— 


b 

c 
O 

1 

5 

XI 


D 

; 

- = 

c 


o 

s 



36 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



^ 



•jCinnoo lojsi.ig 


c o 
© o 

d o 


C5 o> -* to OS OS © • " 

to us ea -co o* *# • • 
to os o — ' « to" '. ! 

OJ — "tf 1 T-H - OJ 


•jC)nno,j juayj 


- © 

d © 

o o 


■ - -r i- OS ■ • 

C- cc 0' -r c» 01 to * ■ 

f- ©' to co ci <> ' ! ! 

O? CM 00 *-i OJ . • 


•sum ox 
Aimioo '4-iodM9^ 


100.00 

99.28 

.72 

16.53 
10.80 
45.31 

18.00 
9 36 

15.09 
.72 
.72 


•Xljo laodMsxt 


100.00 

99.37 
.63 

21.94 
11.91 
47 96 
14.73 

3.46 

21.00 
.31 
.68 


•su.uoj, 
^ntioo aDu.jpiAOJd 


CttlO h W CO O 5) WCOC1 • 
O Tj< O CO CO CD 5D OS 00 ^< ■»* • 

Oo d c c. « •* "* T-i ' ; 
ca oi — co — o* 


•^asion^MBj 


O <M 00 -C-OOO — 00 c> • 

cao iffMcooic- «r.i> • 

c— -Qn_i co" to os o" co" o* ' 
o— CJ-COh « 


•Xjij aouaprAOjj 


© tO ■"* OS 00 IO <?» CO CQ t> to -3- 

co to co to c; cv co to oj io oo co 
Oo ■* © ©> 00 Tji eo ' 

© § wo-* oj 


■lajposuoo^ 


100.00 

99.78 

.22 

31 00 
21.49 
26(12 
17 20 
4.29 

30.12 
.44 
.44 


•Xjunoo \io^Sniq8T?7V\ 


© CO C- LC X O •* ^ "3< -» C- 

o <- oi t-«recio os io *? 
-j 0> " °° csJ o» M M «> " ' ; 

O OS ihW^i-i t- • . 



91°1Ai »m ni aSwjugo.iaj 



a X 
co l- 

■«! £ 

«°* 

h a 

3 a 



^ 









SSS 

1 



V. 



55 



&j 






a; a) 
« g. 
• 5 0Q 

S "> « 

— • * c3 






^ n — 



CD 

Q 
PS 

o 



© co < 

2 a o 

pH O O 



~££>t> 



•ajujS »Ioi|AV 



OS tD CM 

io io 



-f l-O to CO CO 
IO — IO X> 00 
CO CQ to C~ OJ 






•Xjunoo uoj8uiqstfA\ 



30 C- r-l 

to to 

00 CO 



:}85posnoc>4\ -* -* 



•jfjfO aouapiAOjj 



■* io os 

-t< CO 

to to 



CO — £~ O! — 

IO CO — O} OJ 

O IO i- 1 Ci H 



I (^- to 
•lajptHAVTSd IQ LO 

I to IO 



•9UA\O l L 



tO Xi x> 
to IO 
"* -^1 



—( CO OS to — 

co os — ss oj 

— i CTQ 

OS CO 00 CO t> 

MNOrt 



•Ajjo ?jodAio>i — — 

t CC CO 



•siimox 
ijnnoo }ai)dA\a^j 



•XjatioQ lo^sug i ic io 



^tCCOr 

— T-.OJ 



1888.] 



51 PICATION AND PERCENT \<.| . 






I~ IT 

- . - 


~y x t-e-a 

iri *t i~ — t 


; r 


C5 


eo 
SS 


O 


cs 
• 






a i~ 

— IC 


• - ~ 
■z z 


— — . r. / r. 

• sr -r 


• 00 

• ST. 


eo co 
" < - 

BO 





s 

IC 


it r. 

~l IT 


•T 

00 




iT (- 


-V it! 


03 •-. ^ 90 ~l 






J ~i 


C '- -r 


co 


CO 

99 


30 
3 


so 
:~ 

IO 


-* SO 



— ."I 


r. 

00 

co 






■-C — 


■ ■ -. S3 






"9" ■* 


sc \r ec ~ 5 
y. cc 33 


■J: 93 


eo 
10 


SC — 
-r OB 

30 


r. 
00 

1— 1 


— - 


iT 


90 — 30 


CO 30 


-> j rococo 




03 -.1 


CO SO 
CC -S* 


— ■ - 


— CI 

?' — 


1— O ir? re 

1 - CO T 

IO IO 1- 


Tjl f- — 
00 ' ' r-i 


06 


- s — 


-T — 


X iT 19 iT 69 




11 CO 


IO t- 


7 1 

CC BG 93 it — 


r. • 


00 cs — - 

O 00 1-1 


co 

CO 


SB C 
:: J 


CS 


SS SO CO 

SB. c ' it 


TJ« i— 


-. : , :: ri 




T* CO 



i— 7. so -r -r 



— ■ -. 


« r- -- ire x « 
•--•-:::: SO 


i.T 


r. — OS 20 

z. — 09 ~ 


fr- 
ee 




cc 


/ — 


IO CO 

1-1 


O CO t- CT — 


* -1 


,H 


c 00 


1-1 00 co « eo • 


fr- 

co 


— > r- c> — 

t" 09. iT IT 
CO OS 


co" 


"C* •— 


O 
O: 


SO CO 


00 ■■* 


•tx:it:i . 




— so. 



« SO TO i* SO 



CO i-i 



t- — C> 



- 5 

•- S3 

at- 



• - 1 

z z 

CO OS 




c 

go ■ ad od ad > ' so /.' 

c c 5 b 'z. h E h 5 

:: ci r> -r — — ~> -^ ■?» 
c; — r. ti — — >»-i(m 
00 ti< t- cc ~> 



'. a .c 
*> = t. 



■i - •- _ 
"^ -i i 5*5 

© = = z ~L 

ooofi 



/- — 

CO IO 


:c — it . - — . 


^ 


ih eo 


00 


1— 1 


it r 


— — 


- — .t v: — 

-T CT — 


t- 


-r :• 


^ffHi — 3C 


O 
SO 


eo ao 



CT. CM SO ■* 1. » O CO CO 

O — :■ 

. —1 — 



1 -.-.-.— 





— T CO 


- _- 


OS 

— 


•COO 


- - - 

^Jl »H 


— - J 

9E SB 




• — s: 

l-CO ~T 


. 


.". J. f SO 

— 

1— 1 


rH CO 


— ■ - " 

— c ■ - 


■ Cl — 




. 


•*r CO 1- SS 


r. — 


t- so so a r. 


: r 


1-1 — 

»— - — 


CO 




•<»< 




- : — 

1-1 so 


iT c : • •' z 



"* 


- - 


«o 


— c* 


O 


■ co eo 


■ T — 

^ S3 


Oti-OS 7/ 
.. — SO ri 1-1 


1-1 C( 


ISO • 


-CP 




J- 


■ — ■ : 



38 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION" REPORT. 



[1888. 



•Xjnri03 loisug 



•Xiunoo 5U35J 



saMox 



•XljO }JOdA\3JsI 



■snAVox 
A"}unc>3 aou3piAoa,j 



•JB^OtlJMTJJ 



•Xjio aouapiAOJj 



OO c~ — C: £ N M 


• (- — X) t^ l.O 

■OMCSO 


i—i -^-i CO 


rH W 



'^83ID08UOOA\ 



•Xjnnoo aojSuiqsB^ 






«2 ^ gtG 

P 'S "= •= A "3 

5 P " 2 8 £ 

■9 c .£- u •_" c c h' >-" - 
eo f >>> > > > > >qa S 



~£ 



3- 1 <» w a 

£« s -~ * 

i d*a T n ri 



So, 



5 s 



5 O *» *S 

-- 2 — a S „ 
rS "2 Q. * a .- 

~ 5 P ?r - ~ 

-* y — : r», o. 
O B S OQ OD 



OH-'IS dioi|A\ 



A"jnnoo noi°unis8AV 



MOiX^f 



•}8JJ00SUOOAV 



•X}(o aouaptAOJj 



WOOXNO 



■la^oniAVBd I i-H 



rt»rt»«53t-«;5«H«« 



'9UV\OX 

jCjnnoo iiouapiAoaj 



•X]to laodMaj^; 



suavox 
jCjuiioj 4audM9^ 

A"}unoj ?naH j 



MlftHCl 



HOOHH 



1888.] 



CLASSIFICATION AXD PERCENTAGE. 



39 







1.20 
1.99 




OS ci ■ o • 


e s 'o o • 

T T_ — - 
I— t 


© ■ 
09 








oo i- r 

C5NO 




Iffl IO ~> IO 

Of 0/ (.- Ol 


»o 

oi 


— / 

— —. • 

CO ' '. 


oi 


I ■ - - 
S SC IO 
:: ci 


• IN 
■ C- 




> - 

-* t- » 

.-• CO 




O} • • • 

t_ . . . 




/ft • ■ 

CO • • 


S 33 
vr <- • 

BQ 'T ! 


co 


CO 


~- — :=> 

CO CT 5 ! 




— — — CO 
CO CO CO o 




r-c CT 

od ' ; 


00 
5) 


— — • 

— :: ! 


— C- 1- t> 

-/ - - z 


HIOOIOOI /i- — ~> 
-. :: 50 90 C> ci BQ -.) ~r 


s 


i - : x> ao 

! ' ! » Ol 0* 


t- 


.-.--/■ 






o 


-.' -• — 


00 


* 00 

co — 


\ ~ 


IC£- • • CO C9 


jj 




■* oo o 


— 


t- o> OJ 

» e- e- 






2 


o» 



o» •-! oa 



— »CH 






^~ = = * 



pS «o g a 



^ ifj 



~ © 



hH © 



i'g 00 3 qd & § S 
jP'oo oo «a~ 

>.- u : t, u i- - . 



=c 



09 - 

- a 

"E c „ c 
v - 2 • 

ill" 

• --- 



£ ' ' B - ■ - 



332 -Si 



90 = 



.3 - 



X O 



_-,^^r_:._- 



K 

— — r. c :> :: -• — :: 






x — — 



^g 



a — — ~ a 



- ct — 

X — i 



-,2 — t-^ 0* B0 9) BQ 



0» Ol — • Of — • O 



o» i-H ic «e 



CO —l ^ 





o> — 




• so t-eoTf • • o» t> 




00 


,- 


BSrtrtri 




COlC~. ■ T — — ' CO «D 
i— i .—i 


LO 

f— 1 


CI 




'-' : " : 




j- 1 — — 


, — n 


• • ® 1-1 


t« 






T-H 


* 


:•-': 


. . """ '. '. '. 


» . 


; 










T — C 


■ tc- 


.- " ~ 


CI - 


.- — N 




: : : 




:: .- 




— — / — 

c» 




=: -. — 



40 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION KEPORT. 



[1888. 



■Xiunoo [ojaug 








o o 
— -* 


oo '-ooa 

CO • ■* Tt< I- 
T)i '. ' ' ' 


oo • • 
CO • • 

eo ; : 


A^unoQ ji' 3 M 






IT — ■ 3 
CI t- IO 


Oi • ■ 00 • 
CO • • Ci • 

io ! ; ' : 


CO lO • 

o o» • 


■wii.uox 






0> OS -H "tB • Tt"M?)l(5 • • 

i- i — r 1 • -* a • • -r <_- i- <- • ■ 


•Al\r> ijod.wa^ 




— 50 0-* «3 — C. ..o-f — -CT; -**< -* 

co o» — os oisao ■ ■■•tcswsoiss 
' — co T-i ' o ! ! co " to 


'8UMOJ, 




ct - -T -n • i - io • — < — ti ■<*< io ct — 

rfi • -f O • © O • C> O ■* " £- -*f CT 

! ct i-i ! ' o i ' -* ' ' o 


•J0Jpnj.\\«J 






•- -JZ ~ > 00 • O 00 'iCCWX-fS 
GO <-< <C .— • CT rl • 00 St C- t- IO CO 

ct i-h . io . i< oo 


a'ii.) aonapiAOJd 




— T* O C5 

co r cos o a 

*CT 


os -* — co - i.o » -< w 

CT CrlC»»fli-H 


C- CT 00 


■435pOh'UOOjW 






C3 Tf< ■ t- C". CO 

IO T!« • • o • • CT CT 

o' '. '. ct '. ct 


© • • 
CT ■ • 


•jCjiiiioo uoiSuiqsBAV 


c 







i-i o 

— 50 


8.43 

1.04 

.27 

9.79 

.54 



■3)T!}4J 



^. 






S3 v 
c -2 






§ 8-J3 









3 C 



OD 00 OO 



5)32 5? 5 g^ 

j — Ch C- 0- <2 ^ 



■BJBJS 8[01JA\. 



•^;nnoo uojSauisuAi 


— i-H ■ «> io • — ■ • «a • «-i o <n • 
. . CO • • -co 


1 . . . t— ct • • © ■ • © *— ( • CO • • 


•jfl!0 90a8piAOjj 


00 — iCt- OOCTCT iiOJOXOSXW 
OCT — Ci 00 — 
T— « CT 


1 • • CT CT © H " CS »— I ■ f— IO ^ C". CO CT 

•ja^onjwBj • • — • ct • ct -a* 


•suavox 
Aanoo aauepiAo.ij 


. O • ■— -* ■ i-l 00 • M O t- « C5 » M 
• CO CT -00 • O C5 


1 — ■* a co •* — ct 
•£}]C> iJodMa^i • — ct • 


— CO — — CO CO 

— CT 


'BUMOX 

jfyunoo )iodA\3fj 


• • -r-l r-i CT -«f 


CT — — 00 


1 • ■Ht'O CT 

-.CiunoQ luayi • • • ; ci ; 


• CO 


•iiunoo [ojsug 


— • ■ f -1 . - — •- 

: : 


— CT • O • - 



1888.] 



CLASSIFICATION AND PEB< IMAGE. 



41 



.79 
1.30 




• O O C- 3 

• r}< TJ« Tt* " ^* 


' -T • 


O Ci 

' eo' 




. © . . - . . 


• -o 


IC / / 








• ■ IO 


• I" ■ 


= - 
' ci 




: : : 






.72 

2.10 

.72 










1.44 

3.60 

.72 






OD CO OO 

m ci m 




CO • 


■COS3 -CO • 


•— ' ~3* CO 

coi> co 


• CO CO 




© t- ■* 
•* iO 00 


-r 1 - .- 

rtOM 


•o 
• t- 


«D03 00 CO O* 


■* ^ 30 


O O O ■ r-l 


.18 






r-> »C 


.18 
1.79 


le co • 


<* 
• ■ i~ 




r 


09 to t- 

t-eq 


■^ ^T CC ' - — C~- 

3 O i-H 


CiO • r» 1 — - :- ~ -.- ■ ~> 

i-; 00 •© OOOWOIM • ■* 

.... . ^ . . . . 


i-i O -*t< -* © 

•— C» © © rH 


OJ t- CO ■ 

MO© • 








■ '.> 


• •?» • es» c:i!M ■ 


• • • o» c» • 
••■■?> Ci • 




• C3 — < • 




• - 


- 
CO 

1— 1 




■ — . t~ 


• -r • 

• CO • 




• • LO Ci 







^ 



I - 



r /5 ._- 

3 a 

r : « 

9 f. 5 - - 

- ■. « 

© C - 






S * •§ S .2 q ^ ©. 



— -. .- -r -. - — ~ - 



i. — — — > 5 Q. — 3 



«»().; 



P — ~ J fa 'X 



co c> 



1 a 



2f . * 






'c 



^r^ 

*•*! 



k> 



2? e 



_3 "^ 

o .2 









^ >> -,- 



. acu 



o» f o 



• 



— CO 



2«»; c ««« 






: > J 

© o©. 



! 






a 

s> 

I £ 
is 

5: 3 



I 



a.e «- 



• t :z • • — O • • t-i 




Tl • -O ■ 


7f — . • ... 


i—i »- rr >ih • .— i 


'. " 


H :? — i h ■ • 


• — . .-. • ... 


" thOSC 

^h CO 




Ci Sh« 


— • so ia — . — c? 


„ ( P . • « CO • • -Ji ^- •© 


• 


- • fi 


NhiO • S 

OJ ,-. . . _ 


fMHH t- - 00 • C9 CO ^* — — ,-i •©» 


— • —CI ?> - • — . .- 7> • .^i—. . 


-<CO^-^- _,-,. ... 




CM CO CO ■ 'M«rt -^ ■ 


1-1 ! 


i-i OS • • ^i 


- — « ■ — ■ 



42 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 









,~ 


o 






o ■ • 


OS o 














tJ( -ri 






oo . • 


' - c» 










•^junoa lojui.ig 












CI . . 


; ^ 


















ooow 


- _ o 














t~ CM 






CO LC <N 


• IO lO 




«> 


55 


•A^unoo Juoh 












CO 1-H , 
















©"» 








• ■ CM 00 






















© C- • 


• • i- co 








> 


suaiox 












co ' ; 


; ! ' cm 








P 




































CSO^r-^^O 








a 

o 
W 

S5 


•fcWi) }JOClA\i)^[ 






CO 






CO ©J CO CO CO CO 0> 








CM .-i 














-f 30 OS 


-- o> ■* 




- 




s 


•sua\ox 




-* O 






-T S 1 -+l 


• CQ -r X) 




c- 












©} 








■4 

w 

p 


A")unoo jju,)piAOj,j 
































CO o • 


■ ~ -ti C> 




o 


o 

Ed 

o 
-J 


•^JtOlUMtfJ 












os c- • 


• OJ IO C- 




OS 


— ©} . 












t~ -* o 






CO O CO i-i ~ or © 




ir. 


S5 

W 

O 

« 


•Xjio OOUOpiAOJJ 




o © © 






O O C>> r-1 o# -f •— 




-rP 


CX t-i 










lit 


o» 






lO • • 


• -* CO -* 




■4* 








co © j 






-^ . • 


• ^r c- •>* 




■& 




•^8H306UOOA\ 












co . . 


: si 












'- 








T* - C- 








t- 








ffC 








CO • CO 




00 




©J 




•Xumoo iiotSinqsVjjA 












•" ■ 
















— 


Tj< "*J 






— -> an xi c> (- co 




cc 









r-l C 






9 W CO ©CO 1© 09 




IO 


apuM 8t U u ! oSuinooaa,{ 












(TO r-l 










*5 




: "c 


J 


i 


: : : 






ac 








5 






< 


§ 








r^ 








5 






a 




'■■3 '. 






^i 






■< 


s 




d 




g :S : 

§ . g : 

■kflfl ' 

« . - ." oo 






p 


r~ 




CAUSES OF DE 




S 

C 

E 

e 


2 ~ 

i i 1! 
:: fa 

'■% s • 


o 
j 
a 
t> 

: a 


j 1 

: > 

•—> 

CO 

! 3 
> ° 


f 

■- 

1 


CO 

. a 
. o 

• "5 

cc" 5" 

11 : 


a 

c 


J 1 

1 


3 

u _ 


j 

3 

1 




6 


a 




6 


^J ^ 5 .3 ^ "3 a 

^ 1* >> - — 1) H 


■■i 

6 


2 






- 


>o © 


i 




"* CO ^ ■ -t CO ■ ~ -f 




CO 








* 






COCS rH ^-* CO O 




co 


•3}U)S 3I°qM 
































CO • i-H 


- • CO 




t-l 


a 


Xjanoo ucxjgimisBAV 






















i 


a 


3 T-I 






CO • • 


■ o? a a 




©» 


O 

K 

O 


18>looeuooA\ 


1 










CO • • 












c 


« T1 C 


* 




CO CO CO CO to —i O 




©* 














,-t ta hco 






£ 


•j£;iO aouopiAOJj 


















P 

a 
































i— l *o 


■ LO TO -tf 




IO 


•^jptnAVtlJ 












r-l r- 1 • 








3« 






















5 






CI 


3 !-• 






CO Ttl o 


■COCO ©J 




<: 


z •" 






















•suavox 




















a 

H 


X^nnoo oouopiAO.ij 








































B 
P 


'AlD )JOdMO^I 
































lO T-I • • • T-I Tt< 










•suavox 




















o 
M 


Xjunoo '4JodM8^i 






















c 








in co t- • cm o> 




CO 


M 


•Xiuuoo ?U8H 


1 










rt : 




















C- • • • • <M CO 






fc 


•ijnuoo lo^sug 


1 










: • 













1888.] 



I I k8SIFI( \TK'N ami PEB< i:n I kGB. 



4:: 



-* 10 


• 


- • 1- 


-.1 j -• j 
r:> •» 7; "j 


•1 


■a* 

-• 




CO •— • 














■e 


-■ M 




- < - ( - 




■«* 




- 






. *-i 









1 






-> 



*2 
-•a 



i- 



|l sis 

5 < - 

— X 



•_ 



c 
- - 

I = 

> : 



>: >S n P 



^ li O 91 

1 Ex 

IQ 



1 -a 

s t i 

I I u 

5 fc I Ji , 



a-. - M 

- - ~ 

- t: — 
~ -,, a 









■ 



« 00 o 



GCN-rtDOTi / :: 



'» ._ O 






eo • 


|H ** 


r- FH 


*t 


;' 


-r» 


71 — 




• eo 


- 




— 


~ 


<tt fH 



K 


eo 


• sc 


~> 


^ 


IH • 


~ 


— r: 


CM 


tt «r 


1 - 




X / 


»— • 


O •— 


eo 


T X 


~ 


as 


— n 


'"*' 


ti 


— m 






~ ' 


^ 


«o» 


1— 1 




• ; 


£ 


r- 1 


t— « 




N — 


- 




j * 


CM 


•©* 


7* 


■" H 


©» • 


11 




• • 


•"' 


M 






j 




©» 


j 


0» ; 



44 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



Table X.— OCCUPATIONS AND AGES AT DEATH, 1888. 

Showing the Number, the Aggregate and the Average Ages at Death 

of the Decedents in the several Occupations, Ages under 
Twenty being excluded. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



I. 

Tillers of the Soil 

Farmers 

Florists 

Gardeners 



II. 

Professional. 

Actors 

Artists 

Authors 

Civil Engineers 

Clergymen 

Dentists 

Inventors 

Journalists 

Lawyers 

Musicians 

Photographers 

Physicians 

Policemen 

Public Officers 

Sheriffs and Constables 

Students 

Teachers 

^Telegraph and Telephone Operators 



III. 

Optional Activity 

Agents 

Bankers and Brokers 

Bank Officers 

Collectors 



STATE OF RHODE ISLAND. 



191 



54 



10 
6 

6 

2 



181 ! 12,550 
1 51 
9 526 



13,127 



30 
222 

71 
102 
458 

38 

73 
175 
166 
119 

20 
460 
225 
202 
196 

65 
260 

22 



2,904 



537 
335 
411 

128 



69.34 
51.00 
58.44 



68.73 



30.00 
74.00 
71.00 
51.00 
57.38 
38.00 
73.00 
5S.33 
41.50 
59.50 
20.00 
51.11 
56. -J5 
67.33 
65.33 
21.67 
65.00 
2^.00 



53.78 



53.70 
55.83 
68.50 
64.00 



1888.] 



orrri'ATIONS \\n AGES AT DFVIH. 



45 



Table X.— OCCUPATIONS, 1888.— Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS 



( '(infractors ami Builders, 
Druggists 



OF Kllni.i [BLAND 



I Irocers 

Hotel Keepers , 

.In nk I dealers 

Manufacturers 

Mai kcl men 

Merchants. 

( )jtt ician 

Railroad ( Officials. . . . 

Saloon Keepers 

Stable Keepers 

Traders. Dealers, etc. 
I' odertakere 



IV. 

Outdoor. — Local. 

Carpenters and Joiners 

Caulkers 

Masons 

Blillwrights 

Pavers 

Riggers 



Saah and Blind Makers 

Ship < 'arpenters 

Stone Cutters ami Marlile \\ orkei 9. 
Tanners ami ( 'nrriers 

Wheelwrights 



V. 

I Miooii. — Active. 

Bakers. 

Bell Makers 

Blacksmiths 

Bleachers 

Bobbin Makers 

Boiler Makers 



4 

3 

10 

3 

3 

15 
4 

89 
1 

8 
5 
1 

32 
2 



144 



117 



5 

1 

22 

4 
1 

a 



209 

94 

550 

161 

184 

1,622 

270 

1,916 

(I!) 

289 

200 

38 

1,70*3 

L04 



8,824 



63 


3,583 


1 


79 


30 


1,739 


1 


69 


1 


70 


2 


100 


1 


71 




1 95 


8 


135 


2 


88 


5 


2 ; i 






1,074 

r.'i 
60 
68 



52.25 
31.33 

55.00 

53.61 
61.33 

60.88 
67.50 
66.07 
69.00 
36.13 
40.00 
38.00 
53.34 
52.00 

61.28 



56.8*3 
79.00 
57.91 
69.00 
70.00 
50.00 

1 l.DO 

65.00 
54. 18 
4 L00 
54.80 

57.29 



56.60 
73.00 
18.82 
17. 75 
60.00 
34.00 



40 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



Table X.— OCCUPATIONS, 1888— Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Bolt Makers 

Brewers 

Brush Makers 

Cabinet Makers 

Carriage Makers and Trimmers 

Caterers 

Cooks 

Coopers 

Die Sinkers 

Dyers .... 

Foundrymen 

(las Fitters, etc 

Can and Locksmiths 

Iron Workers 

Machinists 

Mechanics 

Miners 

Moulders 

Painters and Glaziers. 

Paper Bangers 

Pattern Makers 

Plasterers and Stucco Workers. 

Platers 

Plumbers 

Steam Pipers 

Stopper Makers 

Superintendents and Overseers 

Tinsmiths 

Tool Makers 

Upholsterers .... 

Wood Finishers 

Wood Turners 



VI. 

Indoor. — Activity Restricted, 

Bartenders 

Barbers 

Basket Makers .... 



STATE OF RHODE ISLAND. 



1 
1 

2 
3 
3 
1 
2 
4 
1 
6 
1 
1 
1 
1 

36 
7 
1 
9 

39 
1 
2 
2 
1 
4 
1 
1 

10 
3 
2 
3 
1 
2 



188 

1 
8 
1 



62 

25 

111 

170 

142 

34 

86 

282 

36 

388 

40 

65 

70 

52 

1,757 

279 

64 

385 

1,926 

50 

92 

88 

76 

102 

56 

22 

560 

127 

71 

114 

42 

102 



9,285 



33 

282 
71 



62.00 

25.00 
55.50 
56.67 
47.33 
34.00 
43.00 
70.50 
36.00 
64.67 
40.00 
65.00 
70.00 
52.00 
48.81 
39.43 
64.00 
42.78 
49.38 
50.00 
46.00 
44.00 
76.00 
40.50 
56.00 
22.00 
56.00 
42.33 
35.50 
38.00 
42.00 
51.00 

49.36 



33.00 
35.25 
71.00 



lsss. I 



PATI0N8 \ N I' kGEfl AT DEATH. 



4: 



Table X.— OCCUPATIONS, 1888.— Continued. 





STATE 


"f 111 1 I-I,AND. 


0( 1 i PATION8. 


00 

a 
1 
Q 

*** 
o 

Z 

s 

a 
S5 


< 
a 

< 


< 
3D 

so 

a 

Z 
< 


Bookkeepers 


10 
1 
2 

1 

3 

50 

1 

1 

4 

1 

1 

40 

* 1 

1 

93 

4 

7 

2 

1 
1 

17 
1 

15 
1 
2 


4:;4 

59 

118 

45 

148 

1,726 

64 

41 

184 

57 

44 

1,475 

33 

61 

(.- 86 

lSii 

330 

1 1 15 

239 

33 

i:> 
995 
-.'is 
610 

32 
129 


43.40 


( lard Grinders 


59.00 
59.00 




45.00 

4!>.:;3 




Enamelers 

EngraA ers 


:i4.:»-i 
64.00 
41 .00 


FiU' Cutters 


46.00 

57.00 
44.00 




I/i i; inli'N nu'ii 


33.00 


Millers. 


67.00 


< Operatives 


46.09 


Printers 

Rubber Woi kers 


;->4.i4 


Silversmil Iks 


33.00 

4:;. (10 
58.53 
54.50 


Tailors 


40.67 


Watchmakers 




\\ tm] Sorters , 


64.50 






VII. 

OOCUPAl [ONE \ ! LARGE. 

men 


281 

4 

3 

2 

7 

21 

1 

2 

1 


12,087 

90 
102 

1,061 

•j ; i > 

100 


43.01 
61.10 


Krakemen 


30.00 




34.00 


( !ar 1 Mi \ ers, etc 




< loach men . . 




Engineers and Firemen 


50.52 


Expressmen 


67.50 


Fishermen ami Oystermen 


87.00 



48 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



Table X.— OCCUPATIONS, 1888.— Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Naval Officers 

Peddlers 

Pilots 

Sailors 

Sea Captains. 
Teamsters. . . . 



VIII. 

No Special Trades 

Cab Drivers, Hackmen, efae... 

Gentlemen 

Hostlers 

Janitors 

Laborers 

Lamp Lighters 

Messengers 

I'o iters 

Servants 

Watchmen 

Waiters 

Well Diggers ... 



IX. 

Women, 

Artists 

Basket Makers 

Cigar Makers 

( llerks and Saleswomen. 

Cooks 

Domestics. 

Farming 

Dressmakers 

Housekeepers 

Housewives 

Jewelers 



bTATE OF RHODE ISLAND. 



1 

7 
3 

15 
6 

27 



106 



3 
5 
5 

10 
334 
1 
1 
2 
2 
6 
3 
1 



1 
1 
7 
1 

8 

260 

13 

3 



53 
339 
206 
786 

373 
1,390 

5,477 



147 

353 

225 

508 

17,098 

28 

29 

93 

68 

357 

131 

80 



373 19,117 



80 

149 
63 
47 
28 

309 
89 

320 
14,595 

713 
75 



53.00 
48.43 
68.67 
52.40 
62.17 
51.48 

51.67 



49.00 
70.60 
45.00 
50.80 
51.16 
28.00 
29.00 
46.50 
34.00 
59.50 
43.67 
80.00 

51.23 



80.00 
74.50 
31.50 
47.00 
28.00 
44.] 4 
89.00 
40.00 
56.11 
54.84 
25.00 



1888.] 



OCCUPATIONS AND AGE8 AT DEATH. 



49 



Table INOCCUPATIONS, 1888.— Continued. 



0< CUPATIONS. 



Laundress) 

Laboring 

Milliners. . . . 

\ arses 

( Operatives . . . 

Physicians 

Public Officers 
Rubber Workers 
Seam si res* 

Servants 

Tailoresses .... 

Teachers 

Waitresses 



STATK OP RH"I>I l«I,«Mi 



4 


166 


41.50 


a 


49 


24.50 


3 


123 


41.00 


5 


281 


56.20 


51 


1,498 


29.39 


2 


L16 


58.00 


1 


65 


I 


4 


lis 


29.50 


5 


289 




5 


335 


67.00 


4 


113 




6 


229 


38.17 


1 


57 


57.00 


392 


i'.'.'.">: 


50.78 



50 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



Table X.— RECAPITULATION BY CLASSES. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



STATE OF lUlODK IKI.ANI). 



I. 

Tillers of the Soil 

II. 
Professional Services 

III. 
Optional Activity 

IV. 
Outdoor. — Local 

V 7 . 

Indoor. — Active 

VI. 

Indoor. — Activity Restricted . . , . 

VII. 
Occupations at Large. — Active 

VIII. 
No Special Trades 

IX. 
Women 

All Classes 



191 13,127 
54 2,904 
144 ; 8,824 
6,703 
9,285 
12,087 
5,477 



117 



188 



281 



106 

373 
392 



1,846 



19,117 
19,907 



97,431 



68.73 
53.78 
61.28 
57.29 
49.36 
43.01 
51.67 

51.23 

50.78 

52.78 



1888.1 



OCCUPATIONS AM' CAUSES OF I'l Ull. 



51 





•KIs'()|ll.).l.)l|IIJ, 1 


; 






1 : : 








— 






■apprag 


«* 




1* 














.-i: .-i,| i| .diiiois 


<N ■ 




l« 














jci e •-!• '-i(i 'anidg 


! 




1 : 














linn .i- ipdag 


T-H 




l rt 














-|ii-i|i:illll.H|i| 






1 : 














iSonq I" 3uo , p c i u< >■■■ n..n, | 


.— 1 |-H 

59 


1 5 


— i 










'Xnanau 






1 : 














*!inii>ii i.i.i 


CO 




I CO 














■■■\ PIO 




H I i- 
1 N 














•j(. sm-i:.,-|,| ■ [ .11!" v 1 


: • 


: 1 * 


~^ 










j> 


iH 1 X 












A|ni!:-iii| 


• 


• 1 : 


• 










' 'ill 1 'i '|| 


? ■ 


: 1 -- 


— 








., . 'pioqdfj, '8J3A9J 


-* 


~ 1° 












*[ejJB|«K 'UU '..| 


— 


rH 1 ■?* 








— 




SB(8dHA.r.| 


■«* 




1 * 














Cadafidg 


i— < 




1- 












J2 


-hi i»|UM 






1 : 












•; 


'SadoiQ 


** 




i * 












* 


AJJ|U.1S.<Q |)IIB 1!.I(1|JJIM([ 


tH 


r-t 1 o 














- 'I'llBlQ 


• 


: 1 : 










•c 


-C|!|!(|.»([ 


CO 


• 1 CO 




rt 






"|s 


•uoijduiii-u.), i 


CO 

I— 1 


— 1 I T»l l-t 






• i—i • 


3 


i ...in-, i 


t> 


i-t | 00 












k 


SI)II| Hl..|;| 


<?* 


: |* 












■^- 


|.. 3081 (BIO ■iini.,1 
jo BOBBaSIQ S|.i\Min 


<£> 


r-H j « - 














-tl 




1* 












5JJ 


•;o B39V9S|Q ' '•'|'I IK I'.I 


c* 




1°* 








i—i 




1MIII||-V 






: 1 : 








! '. 




i '|<|ii.ly 


1—1 


rt 15 






• " C* r-l 




iu>ii|<>i|.i >|\- 


; 


: : 1 : 






! '. '. 




'9)0 '|'i 1 >\ 


«o 


: |« 






'. '. '. 




•j.>i(uni\; .i|"i|.\\ 


t- i— 1» 1 i> i— i cc i— t <r* t» i— i 
o 1 e» 




~ GO 

K 

: 

-- 

Z 

_ 


h4 

E 

w 

- 

H 

—; I* 
o 

s 

1-1 g 




. a 

1 

— 

— 


-*- 

o 

i— i ' 

- 

3 

! Ch 
' 

i ? 

» c 

« -fc- 

: c 
5 < 


1 

' .1 

> -t- 

> u 

- 


1 

- 
< 


■- 
\ 

1 


> 

> 
> 

I 


> • 

: oo 

j 5 



52 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



•sisoino.iaqtij, 1 


























1 *"" ' 








apjomg 1 


*-' : 




















i— 1 1 Tt ■ t' ■ 


JO 8081WSIQ 'qOBUIO'Jg 1 




























>— i 




jo sasttasig 'amdg 1 


































■■niuia;.)iiil,>s 1 


































•ms!)i!imioi|ji 1 


































sScmg joSuoQiyBjuoninaug 1 




CO 






*- 












1 CO WH • 


•A'sunaig 1 












i— ( 












1 " ■ 






•stiraoiuag 1 
































•83y PIO | 






























"" 


•jo sasBasig 'jaAig | 






*-• 


















1 T ' 






jo sasBasig '/Csnpi^i 1 






•— 




|H O* 










1 -t- CO 




•Xjuitnui 1 


























•jo aas«osiQ 'JJB3H 1 






.—i 




-* ,-H r-i ,-i 


"- 1 


1 I s * 

1 1 — I 






- 0}8 'P!OI[d^X '8J3A8.il 1 








T— 1 










•""• 




1 T ' 


i—i 


[BUB[BHI '8I8A8jI 1 


























1 *— 1 


! '. 


•8B[8dl8^J5I 1 


































•X8d,)|icia 


































■8ij5i8)na | 


































■A"8dOJQ 




























t— i 


^ 


•Xjaju89A"g piiB Baoqjjmg 
































i— l 


•sajaqBiQ 


































■ijtnqaa | 


























1 *""■* 






•noijdtmisuoo 1 








' H ^ 


i— i 




co 




| i> i-H — i • 


•J80TIB0 1 
















— ■ 




-r? 


1 CO 






sijTqonojg 
































•JO SDSK08IQ 'niujg 












■ i— 1 












1 ^^ 






•jo sssiwsig 's[a.v\og 
































•jo easBasig 'japptqg 


























1 ,— ' 




. r— 1 


•■Braq^sy 






























• 


s!8,C[K.n!g pnB XXvqdody 




i— i -—1 




■ i— 1 


1-1 O* 






. 1 C r-i i-* <N 


tnsiioqoojv 




• ■ • i— i 










■ j T— 1 ... 


•sjuappov 














; 1 • II" 


1 -iKl^COr- 1 OS -* CO CO CO CO r— 1 I CO OSCOiD 

•jaqranjsi aioq^i «a 


CO 

O 

< 
P 

o 

o 


a 

■r- 
C 

a 

> 
c 
1— 


c 

■+. 
a 

a 

a 
-i- 

z 
z 
a 
PC 

a 
| 

— 

- 


> 

> 

> 
1 

.-/ 

\ 

« 

■ i- 




: a 

\i 


z 

- 

6 

> C 

1= 


! 

i 

g 


1 r 

J c 


a 

a 

c 

SE 

C 

p. 


. 11 

a 

a 

• -i- 
. a 

ij 

i ^~ 

c 

■ 

w 

[ft 

a 


! 

i 

) 

'• a 

— 


— 

s c 

a 

a 


J 

t- 
C 

« 

1 

z 

C 
i 

: 

: 

~ 

a 

E- 
^> 

p 
r 
b 

-- 

a 

r- 


! 

: 
> 

-i 
> - 

) 

1 

? 
D 

) 


H 
i— i 
t> 

H 
O 

< 

o 

H 

a, 

O ■ 
a 

< 


-j 

- 

c 

— 
: 

PC 


Cf 

a 

■.■ 

0! 
- 


1 

» 

I 
| 

3 

M 

93 

- 



OCCUPATIONS AND CAUSES OF DEATH. 



W.\ 



•9lwOIU.il. >'|ll,|, 
































■ 1 : ~~ 


• 


-.ipjoins 














• 


<— < 












I ^ 




j,i -,-im^I(| 'i| ii:iil(iis 














— ' 
















I ~' 




|0 roerBasiQ '.mids 














'. 




















•«:iiii.i:.>i I'I'S 














' 




















uim ii:il|[i.>l|)| 




. *-• 








; ■"■ 
















1 *** 




1 jO'SaO; ) yiMinniin. iii,| 


— 




CO 


M T> 


£ 








-P — 1 — < 

1 50 


■jfwiaii.>|. [ 








• 




• 


• 








• 


1 ' '. 


-Ui'ioiiJ-'.l 








; — ■ 




• >— i 


; 




t— i 


• 


| eo —i • 


•3Sy pio 














.— < 








-r 


I «o CT 


ji> gaSB9SIQ ' I'M'l 








■ • 




; ; 










; 


1 • ~ ■ 


i rosia ■\.ii|ii\| 




> i— i 


i— i 




~, _ _ ^ 






— • 


1 i—i ■** • 


A'|Itli:-il| 




; 


• 




:• 


• 








• 


1 :' • • 


|.. - i-i: i-i|| |i'M|| 


i— 1 


~> — . 


GO 


e- 








■ 


i - — ' 


"1 ■■ |H.ll|c| \[_ "gj . • . | 




r-i i— i 






i— I 










rt 




1 '" 


-|l.'UH|R|V 'si i\ i.{ 




i— I 


























| "■ 


-BvpdlsXig 
































1 • T' 


i-i.ti^a 
































| '. " 


■SIJIJ.ilH | 








— 














i-H 


rH 


1 CO r-l • 


A"9dojq 








i— i 




















IT' i— I • 


i - \(| pm ■ i'i|uiM(| 


















to 








•— • 


I -* i— 1 • 


7 


























• rt 1 H 


•■■'n[i'i''ii 














i-H 










t— 1 


1 N 1-t • 


•uoii'liim-iio,) 






rtf-l JJ 


i— ( 'TV 


GO 


i— i <— ■ 


OS 


1 TO OS • 
1 50 


-J33QV0 














• — CO 








CO 


1 i> «o • 


■<iiiii.Kio.ia 














<-( I— t r- 1 








f — < 


1 "^ 


■jn Basmsif] 'uiBjg 
















—. i— i 








i— I 


1 y. 


joe wog 




















t— ( 








1 ^^ r-i • 


j., samsnQ 'japptsig 


















— ■ 


■ 








1 "■" 


•BUII||-iV 


















'. 


r "" 








1 "~ 


I'lo.I v 














O 


eo 


.-• co 




1 ^- •-. — 

1 — ( 


•|ll-l|Ol|00|V 








— 








• ; 




I i — i CO • 


•r|ii.i|M i '\- 




1-1 ~* 




SO 


• 


rt : 


CO 


I 00 t- • 


■jeqarat] M"H.\\ 


NOCCO»«-*^Ol-Olfj P ?' |r-l S« l-H 

.— i T • CO CO 1 id !-D 

1 — 


CO 

y. 

o 

< 
— 
- 
- 
- 
O 


-i 

1 
— 

q 


a 

M 

-. 

nc 

c 

PQ 

c 

- 

c 

4- 


b 

— 

- 




u 

a 

i — 
I 


< 
_ - 

\ 


I 

a 

p5 


c 
J 

?8 


• 

a 

— 


■i 

— 
- 

Z 


< 
i 

- 


: 
* 


- 

i — 


' 

s 

3 

- 

•- 


- 

i 

- 


.■ is 

— ' 

o ■? 
■ 


* 
• 
• 

00 

— 
- 

- 



64 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



'S{SO[n3jaqiix 1 




















1 "~ ' 










'spiomg | ; ; 
























•jo sout;oai(f '(ij'uuois | "~* 
















1 r "' : 




""' ; 




■JO S3S836IQ ".m Mis | \ 


























•tiiinaiarjdocj | r ~ l 
















1 r-t 










•njaijtniiii.)!])! 1 ^ 
















1 ^ 










sr:nii r i jo'SiioO'ytJHioimiaiij 1 "* 








I— 1 




1 i-H 




CO l-H • 


•A'ki.ui.>[,| I ; 


























•siiuioii.ioj | ; 
















If 










•aSy pio | r_l 
















I "^ 










jo saauasiQ 'joai-[ | ; 
















i i— i 


i—i — ■ 




'B3983BIQ 'Xanpiji 1 °' 
















1 CD CO 


!— I 1—1 • 


•jC'jiuiniii 1 ; 




















" 




■JO 939R38I(J '|JB»H 1 '° 


— 


— • TV 




i— I "^ 








0)3 'pioqdXx '813*3,3 1 l—l 








1— 1 






1 "O 




I— t 




\VUV\V.]/i *SJ3A3,g 1 ; 










— • 




1 r- ' 










•sBpdis.Oa | "~ l 
















1 *~ 










•/sd.iiuljj | 


















1 r " 1 










■Bi-juajng | 


















1 r " ' 










•jCsdo.i(j 1 


















1 r " ' 










•A\laHI3Si(Q pill! B33qjJ\?i(I 1 


















1 ^ 










■sajaqina | 




























•xji|ii|.>a | 
















t— I I TV 










•uoijduinsnoo | ^ 








TV --I 


• I O 




OS H ■ 


■J30UTJ3 1 ; 




- 1 






—i 1 00 




1—1 




•spiq.uio.ig 1 r " ' 






. '"' ""* 






1 co 








■jo S3«B39ia 'stutug | ; 








• 










T— 1 




JO S3SB3fl]a 'S[3A\0g | *~ ' 








• i— 1 






■ 1 CO 




~~ 




•JO S39B39IQ 'J3pp\qg 1 \ 
















1 








i:rai|)<v | ! 
























■^qiuRj put? Xxoidody 1 *° 






• i— I 






■ Him cv 


■- 1 


i— i 


•ragiioqooiv ! \ ■ 












• • 1 TV 


•"■ 




•Binsppav | c? *"" ' '"" , 






•l-H • 1 « 


1—1 


'. '. 


I OHJJHMQ0N--I1O 1 (O lOHNMH 
usqiutiM 3ioq\A 1 co 1 i— 1 o* 

1 1 rH 


OCCUPATIONS. 


a. 

- 
C 
u 

<x 


■J 
b 

£ 


3 

b 

b 


or 

a 

•71 

i 
1 


1 
i 

! 

i 

!c 

p 

•- 
— 

f. 


a 

t- 
a 

c 

3 

- 

i i 

a 

~ c 

-4- 

y; 


> 

a 

I 
' ■_ 

z 

— 
> 

« 

a 

- 


1 

i 

i 
) 
t/ 

': 

b 
•>- 

- 
'a 


o'b 

| 

a 

9 


■■ ■ - © 

Indoor. — Active. 

TCflkplVK 


a 

I 
r 
^ : 

■+; 

c 
■, 

a 

r 
- 


1 

i 

v 

s 

- 


a 



] 

- 


CO 

- 

i 

pq 






occnwnONS AND CAUSES OF DEATH. 



:,.-, 



uaqnx 
■epping 

.-.ill i|. Illinois 

•j.i -.1-1: 1.1, 1 'aaidg 



uiinas m 1.1 ig 

111-111:11111. hi:i 
aSaon jo "no,) .v i!HiiMMii.)n,| 

I 



■si jim >i u-»,f 



v PIO 

j,. . - 



■jii ggei 

•a 1 in 



1— 1 .— 1 — — -• — 



j,, 93883810 "Mi '|l 



j|.i • ; 1 1 < 1 1 1 • i A , I . 

•|t:UB|ll|V '~i 94 'I 



ijq.idj-A.ITj 



•Asd.>|i>l;.j 



■ ~ 1 1 1 j - • 1 1 1 ;.] 



■ CsdaiQ 



.\'.ii|ii^\'(| pa* BSoqxreiQ 



•M.l|-'<l'M(I 



' A" J 1 1 > M • * « I 



- IU> I |<illl ii~u<», > 



■ 



SjJIU 

■-'1 I 'U|i:.i;i 

jo B8M »ja -! ,M °a 



1 'I '■'i'i" : r.l 



'!:llll||-\ 




-i-v: | [dody 




nis!|ci|(i.i|\- 




■i't >>\ 




J "l \ '1<"I A\ 


HrtT(WCI5Hf)HW*rH(OHrlr-,«^,- _ 

CO 



00 

— 

as -3 






■■« *-« j-, ."I 



J2 *J fc « 



o o 



s 

■ -ill 
tuo'C * £ a 

35 <x> m hj •-* 

z fe.3 ~ r - 

Ut 4-> O O Q) 

« ee o o • — 



- I 






a 

> 1 i2 nrt 



^3rr 



Z. DC 



— ~ ' 



a — 
2* 



u, a "^ *j ^2 .^ 
p oo a os a c 

O i S - : 34J- — 



56 



THIRTT-8IXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



•stsopiajaqnx 


































•appuig 


























rH 1 <?* 




•JO S9SV3BTQ 'qaBUIOJS 




■ Ti 
























• 1 <■# 




•jo S9SV98IQ 'anidg 




• • 




























'vuuaejiidag 




» r-i 
























• I rH 




iusi(i!Hin.ii[ji 




i— I 
























1 T ' 




eSanq jo'Saoo^Biaomnanj 


CO CO 




■ (M 


• -H 














• 1 * " 

• 1 Tsf 


• T~>. 


'jtsuiwy 


































•siiiuojuaj 






























• I 1— 1 




,n V pio 


















■ rH 










1 N 




•JO S88t!8S!Q 'aaAiq 






• i— 1 






















• 1 -<* 




jo sastJasuQ 'A'aupcjj 


























• rH 


• I -* 

• 1 1— 1 




jf^lUBBOI 






























■ 1 




■JO B98V3Sia '|J1MI1 




O 








■ - 1 


. — i 




• <—i 




1 - 

1 — H 


~ 


■op 'pioqdXj, 'saaAa^ 














' - 1 


— 










1 i_ 


• 1— ( 


■H.'i.uqiqv 'waaAa^ 














I— 1 














1 ^ 


r— 1 


SI![.I(I1SA'.!5] 


































•Xedoiiily 






























1 ^ 


'. "* 


•siji.iojua 






























1 rH 




■Sb&oxq 




_ -* 












•- 1 










1 ,? * 




■A\l.vpiosA"<I piIB BSOqiJVIQ 




rt 
























I T ' 




•sajaqiMd 


— ' ; 
























1 r ~ 1 ' 




Xjuiqaa: 


; — 














1—1 








1 "^ 




•uoiidiunsuoo 


O? 00 


— ' 








T' T'HH 


rH | 3 — O? 

1 -+ 


•jooubo 


T— < 




rH 


I— 1 












1 X 




•sijupnoaa. 


I— 1 














r-< 








1 *° 


— ' 


■jo sasBasia 'mcig 






















rH 






1 CO 




■JO s.istMsiQ 'spuofj 






























1 r " 1 




•jo sonBosiQ-'japptsig 




T— t 
























1 l— ' 




•Biuiusy 




























1 • 




•8isA"|Bat!(j purs A*xa[dody 




CO 
























I <o 




•rasiioqojiv 


l-H 
























1 ^ 




■Sjuappay 


• O 










i-H rH 




1— 1 




1 rH 




■jaquiiiM apq^ 


C5iOri«(N'-l'*H30CCl«mHlN I05 i— I GO 
CO 1 £~ 

1 rH 


OCCUPATIONS. 


co 

a 

o 


cc 
a 

- 

3 

co 
Ph 

a. 
'5 


EC 

a 

c 

cc 

H 


DC 

I 


EC 

z 

J* 

c 

o 
o 

o8 

s 

CQ 

-/- 

93 

P4 


CO 

a 
sc 


EC 

X 

S 

E 


DC 

a 

3 

oi 

CD 

so 


DC 

a 

CO 

CO 

a 

> 

c 

88 
CO 

r 

3 

3Q 


DC 
— 

00 

Eh 


CO 

X 

_£ 

r5 




CO 

a 

X 

— 

DC 

'c 


a 

a 


4 


CO 

r 

H 






VI. 

Indoor — Activity Restricted. 
Bartenders 


co 

s 

S-. 

88 

0H 



OCCUPATIONS AND CAUSES OF DEATH. 



57 



'simpi cuoqnj, 




























• T— 1 










• -H 


■.i|)l.)(IIS 




























• rH 


• rH 




• rH rH 


•jO 898*98(0 •||.ii:iiii>i S 




























• «* 


• rH 








jo «.)8«d«!a 'anidg 








































•huii.imii<I.>s 








































iu-i|i:ii|[|.>i|}l 






















• rH 
















H"iiii'ijo-3uo,)^yB!ui mi ii. iii.i 


1 ,— ' 






- <- 










• <?» r-l 


• OS 


• rH 








•XHian.i|,| 


; 


















" 




• -' 












•W!|MH))U.),| 


i— i 


















T-K 




• rH 










• rH 


• '-V PIO 


1 * rH 
















\ ". 




• rH 










• <7* 


•jo geroaeiQ 'i^Avy 


1 rH 








• r- 1 








• 




• CO 










• rH 


ju 898898(0 ' A "'I'!M 


| <M 






• N 






. r— 1 .— 1 -f 




• ira 


• .—I 






• rH 


-iCjin ti-n [ 










■ 










■— « 




• 


• 






• 


ju ..ki:,*|([ l.m.'II 






; •~ l 


• '-• 










1— 1 




• CO 


• rH rH 




• CO 


•D}3 'piOqdXj, 'SJ9A9J 










to 










~> 




. ^H 












'(VUBPK 'HJ0A3J 










; ; 
















N 












'BB(9d{BAJ|B 










• .—1 




























•X*d.)[!il;.( 










) ; 




























'B|)U9)ag 




■ »— i 




• i—i 
















• • r-t 










■ Csdoja 




























■ o* 












aj.i)u.i»a'(| pas B.nq.u«!C( 






















X 




• 












s>i.i<|"!a 


























rH 












•A'jjKqoa 






















I— ( 




'O 










■ rH 


•aoijdmnsuOi i 


•75 






l-l V - 

rH 


— <N 




eo 




N TV ?/ 
09 


co 


rH 


•JOOUBJ 










.—i 




'. 




— 1 




r-( i-H 








" 


Hiiii|.)iioja 










O* 




i-H 










CO 










rH 


jo 898898(0 '"[tug 


rH 






iH 




rH 










cc 










rH 


•ju 898898(0 '8(9MOg 










CO 
















T- 












•jo nativasia 'J-)I'1"'I!I 








I— 1 
















— , 












'VUnfysy 










• 
















rH 












-i~\|Mi,| pint AX9(dody 










(?* 










1 


— X 










r-t 


iu-!|oqoj|v 










i— 1 












• rH 










I 


-k i n.«l»i.>.» \- 










• 










-f 






rH < 




• 


J.IIHUIl \; >|"t|.\\ 


/.WHN05r-lr-i-tHHXHH-1'-1lt-WCr-llO 
-* CO CO rH 


OCCUPATIONS. 

oo 


00 

— 

o 
CO 

M 
M 

Z 
: 


— 

o 

-^ 

'3 


a 

v. 
■ 

5 


S 
CO" 

_ 



09 

£ 

/. 


z 

I 
39 

- 


S 

* 

': 

- 


— 

c 

9 


DC 

i 


DO 
00 

r. 

a 
- 

X 

= 

a 

— 

— 
— 


■ 

- 
— 


3 
- 


1 

B 


- a 

C on 

C — 


3 


eo 
to 

o 

_ 

r— 


r 

Zz 


r 

93 

— 

s 


00 

t-, 
o 

03 

a 
a 
o 

CO 



58 



THJItTY-NIXTH It KG ISTUATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



'sisoinojsqnx 










|« : 








r— 


r-i 








•appmg 1 










1 + 


















•jo BOSBastg 'uoeinoijg 1 










1 w 


















■JO 889U3allQ '."Mils 1 










1 : 


















iMiu.ii.iild.iS 1 










1 : 




- 1 












■ius!|iuun.ji|;i | 










I" 1 












r-H 


►i^iitrijo-auo.jyuiiiouiiioiij 1 




•?? 




1 T^ .— 1 — < 1—1 
1 ti 


CC r-1 IN 




Xnuuou 1 


'-' 






| co 






rH 








•HllHlUJU-l.l 








1 « 










• 






•83VPIO 


r-H 






I '° 










^H 






•jii gasBasiQ '.i.iaj'j 








1 ^ 
















■jo sosuosiq l j(oup!3] 


W r-i 




13 










?* 






•XlIlll.N-UI 






i ~ 
















■JO S,>Sl!OBIQ 'JJ«9H 




i— i 




IS 










<* 






•oja 'pioqcLCx 'sj.ia.i^i 




O* l-H 


153 




1-1 


•7%f r-H 






•IBU«[1!IV 'SJOAO^ 










• 1 CO 










r-t 






•sepdieAja 










1^ 


















■Xsdauda 










1 - 


















■s|ji.i.)|u:i 




I—I 




1* 


















A'sdoJd 










: |« 












■XiajuasiQ puB BaoquBia 










1 '° 


















s,.|.K|i:i(£ 










: I- 4 
















--; 


•A"»!l!'l'"l 










| ' - i-H 














•uoijduinsin),) 




cc 




122 






t-i CO 




— i 


'i.i.hii;. i 










1* 
















; 


•siiuijno.ia 










|C0 






r-H 








•jo S9SB38IQ 'nrejg 










1 f - 


















•JO S38«9S)0I 'S[0A\O$I 








r-l I O 


















•JO B8BB9Sta 'jappBia 








: |« 










i— 1 






■BUIHJSV' 








: : l rt 
















■s!*a"|h.u:,i pas Axajdodv 




r-l — i— ' 1 i— i <— i 








• CO 






aisi[oiloo|v 




: : : : |« : 








• fH 




•s^aapioav 




■ CO • • 1 i-l • <N 






CO • i — i 


I ri(T)<«« I O ■* CO CO TH- n CO « H 

•aaqiniiN 0|on^\ i— i 1 o -^ 


02 

o 

0- 

P 
o 
o 
o 


a 

'i 
»• 

a 


J 

E 1 


a 

a 

r 

| 

c 
t- 


c 


VII. 

OCCUPATIONS AT LARGE. 


1 

? 

r 
- 

PC 


a 

a 

c 

cc 


C 

-4- 

a 

a 

> 
'E 

- 


) 

» 

) 

c 
a 

E 

: 


I 

r 

a 
a 

f 

1 


cc 

a 

c p 

* 


a 

z 

Z 
— 

> 

c 

9 

C 

a 

j 

H a 


> • 
» . 

! 

-> . 

) . 

: 

! a 

s 

1 — 

1 

►3 






()( CITATIONS ANIi < Al 81 9 "I hi \ I II. 



59 



••.•l~o|ll.U.X|ll,[, 








"" 


r- 






»* 






— 




— 








-appmg 




















'■ 




-■ 


i | 'i| h: is 




















—1 








: 


, | . .mils 


























a 




: 


•l.-jiii.ii Mld-s 
















— 








■ 






•iii-i|kihii..I|;i 
















rH 








<?* 






aSaan j" Sao; i v Biuoinoenj 






- 






7' 


CO 

— 1 






T • — 


rH 


\-iui .|,i 












r^ 


-■ 








CO 






S||Mln|U i,| 












• 


■ 








; 






■.>.-\' p|0 




r-l 




i—i i—i 


T 








?■ 






| l HI'I 








— < 


i—i 








-r 






•jci B98B3Bt(] 'A-ni |.i >[ 


r-l 


—1 ■ r-l -p 


r. 






— •£ 






•X)|llit-ii[ 








• r-l 


H 






'. """ 














r-l 


CO 


> 


•— 1 


- 




— 


1 |M(H|.|.V,|, '<i..\.n 
[iil.n:|i:|V Vi.i\...| 








T' 


1— ( 


r-l 




— / 










?' 


1— 1 


~f 






3 






•SB(.xl|- ClJJ 










f— 1 




—i — 






N 






■Xadaitdg 


























• 




; 


'^i j i.ii jum 


























X 




idOJQ 


























ov 






A.i.iiu ,, oqxiBia 


























'- 






"I'MU 


























; • 






■A|1|I(|. M | 
















■— i 








N 






- 1 1 < • 1 1 < 1 1 1 ■ 1 . 






r— 1 CO 


CO 


CO 
t— 1 




— : • r. 






1 




• r-l i— 1 




CO 


«o 


■ r-l 




2 
— 






>uii|.. iaig 






*— i 




I—I 


w 








rH 






i unr.m 












?<• 


7/ rH 






IO 






•jo Benasjo '8|dMog 
























CO rH 




jn s.is!:.i-|([ 'jappg|g 








■ 1—1 






<Ti 








r-t 






tMIll||~\- 
















i— 1 




?• 






|1 n:,| [iim: \\.i|il.nlv 








~> r-l 




• - 


C* 


rH re 






■iii-.||(ii|.>.)[V 








rH • 




'■ 


• 


■ : • 






•~iii.'|pi.).iV 






T— . r^ r— T • 


•— 
— i 


: - 


• T 




~ 


J.m|uimn; 'l"i|.\\ 


r-l 


O* CO CO CO 

o 


C — — r— N 

— c-- 
CO 


i 

y. 



< 

- 


a 

- 
•- 
c 

E 

C 

1 


c 


I 
1 

- 


/ 


'5 


_ Z 

— 
- 
- 






- - 
- 

En E 

r-l r* 

_ — - 
w 

X - 

> 

O -r 


— 

- 
- 

_ 


_ 
a 

— 


h 


s 


• 
3 

T 

; — 

H 


- 

: 

_ I 
■i 


• 

• 

• 

I 
£ 



60 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



•Bi80[nojoqnx 








|<» 
















• • 


■appmg 








l« 
















; ; 


•jo sohtsobiq 'qoxiiuois 








1" 
















»o • 


■jo sasBasiQ 'auidg 








r 
















• ; 


"BIUISBOjld^S 








1 : 
















i—i 


•mflnciunaqjj 








I*. 








1—1 






ot ■ 


sSunq joSuoo iy einouuviuj 


i— 1 G>* i— 1 1 00 

1 Tt< 








rl Oi 




GO <-i 
7i 


•XsiJiiau 






■ j CO 
















• i— 1 


•sr)inoi!.t9j 








1 : 
















CO ■ 


•aSV PIO 








IS 


















•JO SOBTOSIfl 'l-'M'J 








1* 
















-+ • 


•jo s3St?asiQ 'XaapiH 








1*- 














i-i 1> • 


•jfllUBSUI 








1" 














• m * 


•jo sasuasia 'jjuoh 




n rl 1 *> 

1 co 














— i—i cc 

CO 


•oja 'pioqdXj, 'saaAa^ 


1-1 — 


1?; 










— ' ■ 




o 


•[fllJt'lBK; 'SJSAa.J 








I« 
















CO • 


•SB[8disA\ig 








|CO 
















1—1 


•Xsdatidjj 








1 : 
















r-l • 


•siii-iaiuH 








1 "° 






1— 1 


i-H 




— t 


•jCadojQ 








1 C*C I-H 












o • 


•A'aajuaaA'd puu BaaqjaisiQ 








1 o 










i-H 




•O H 


aajaqT?i(I 








1 : 










| 




1-1 ! 


■^inqaa 








12 














Tjl — 


•uoijdiausuoo 




1—1 


132 




<J* 




<?* 


CO O* <?4 


•jaotreo 








IX 














O* Oi i— I 


•BllUlOUOJa 








1 ° 

1 rH 
















o • 
1—1 


•jo sasBasiQ 'me.ig 








1 CD 
















1* • 


jo sasnastQ; 'sp.wog 








1"- 


5« 












co • 


jo sasxjasiQ '.lapptqjf 








1^ 


















•Braqjsy 








1 CO 
















<n • 


•sisA'iiutij pat! A"xa[dodv 








1 "^ 
1 o* 












i— ' 


i-H 


ni8i|oqoy[Y 








1 o* 














<N • 


•sinappov 








1 co 
1 o? 














i—i i— i 


'.laquinjN apq^ 


NOW 1 CO r-icNiOii— <o*t-i— it-t-co 

\ m COH 
1 CO o* 



M 



to 

o 



GO Q 

=- cS c3 



r/j 



TO 



X 



2 
o 

rS 

r^ CU . 

•2r* 3^ 
* S.^rS 



GO CD 

° £ 

rS 
OP 



.2 £ 

SCO 
go 

rl <X> 

a r-. 



CU .1 

CU CD 

O O 

WW 



lsss.] 



OCCUPATIONS AND CAUSES OF DEATH. 



01 



>Hn|ll .U.«|ll,|, 




























• 1 : 


■.)|i|.)|HS 










• 
















: 1 : 


■JO WOHI!.HI(| \. >!MIIO|S 










• iH 
















: |» 


•JO B89V9SIG "anjdg 


























: 1 : 


tllllMMIIil'S 










. r-l 
















: l w 


'lll-l|i:illllM|)| 




i— i 




• 
















1 ^ 


s.tuii'i jo'Sao; i v i.iiuniiii.Hi.i 










• £ 












■ rH 


• i cr - 

■ ' cc 


•X8U1I.)|,| 










• |H 
















I " 


•8!|IUo)ll .,| 










; rt 






■ f— ( 








• 1 iO 


■ofly I'd) 


















• 








IS 


•JO S,>SIMJ|(| '.1 .W| 


















! 








1 - 


jii BaSTOSia \.'H|i|\[ 




7t 


N 








r- 1 l—l 






1 s 


•.WUIKrfUI 








^H 




• • 






1 ~ 


'JOS ■-' '-m| I ii.- '|| 


t>* rH 


7' ?• ^ Pi 


i—l i— 1 — - 


IS 


'pjoq&Cj, -s.ija.)^ 




i— 1 i— 1 


-* 




Oi 




i—i i— i 


• 12 


•|i:Ulf|li|V '8J9A3J 




























1 '-" 


•8B|0«Ii-m;.| 




























1 M 


■^Sda [{dg 




























l rt 


•8ll!J'>l | iH 










i-H 














— I iO 


•XsdoiQ 










i—l 












i-H 


I * 


wj.iju.wA'd pin Baoqxreia 










-• 
















1 * 


"WCI 


























i ~ 


■iiniqaa 










<?* 








i—i 








DopdmnsaoQ 


i— 1 
















r-l TV 


IS 


■J.i.iili:,) 










:-. 










^~ 




12 


•<!lll|.)iliU}J 










CO 
















1 ~~ 


- )-<-i|< I 'lipUQ 
















rH 










l« 


91 3BIQ 's[aMog 




























1 * 


•jo aacraaaia 'jeppiqg 




























1 : 


i:iiii||wv 




















"" 






r 


i[dody 








I— 1 i-H 






N 


rH 




: 


•iiiji|(ii|ii ,|\- 








; ; 






• 


; ; 




1 * 


»1M.|[>I.I>V 






o* .- 






, 


; 




1 * 


•j.m,iiiii\ 8[oq^\ 


monoow>-imioi"tc--i io 
iO 1 - 

1 CO 


DD 
V. 

z 
H 

i 

p 
_ 
o 

o 


or 

t~ 
a 

'a 

ft 

a 


■ 
S 
« 
or 

— 

c 

— 


B 
i 

— 

<-* 


> 


DC 

« 
] 

c 


— 

■ 

> 

Pi 


a 

I 
•_ 

£ 

c 


a 

I 



a 
1 


a 
- 

• 
- 

£ 

OS 
/. 


- 

4- 

n 

i 
X 


a 
- 

- 

i 


1 

C 

- 


a 
I 

* 

1? 





62 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



•sjaoinoaaqnjj 1 




i— 1 


• 


j->. 


• 




'spiorag | 


T* 


IN 


CO 




-' 


•jo soaoflifl 'iptiraoig | 


N 


c* 


i— ' 


— 


•jo S3i3i:.>si(i '.tmils | 




• 


■ t: 1 1 il. >:.» 1 4 1 1. >S! I 


i— i 






i— i 


i—i 


■tusijBumoqjj 1 


• ; 


CNf 


Oi 


c* 


aSntii joSno; i y bio uoug 1 




co 


i— 1 


— ■ 




•Xnunoi<i 1 


; — ■ ; ; ; 


'8I1UH))! I-'.I [ 


CO 




CO 


1—1 


r— 1 


■a3v PIO | 






CO 


TJ1 


7> 


•JO 838B381Q 'J3A11 1 


7i 


CN 




T-t 


-* 


I9SI<I 'Xanpjji 1 


t 


-t 


I— I 


X 


1—1 


•a^uibsuj 1 


; 




c* 


' 


• 


•JO 939B3S1Q '4JB3H 1 


-* 


l-H 


— • 


- 


1—1 


•0)3 'pioqilA',1, 'S.I.l\,i,,[ | 


.- 


CN 


o 


• - 


1 - 


•[Bl.u:p:iV 'si.>\\q 1 


<r? 


i — 


1—1 


1—1 


<?* 


■-t i idiaAjg 1 


rji 


co 


■Xsda|[dg[ | 


i— 1 




l-H 


1-1 


•spiiajua 1 


■ 


CO 


1—1 


1—1 


•^sdoaQ i 


«# 


•7* 


i— 1 


N 




•XjaiadsXQ pnvTja>ii.i.iiM([ 1 


«o 


-+■ 


l-H 


?' 




•B3)3(ll!ia I 




i— ( 




l-H 


'*)!l!'l''(l | 


CO 


r" 


< -N 


©* 


*tf 


■uoijdinnsuoo | 


•<* 


i> 


CO 


<o 


O 


•J30I1I:,) 1 


00 


a 


5 t- 


/- 


X 


•siipqono.ig 1 


e* 




-* 


CO 


»o 


•jo S3^t:3sia 'scmug | 


i>- 


r 


■1 CO 




CO 


•JO 8388881(1 '8I3A\Og 1 


■<* 




I—I 


a: 


T-l 


■JO 83*B3Sia 'J3ppi:[g 1 


CNf 


T- 


* CNi 




l-H 


'tranftsv 1 


r-l 


•S!SA'[i:.u:,l piiB Xx.>[dc)dv | 


i>- 


c 


> *> 

r- 1 


cc 

1—1 


«o 


•uisi[oqo.>[v ! 




T- 


■1 i— 1 


<M 


c* 


•sjnappay | 


<x> 




OO 


CN 


i-l 


•jaqurnN aioqM 1 


i— 1 






1— 
1— 


T-l 


OCCUPATIONS. 


I. 


a 
P 
C 

H 


5 
C 
& 

D 

P 

< 

c 
D 


III. 


• I-C 

i> § 

r^ 

C 
P 
f- 

C 


> .3 

V 

1 
1 

e 

• c 

p 
3 


> 



1888.] 



OCCUPATIONS AND CAUSES AT DEATH. 



(i3 



'gieopiojaqnj; 


CI -t 


co 




c 




'epptng 


-f 


O 


—i 


, | ■||..i:iii<.|S 


TO 


T* CD 


: • 
50 


jo san '-'(i 'Dujdg 


■ 


50 




•l.'liii.'MUil'S 


iH 


X 


-|iis;ii.'iiiii .ii|<i 


i-H t—t CO -r 


— < 


-i.Tilli'I J" nil. 'il,| 


-rl CO / OS 

CO i— t -r* CO 


50 


A-llll.'[.l 


co 50 :- tv 


i— 1 

— < 


•>l||llnjl.l.i,] 


t* • • HO 


*- 


..-y |,| () 


to -t< : so 

?• SO 


I 




jo -..-i: >-i(i '.i..\|'| 


■•- i-t -r -t 






in jam '-hi -.v.iiiiiiai 


~- oa t> -+ 

CO i— i 


OS 


\C)!iin-ii| 


.— 1 rH 1— 1 «— 1 


CO 


■ l |i |: 'II 


SO CO £- 

50 co -+ 


/- 

Oi 

.—1 


•,>i.i 'pioqdXj; 'ai3A3j 


CO J> CO CO 

r- 1 so — 


Csf 


•(Hl.u:|i'i\ t-i.m ..| 


TO rh Oi X 


r. 
J ■ 


•si:|.nli- \ r.| 


i— 1 t— 1 CO i— t 


:t 


\-.|..|lil;.| 


I-H 


.—i 


• -. 


•Willi. Mn;| 


-t< 


x »o 


CO 


•iadoiQ 


:• 


CO / 


50 


•A.I 'in '-M| |nn: i "11111:1(1 


CO 


<o x 


(X' 

-■ 


•M.)|.M|i:i(| 


i-H 


i-H 


"* 


•A'll'iM'd 


t- r-H co /: 

i— t -* 


o 


'il.'Uiliiiii-ii", ) 


co co eo *> 

V- r-1 


o 


' |i. 'Hi:, ) 


T* IO r-l X 


3' 


■-M|II|.>iiii.i;| 


CO CO O CO 


CO 

— 


|,. -,i-i:..-i(| 'ii|i:.ij| 


t- co co «o 


-f 
TO 


-i.m-KI 'spMog 


co t- co 


o 


•j<> -..-i:. i-id •.i'|i|ii:i',I 


N CO rH 


— 


•«UII|l-\ 


f-H • CO CO 


CO 


•hjhC|iui:.| |>im: \'\.i|.|.u|y 


rH <- X <- 
I-" CO CO 


CO 

~+ 

— i 


•uis!|oi|.i.>|V 


SO ?' 50 


rH 
OS 


■! M.>> V 


rH rH CO -^ 
rH r-l GO 


i...|iiiiis; .>|'>i|A\ 


O SO » iC 

co o "O co 
co r-i .co eo 


00 

»o 

r-H 


V. 

: 

H 
< 

0. 
-J 

- 

o 
o 


VI. 
Ixdook. — Activity Restricted 

VII. 
pations at Large . . . 


VIII. 

IX. 
Women 




S 

- 
- 

< 





64 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



■sjonmjj 








•8I[U|<iAS 








•siuittjaj, 








•n.)si:.iKj(i U131S 








imuji:[J1!JS 








•iuui.i:\',[ 








•38B38ia i))i:|si>.l,| 








.i|ii|sii,| iimiS'm.'iv 








jii BB13P3) 'sSUU^I 








•sjiiSu.CmT 








'fizaangai 








■appimoH 








IUIU.))I 






. 


•8l)|OI|.l.KMIl.i]{ 








•sumo jo .ir(iJi|j.i<Mii..|| 








•.>— .t:i j.i.h >m.>] i 








s!s.(|(1oiu.i:ii 


i— t 




■'•')ii'!) 






' ' ' " ' "1 


ou.uSuko 








•iqiU-'^l 








■Buaqiqdia 




M1I|11J[1!0 








•JO 838U3SICI V.'UOa 








•iusi.iii.Miy 










•gsao8qv 


• i— — ■ <7i • "CO • • • l-H • 


•.laquuin oioq^w 


I— ( 


Mn«HHH-'HO«HM-'-«00« 



n to -- — i 



c 2 _i ^: • r 3 ?' 
^ o ••=■ - *a bO CD 



W),2 c 5 



CUJ V *> K<; 









1888.] 



OCCUPATIONS AND CAUSES OF DEATH. 



65 



•8JOiunx 


















1 "* 


•siiRdjtg 


1—1 














1 •"" ' 


•ennujax 


t— 1 














1 "* 


•sasBOsia'i'MS 


















1 r " ' 


•BUI|B|.1B0S 


















1 N 


oanagiCj 








— ■ 








| CO 
1 CO 


•aasosiQ on 


















•aiiusiij liwn8fi»H 


















1 '"- 


■jo vmaps) 










«H ■ 






1 ** 


•bijiSuajut; 


















1 '"" ' 


■BZU.1IHIII1 


















I — 


•apiouuon 


















1 w 


•uuuoii 


















1 N 


■ppioqajoui i[j 


















1 '— ' 


•euino jo o"miJjoui.>n 






i-H 










1 — 


•aoBiiJjouiou 


















1 '" , 


■BwXjdouiaiii 














i— 1 


1 "* 


•3JJI0J) 


















1 iH 


auajSuBQ 


















1 CO 


•B[I1JSIJ 


















1 — 


"Buailiqdia; 












—1 




1 CO 


SI)[113[80 


















1 l— ' 


•jo sosB-isiQ 'sanog 
















1-1 1 ~' 


ra«uii.Hi\- 














— • 1 -f 


•88aosqv 




- 1 








• • 1 OS 


■j.m(uiii\ 9(oq^ 


1 .- 


00 

53 
O 

< 
ft. 
& 
o 
o 
o 


a 

•- 
c 

-4- 
[S 


i 

- - 

- : 
! t 

-- 


i 
i a 

-- 


» 

. ■/ 

• 'c 

:c 

! - 

jj 


1 
3 

) 

3 

jj 

• 

- - 

- — 


• o 

• u 

■ ! 

ii 

- 

■ r- 


! \ 

: a 

! E 
i a 

■ r- 


3 

: - 


3 

1 

1 

J 



66 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



OTHER DISEASES.— Females. 



OCCUPATIONS. 


a> 

£ 

a 
y, 

a 

s 


.5 
3 
— 


.2 

& 

5 


> 
1 

1 


c 

V 

5 

p 

O 
1 

1 


o. 
o 
| 

n 
1 

l 


a 

83 

(* 

o 

s 
2 

2 


o 

5 

a 
O 

2 

2 


si 
u 

M 
< 

> 

1 

1 


a> 

> 

— 

a? 

PH 

5 

1 

6 


3 
£ 

1 
1 


J* 
o 
o 

1 
1 


O 
| 

:- 

1 
1 


eg 



a 

H 

V 

fl 



I- 

o 

£ 

= 

EH 


Dressmakers 


1 

22 

1 
1 
1 

26 


6 

1 

7 


i 
1 




Housekeepers 


1 


Housewives 








Operatives 






1 



RECAPITULATION. 



Number of Other Diseases S5 

Number of Occupations and Diseases of Decedents in Table XI . 1,758 



Whole Number of Occupations of Decedents known 1,843 



RESULTS AND OBSERVATIONS. 



The number of births registered in the State of Rhode Island, dur- 
ing the year 1888, was seven thousand eight hundred and forty (78-iO); 
the number of marriages, three thousand and twenty-two (3,022); and 
the number of deaths, six thousand five hundred and ninety-four 
(6,594). 

Table XII. 

Presenting the General Results of Registration in the State 'la ring 
ten years, 185^-1868, and (taring each of the last 

twenty -Jive years. 

Whole Number Living 

Ten Years, of Births. Still-born. Births. Marriages. Deaths. 

1854-1863 38,042 1,471 36,571 14,943 24,230 

1864 3,892 138 3,754 1,844 3,360 

1865 3,955 177 3,778 1,896 ! 3,405 

1866 4,902 172 4,730 2,318 2,970 

1867 5,127 163 4,964 2,344 2,889 

1868 5,372 212 5,160 2,285 2,912 

1869 5,245 220 5,025 2,289 3,382 

1870 5,215 234 4,981 2,362 3,238 

1871 5,678 223 5,455 2,336 3,344 

1872 6,143 202 5,941 2,537 4.2t; 

1873 6,022 228 5,794 2,630 4,403 

1874 6,466 277 6,189 2,541 4,980 

1875 6,508 246 6,262 2,485 4,317 

1876 6,329 224 6,105 2,^53 4,116 

1877 6,235 242 5,993 2,282 4,450 

1878 6,714 24S 6,466 2,324 4,44 1 

1879 6,350 216 6,134 2,396 4,472 

1880 6,295 192 6,103 2,769 4,889 

1881 6,761 264 6,497 2,750 5,016 

1882 6,825 253 6,572 2,634 5,074 

1883 7,046 253 6,793 2,611 6,282 

1884 7,305 272 7,033 2,558 5,141 

1885 7,028 27 1 6,757 2,4ftf 6,389 

1886 7,621 293 7,328 8,750 6,849 

1887 7.668 276 7,392 8,889 6,340 

1888 7.840 295 7,645 3,022 6,594 



70 TIMKTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1888. 

During the period of thirty-five years there were recorded, in Rhode 
Island, 192,584 births, of which number 7,687 were still-born, and 
184,897 were living children. 

During the same period there were recorded 76,485 marriages, or 
152,970 persons married, and 133,919 deaths. 

These results show that in every 25.1 births there was one still-born 
child, or that in every 1,000 births there were about 40 still-born and 
960 living children. 

The same results also show that the ratio of whole number of living 
births to the whole number of persons married, and to the whole num- 
ber of decedents, each during the same period, were as follows: 

Married. Deaths. 
For every 100 living births there were 82.8 and 72.4 

There were 172 more births during 1888 than in the previous year. 
There were only 47 more in 1887 than there were in 1886. The num- 
ber of marriages was 183 more than in 1887, and 272 more than in 
1886. The deaths in 1888 exceeded in number those in 1887 by 254, 
and the number in 1886 by 745. 



1888.] 



RE8U1 I - v \ D OBSERVATIONS. 



>j 



^ 






"a 



< 



.—i u 



r- 



< 



*8 



=3 












BO 






"9881 'mnroa mao 
taqjJiji 



s r i s T i « i 



383 £ 



r 



_ _ _ 

.- ii — -.> ?> ia 



oos x> t- 



} ' ? CO 

«0 T 



,-• — ~ .- 0« — V 



'C -. — / 









— . -j: .- — r. 

- — -• •- 






C!C) O 



•-■co co t- 



§00 O 0> 
1- 71 tC 
— 00 



/ •_- — r 

— — — . oJ 

.-1 O* 



— . co - o» 

t< -i - — 

— cv 



St- — i 
■ 



t- — — ^ 

oj i- c- 5 



fc 




- 








'A 


^ - 


> 




n 


K 
X 





- 


< 


r- 







■ - r X i- — 
oa to. i- 



i- v *- s 
PQA? pq 



5 5: s 

- as 



~ 



> «B i - i - X 

— •- -z ~.t 



- ■- r — C! 

— —C r- 






c? no m m — c o> 






tr <-.*>■?- — £ 



m oj t- «o t- cc 



— — o» -r o» in co 

— TO— tX 



ct«ae 

" — c* -x 



co co ■:<• oj <- 



- to — "O 



cs no t r: uo r- T 
— — o> o» oi -.o 



— Dot-eoei 



E 

;f -~ 

3 £ 2 o g £ 

lis 



72 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



•9881 'surBaa J3AO 
sqi.ng jo seooxg 



tT CO lO co co i i-i os o I »-Oi 



7 i — 



o? o *- o> ^- ?:o«m^'iOT)'iOio , t 



• "ri i-i i-it)I 



M OS i-i O CO OS OS CO 00 

o i-i — o i-i so in c* -* 



io o o co co as c* co c> co co o os t- t 
i-oijioscocot---i«p:iouiio«^i 



OCOOiOHJitOOO"-Dt-)OOWC*WC* 
C-OCGOCSO«COC*'-i-«COl-»noO*i- 



■-1 — lOOOJ 



CO OS t-o 



io ** co co os o — »n os io -* it cr o> -r 

I- O t - •— CI CO OS CO i-i CO CO CO t- CO O 



inosooio^t— imcosoomwcof ci 

CCOinOCUCOCGCGi-iCOiOCOlOOJGO 



OS acos t- 

i-i .-. i-iCO 



■^ I- co O ; iro 00 



CO XI OS 



c 
o 

o 



Ed 

(J 
m 



»ncot-!D *-* to *o- c* © ** tp co t- 



H COCO ri 



eowt-OH c* <-• e* •-; 90 *n i~« x> 



!-• COO* " 



W C* rf ^) i-i <- CO r-i C* in ** TO O* CO 



i-t ©*<?* i-i 



cowmWHHKio ri m cj to •"> *]« 



i-< WO r-. 



CO r-« :C -* i-i C* C* 'X> CJ Q ^- V 1-4 O 






C* 00 "^ • CO IO CO T 



C# OS©> W 



0» C*i->05 



coaiooo c* 

0*TO r-t^ t- 



0'»CO«50:(Nt''NiOOCCMTfTOiO 

cctOt-r^'V^ccoo'ririOTrco 



ai'fr^owoooooni'O- 

Oiioxicoc*Tr^r:cot-c<^*oco'^' 

*-• i-. t-. r-i o oa *n 



o to - oo w in in t :» in in x in » cj 



co oo to t— ■>-* •-* t- c; >-« 

TP i-. tP M CC i- C> *-< 



O* CCTOO 



T* i-^ i-i ■" 



TO030NCNN- CO ^- © SO (*- <£> "* 



O i-i^- IO 



& 




o 








99 


W 


> 




q 


H 






Q 

< 


w 


X 


o 



m-f'^Tpr-a:©— "t t n o a; «t» I to »£ w ^ 
*-• to t- if: •-• to l- © c* t~ o »n -,o ;o tT" , cs Oi C* »n 



S i Si 

•r O— o 
■to S3 *" 

S Sifi * 



SS5 Q . 

> *^ u a> 

OP J) O ■*3~* 

t. - 3 a — o 



c» — co j- — . 



CO t- 0! CO i-i 



- 

s is 

c a 



C -y - - 

S PES c >. 



» £ 






£ t-' .9 m - _ S s 



18S8.] RESULTS AXD OBSERVATIONS. 73 

The variations in the number of births, marriages and deaths, in 
the different towns and in the same town, during each of the five 
years from 1884 to 1888, may be readily seen in Table XIII. 

In some towns it will be remarked that the proportional number 
of births is larger. This is particularly the case where there are 
manufacturing villages, and in cities. The births in Bristol county 
have somewhat diminished during the last half decade; increased in 
Kent, but remaining nearly the same in Newport county. The city 
of Newport gives between 500 and (J00 births for each of the past live 
years. In 1887 the number was considerably more than the average. 
Providence county shows a gradual increase; Providence city little or 
DO variation until 1888; there was a falling off in Washington county 
during the last four years. 

In regard to the number of marriages, for the year 1888, similar 
variations have occurred. In Bristol and .Newport counties the gen- 
eral average has been preserved. In Kent, Washington and Providence 
counties there has been a gradual increase. In the cities of Providence, 
W'oonsocket and Pawtucket there was a gradually increasing number 
«>f marriages since 1884; iu Newport city, on the other hand, a dimi- 
nution since 1885. The number of marriages in Providence city, for 
lss:5, was 1,777. This number has not siuce been reached by several 
hundred. 

Bristol county shows nearly twenty-five per cent, more deaths than 
the average for the last five years. The other counties give a propor- 
tionate larger number. The mortality of the State has increased from 
two to three per cent, thus keeping pace with the growth of the pop- 
ulation. 



74 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



Table XIV. 

Births, Marriages and Deaths in Rhode Island, in 1888, toith the 

number of each in every 1,000 of the Population of each 

Town, and the Excess of the Births over the Dent Its 

in every 1,000 of the Population. 





TOWNS AND DIVISIONS 
OF THE STATE. 


c 
o 

5. 




s 


o 
o . 

.2 

'"-% 

2 z 

~- 

s 


to 
§ 

5 


u 
"| 

~ ~ ~ 

/. c - 
§1 

0) — 

17.1 
7.7 
17.7 


£ 

o 
P 


o 

o 

5.1 

— 5 

ei, 

s 

a> 

Q 


JO 




1,400 
6,000 
4,400 


27 
100 

87 


19.3 
16.7 

19 S 


12 
23 
39 

74 

33 

26 

4 

126 

189 

3 
5 

5 
125 
14 
10 
22 

184 

55 
34 
77 
67 
9 
10 
33 

155 
3 
25 

300 

1,349 

40 

30 

174 


20 
127 

104 


14.3 
21.2 
23.6 


5.0 
—45 
-3 8 


Coventry 

East Greenwich 


11,800 

5,000 

2,800 

850 

14 018 


214 

103 
73 
20 

362 


IS 1 

20.6 
26.1 

2 3 5 
25 8 

24.6 

3.8 
3.8 
24.1 

28.2 
12.2 

11.5 
22 7 


12.5 

18.4 

18 5 

9.4 

n 9 

16 7 

11 5 
9.4 
8.3 

11.7 

21.4 
10 
15.1 

12.2 

20.4 
13.6 
21.2 
]7.2 
12.9 
9.5 
7.3 
15 5 
3.9 
15.8 
23 5 
21.6 
22.2 
12.0 
17.4 


251 

SI 

69 

14 

244 


21.3 

16.2 
24.6 

16.5 
17.4 


-3.2 

4.4 

15 
70 




8.4 


Little Compton 


22,668 

520 
1,050 
1,205 

21.266 
1,312 

2.000 
2,775 


558 

2 
4 

29 
599 
16 
23 
63 


ins 

8 

13 

22 

319 

21 
24 
51 


18.4 

15.4 

12.4 
18.3 
15.0 
16.0 
12 4 
18.3 


6.8 

—11.6 

-8.6 

5.8 


Newport City 

New Shoreham 

Tiverton 


13 2 

-:i.8 

-0 9 

4.4 




30,128 

5,400 
5,000 
7,263 

7,800 
1,390 
2,100 
8.500 

20,000 
1,550 
3,160 

25,500 

125.000 

3,600 

2,500 

20,000 

238,763 

1,050 

1,050 
2,767 
1,000 
3,870 
4,600 
1,800 
6,800 


736 

130 

142 

208 

175 

19 

42 

197 

602 

35 

60 

648 

3,053 

54 

43 

535 


24.4 

24.1 
28.4 
29.6 
22.4 
13.7 
20.0 
23.2 
30.1 
22.6 
18.1 
25.0 
24 4 
15.0 
17.2 
26.8 


458 

123 

100 

177 

120 

19 

39 

161 

434 

38 

42 

557 

2,644 

55 

53 

442 


18.1 

22 8 
20.0 
24.4 
15.4 
13.7 
18.6 
18.9 
21.7 
24.5 
13.3 
21.8 
21.0 
15.3 
212 
22.1 


6.3 




1.3 


Cranston 

Cumberland 


84 
5.2 
70 


Foster 

Lincoln 




1 4 

4.3 
8.4 

1.9 


North Smithfleld 


4.8 




3.2 


Scituate 

Smithfleld 

Woonsocket 


3.4 
-0 3 
—4.0 

4.7 


Providence Countt 


5,943 

8 
13 
49 

21 
81 
77 
29 
111 


24.9 

7.6 
12.4 
17.7 
21.0 
20 9 
16 7 
16 1 
16 3 


2,361 

6 
18 
31 

8 
27 
45 

6 
73 


19.8 

11.4 

342 
22.4 
16 
13.9 
19.6 
6.7 
21.5 


5,004 

19 
11 
50 
16 
69 
59 
26 
118 


21.0 

18 1 
10 5 
18.1 
16 
17.5 
12.8 
14.4 
17.4 


3 9 
—10 5 


Exeter 

Hopkinton 


1.9 

-0.4 

5.0 


North Kingstown 


3.4 
39 


Richmond 


1.7 
—1.1 








22,937 
1,400 

323,416 


389 


16.9 


214 


18.7 


368 
105 

6,594 


16.0 
75.0 

20.4 


0.9 


Whole State 


7,840 


242 


3,022 


18.7 


3.8 







* Estimated. 



1888.] 



RESULTS AND OBSERVATIONS. 



75 



births. Proportion to Population. 

The varying proportions of births, marriages and deaths, to the 
population in the different towns, will scarcely fail to be noticed. 
The proportions of the births are almost as various as the marriages, 
ranging from 3.8 in every 1,000 of the population, in Jamestown and 
Little Compton, to 30 in every 1,000, in Lincoln. It will be seen 
that the larger the population the more uniform, as a rule, will be 
the proportion to the population. 

Of the towns having the largest birth rates are Lincoln, with 30 in 
every 1,000 of the population, and Cumberland, with 29.6; followed 
by Newport city and Cranston, in very nearly the same ratio. 

Following Jamestown and Little Compton, in the dimiuutivenets 
of the birth rates, are Charlestown, with 7.6 in every 1,000 of pop- 
ulation; Portsmouth, with 11.5; New Shoreham, with 12.2 j and 
Exeter, with 12A in every 1,000. 

In 60 per cent, of the towns the birth rate was 20 or moie in every 
1,000, and in nearly one-fourth of the remaining 40 per cent, the rate 
was 16 or more in every 1,000. 

The proportions of births to population in all the oounties entire, 
ami in the cities of Providence, Pawtucket, Newport, Woonsocket, 
and the whole State, during the last five years, are as follows : 



Bristol Conuty ... . 

Kent Couuty. 

Newport County 

Newport < ity 

Providence County. 

Pawtucket City. 

Providence City 

Woonsocket 

Washington Connty 
Whole State 



1888. 

18.1.... 
.M.6 ... 
.24.4... 
.88 2 ... 

34.9.... 

25.0.... 

244... 

.16.9... 
24.2 .... 



1887. 
.19.6... 
.23.0 .. 

20.0* . 
.30.9... 
.25.0+.. 
.25.0... 
.24.3 .. 
.28.5 .. 

ao.4 . 

24 2 . 



1886. 1885. 

.20.9 184.. 

..22.8 20.9 . 

. . .18.9*... .18,1* 
.29.3 27.0. 



1884. 
.22.9. 
.23.3.. 
.19.0* 
.29.2. 



.27.2+... .22.9+ 23.8+ births in e 

.22.5 23.1 24.3.. 

. M.7 24 8 25.1.. 

..27.5 

.20.3 



births in every 1,000. 
births in every 1,000. 
births in every 1,000. 
births in every 1,000. 



every 1,00P. 

births in every 1,000. 

. births in every 1,000. 

births in every 1,000. 

.18.5 births in every 1,000. 

. .24.5 23.1 24.0 births in every 1,000. 



..188 



persons harried. Proportion to Population. 



The proportion to the population, of persons married, ban be more 
correctly shown in counties, or in cities and aggregates of towns, 

rather than in the smaller towns. 

The following summary will present the proportions in the manner 
suggested, for the last four years : 



* Nr,\iiort county towns. 
+ Providence county towns. 



76 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



Bristol County 12.5... 

Kent County 16.7 . . . 

Newport County 12.9 ... 

Newport City 11.7 

Providence County 19.8 

Pawtucket 23.5.... 

Providence City 21.6. . . . 

Woonsocket 17.4 

Washington County 18.7 

Entire State 18.7 



1887. 1886. 1885. 

.12.8 13.6 12 2 persons married in every 1,000. 

.16.8 16.9 15.5 persons married in every 1,000. 

.118 .. ..11.6 .. 9.9 persons married in every 1,000. 

.12.0 13.1 15 persons married in every 1,000. 

.15.4* 15.9* 15 6* persons married in every 1,000. 

.24.6 20.0 22.3 persons married in every 1,000. 

.21.0 20.8 18.5 persons married in every 1,000. 

.17.2 16.1 persons married in every 1,000. 

.16.6 15.9 15.1 persons married in every 1,000. 

.18.0 17.7 16.3 persons married in every 1,000. 



deaths. Projjortioii to Population. 

The town having the largest death-rate in 1888 was East Greenwich, 
with 24.6 in every 1,000 of population. 

The towns following in the order of the largest death-rate are Cum- 
berland, North Providence and Warren, with the proportions of 24.4, 
24.5 and 23.6, respectively, in every 1,000 of population. 

The death-rate was smallest in the town of Exeter, with 10.5 in 
every 1,000; in the towns of Little Compton and Portsmouth with 
12.4; and South Kingstown, with 12.8 in every 1,000 

Below may be found a summary of the ratios of mortality, in the 
cities and larger divisions of the State, and the whole State, for 1885, 
1886, 1887 and 1888 : 





1888. 


1887. 


1886. 


1885. 






213... 


...18.2... 


...19.2... 


...16.3... 


. . .in every 1,000 of the population 


Kent County 


.18.4... 


...15.5... 


...17.5... 


...16.4... 


. . .in every 1,000 of the population 


Towns, Newport County. 


.18.1... 


...14.6. . 


..14.7.. 


..16.5... 


. . .in every 1,000 of the population 


City of Newport 


.15.0... 


..15.3... 


..15,1... 


..13.6... 


. .in every 1,000 of the population 


Newport County . 


.18.0... 


...15.2... 


...15.0... 


...14.5... 


. . in every 1,000 of the population 


Towns, Providence County 


.20.0... 


...19.3... 


...18.8... 


...18.1... 


. . .in every 1,000 of the population 


Pawtucket 


.21.8... 


...22.3... 


...19.0... 


...190 


in every 1,000 of the population 


City of Providence 


.21.0... 


...21.6... 


...19.6... 


...18.3... 


. ..in every 1,000 of the population 


Woonsocket 


.22.1... 


...23.4... 


...19.5... 




.. .in every 1,000 of the population 


Providence County 


.21.0... 


...21.0 .. 


...19.2... 


...18.3... 


. . in every 1,000 of the population 


Washington County 


.16.0... 


...15.5... 


...15.0... 


...14.1... 


. . in every 1,000 of the population 


Whole State 


.20.4... 


...19.9... 


...18.8... 


...17.7 .. 


. . .in every 1,000 of the population. 



The death rate was larger in Bristol county, in 1888, than in the 
previous year, by more than 3 in every 1,000; was larger in Kent 
county by nearly 3 in every 1,000 ; was larger in Newport county by 



* County towns. 



1888.] 



RESULTS AND OBSERVATIONS. 



77 



2.8 per 1,000 of population ; was smaller in Newport city, Providence 
city, Pawtucket and Woonsocket, by proportions not exceeding one 
per 1,000 ; was the same rate in Providence county entire, and greater 
in Washington county and the whole State by about one-half one per 
1,000 of population. 

A comparative exhibit of the relative proportions of the births, 
marriages and deaths in the different counties and larger towns, dur- 
ing the last four years, may be found in the following summary : 



Brif-Iol County 

Kent County 

Newport County 

Newport City 

Providence County*. . 
City of Pawtacket. . . 
city of Providence 
Washington County. . 
Entire State 



BirthB 
per 1,000 
of population. 
1888. 1887. 1886. 1885. 
..18.1. .19.6. .209. .18.4. 
..84.6.. 28.0.. 22.8.. 80.9 
..94 4. 400.0.. 18.9.. 18.1. 
. 28.1.. 30.9 .39.8.. 87.0. 
..86.4.. 25.0.. 87 2.. 22.9. 
..86.4. 86.0.. 22.5.. 33.1. 
. 84.4.. 84.8.. 84.7.. 84.8 
..16.1. .80.4. .20.8. .18.8. 
.84.8.. 84.8.. 84.6.. 88.1. 



Marri 
I'ersons married 

per 1,000 

of population. 

1888. 1887. 1886. 1885. 

.18.6. .12.8. .18 6. .12.2... 

.16.7. .16.8. .169. .155 .. 

12.8 .11.8. .11.6.. 9.9. . 

.11.7. 12.0. .13.1. .15.0... 

.18.0.. 16 4. .16.9. .15.6.. 

.88.6. .24.6.. 20.0. 88.8 .. 

.81.6.. 21.0.. 20.8.. 18.5.. . 

.18.7. 16.6. .15.9. .15.1... 

.18.7 18.0. . 17.7.. 16.3 .. 



Deaths 

per 1,000 

of population. 

1888. 1887. 1886. 1885 

...81.8. .18.8. .19.3. .16.8 

. .184. .155. .175. .16.4 

..18.0. .14.6. .14.7. .16.6 

...15.0. .15.3. .15.1. .13.6 

...20.0. .19.8.. 18.8.. 18.1 

81.8. 88.8.. 19.0.. 19.0 

.. 21.0. .81 o.. 19.6. .18.3 

...16.0. .15.5. .15.0. .14.1 

..20.4.. 19.9.. 18. B .17.1 



* Including city of Woonsocket. 



78 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



Table XV. 

Showing the Proportions of Births, Marriages and Deaths to the Pop- 
ulation, in the Aggregate for the whole State, in 
each of the last twenty years. 





BIRTHS. 


MARRIAGES. 


DEATHS. 


YEARS. 


Number. 


Of popula- 
tion one 
birih in 
every 


Number. 


Of popula- 
tion one 
person mar- 
ried in 
every 


Number. 
» 


Of popula- 
tion one 
death in 
every 


Deaths in 
every 1,000 
of the popu- 
lation. 


1869 


5,245 
5,215 
5,678 
6,143 
6,022 
6,466 
6,508 
6,329 
6,235 
6,714 
6,350 
6,295 
6,761 
6,825 
7,046 
7,305 
7,028 
7,621 
7,668 
7,840 


41.4 
41.7 
38.2 
35.4 
36.1 
39.9 
39.7 
40.8 
41.4 
38.5 
43.6 
43.9 
40.9 
40.5 
39.2 
41.7 
43.3 
40.8 
41.3 
41.1 


2,289 
2,362 
2,336 
2,537 
2,630 
2,541 
2,485 
2,253 
2,282 
2,324 
2,396 
2,769 
2,750 
2,634 
2,611 
2,558 
2,488 
2,750 
2,839 
3,022 


47.5 
46.0 
46.5 
42.9 
41.3 
50.8 
52.0 
57.3 
56.6 
55.7 
57.8 
49.9 
50.3 
52.5 
52.9 
59.4 
61.1 
56.5 
55.8 
53.5 


3,382 
3,238 
3,444 
4,247 
4,403 
4,229 
4,317 
4,116 
4,450 
4,441 
4,472 
4,829 
5,016 
5,074 
5,282 
5,141 
5,389 
5,849 
6,340 
6,594 


64.2 
67.1 
65.0 
51.2 
49.4 
61.1 
59.8 
62.7 
58.0 
58.1 
61.9 
57.3 
55.1 
54.5 
52.4 
59.2 
. 56.4 
53.2 
50.0 
50.0 


15.6 


1870 


14.9 


1871 


15.4 


1872 


19.5 


1873 


20.3 


1874 


16.4 


1875 


16.7 


1876 

1877 


15.9 
17.2 


1878 


17.2 


1879 


16.0 


1880 


17.5 


1881 


18.1 


1882 


18.3 


1883 


19.1 


1884 


16.1 


1885 


17.7 


1886 


18.8 


1887 


19.9 


1888 


20.4 










THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



y. 



i 



p % 



^> 








S 


3 


2f 




« 


s 


cu 






s 


w 




s 


Q 


* 










i 




2 




"*■* 


rf? 


a 




rtj 















M 


«j 







- 


K 


13 
53 


a 


"•1 




a 











a 


~M 


8 


5 




fl 


.5 


'.3 


a 


>> 


2 


■■j 




"3 


X, 





•"1 


s 


5 


K) 


8- 








B, 


,g 






» ■= .3 



V. 




















































1 



II 









I 

I 



X 
o 

8" 

S« 

5 a 

» %. 

£ § 

o 
H 



>, © 1m Jd O 



a O 



© 2 £> 



a * 



o o 



3 a 
— 2 



1^ 



s 5 



a 3 k ? 



k. w ^ ~ •- ^ o — . ,M » 



1 3 

= a 






MIRTHS. 


















— - 










































a 
























-; 








— 




c 




- 












= 




= 


















C 
















B 






~ _= 




z ~z 






- <. 



•J -z 






















3 










































s 















































































































































BIRTHS, 1888. 



The general statistics of births in Ehode Island, during the year 
1888, derived from the returns sent to this office, may be found on 
pages 2 to 6, inclusive, in Tables I, II and III. 

The whole number reported is 7,840, as before stated, and is 172 
mare than the number in 1887. 

SEX OF THE CHILDREN BORN. 

Of the 7,840 children whose births wore reported in 1888, there 
were 4,023 males and 3,817 females. This gives 105.4 males to each 
100 females, or 513.1 males and 48G.9 females in each 1,000 children. 

The following Table shows the numbers and Bex, and the propor- 
tions of each sex of the children born in Rhode Island, in each of the 
last thirty-five years : 

Table XVI. 





i 
1 86 1 


Mali a 


Females. 


Males t 
100 Pel 


d each 

null's. 

in- 


I', i 1,000 Births 
ii:i li-s. 

518 7 and 181 8 


1860 


1.479 

2.057 

8,868 

1,899 

1,049 


1,948 

2.2 1 2 


105.0, 

105 8 

109 8, 


512.2 and Bl 8 

519 6 and 487 5 


18M 

18. r >8 


or 

or 


518 6 ai 

517.8 and 1-2.7 

513 and 187 


I860 








2,291 .... 

1 ,912 


110 5, 

109 I. 

100.8, 


584 '.i and 176 l 


1868 

IBM 


or 

or 

or 


511.1 in 


1865 

1867 

1868 


9,096 

9,666 

9,745 

9,878 


1,867 

2.4(54 .. . 

9,687 


119 9, 

108 0, 

107.0. 

104.6, 

104 9, 


580.9 and 169.8 

519.4 and 180 t; 

518.7 and IM.M 




or . . . 

or .. ... 

or 


."ii i.g and 188 l 




1H71 


9,800 


102 K. 


ind 193 l 


1871 






100.9, 


502 2 am! 1!(7 8 








108 8 






8 165 


104 9, 




518 i and 187 9 










108.8, 


or 

or , 

or 

or 


516.6 b 






. 8 088 


■ .I 180.0 








108.0, 

102.7, 








508.7 and 498.8 

; -.' and 186 8 


1879 






1880 






106.8, 
























108 t. 






















104.6, 

HC2, 








3.700 






1888 


4,088 


3,817 


105.4, 















84 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



An examination of Table XVI will show the continued usual pre- 
ponderance in the births of males. This disproportion, however, 
lessens as the two sexes approach adult life, where they are about 
equal in number. More male children die under five years of age 
than female. Tin's peculiar susceptibility of male children to mor- 
tality from infantile diseases is too well known to need further illus- 
tration. 

PROPORTION" OF THE SEXES. • 

In Table II, on pages 4 and 5, will be found the number of children 
born in the different divisions of the State during the year 1888, to- 
gether with the number of each sex. 

The following Table will give more concisely the whole number of 
children born, arranged according to sex and locality, and the pro- 
portion of male children to every 100 female children : 

Table XVII. 



BIRTHS, 1888. 


OS- 
'S c 

«<5 


M o 
o 


■o 2 

£ ~ 
o o 


o 

o . 
p >> 

V — 

T3 - 


c 
o . 

"x 5 

COO 

i 


Is 


M 

a 
t 

Cm 


o 


o 

a 
o 
o 

* 


d 
ca 
X 


o 




10G 
108 


286 
272 


377 
359 


3,050 
2,893 


204 
185 


301 
298 


340 
308 


1,581 
1,472 


281 
254 


4,023 




3,817 






Total 


214 
98.1 


558 
105.1 


736 
105.0 


5,943 
105.4 


389 
110.0 


599 
101.0 


648 
110.5 


3,053 
107.4 


535 
110.0 


7,840 


Males to each 100 females 


105.4 



There was a very slight excess of female births in Bristol couuty, 
in 1888, a proportion of about two per cent. In a series of twenty- 
six years Bristol county has, in the aggregate, had a larger proportion 
of male births than any other division of the State. 

In Kent county the proportion of male births was much smaller 
than in the preceding year, but varying only slightly from the average 
of twenty-five years. 

In Newport county there was a falling off in the preponderance of 
the male births, of about one per cent. 

The proportions of the sexes of the children born in Providence 
county outside of Providence city, and in Providence city, varied but 
little in 1888 from those of the last previous year. 

In Washington county there was an increase of male births over the 
preceding year of about four per cent., and in the whole State a de- 
crease of about two per cent, in the proportion of male in excess of 
female births. 



1888.] 



BIRTHS. 



85 



The following Table exhibits the proportions, with births of both 
sexes, for the past twenty-six years, in the larger divisions of the 
State and in the whole State : 

Table XVIII. 

Number or Males to each 100 Females. 



BIRTHS. 


3-£ 

So 


c a 

- 3 

O 


If 


hi 

1*1 


a 
5 

e 

is 


a 

c = 
■£ o 


2 

3 

DO 

a 
o 


1863 


120.0 
106.8 
119.3 


98.4 
87.3 
118.2 


97.0 
90.6 
108.8 


101.8 
107.4 
118.8 


111.4 
97.3 
113.8 


108.7 
103.4 
88.1 


105.8 


1864 


100.3 


1865 


112.9 


1866 


109.4 
115.5 
117.4 
115.7 
126.4 
181.8 
109.2 
129.2 


113.1 
98.3 

ss.r 

116.7 

111.0 
97.9 
92.8 

113.0 


103.4 
117.8 
100.2 
102.7 
100.0 
132.5 
109.1 
117.9 


104.9 
106.3 
101.6 
98.0 
105.1 
100.8 
103.5 
104.5 


108.4 
104.5 
102.4 
107.5 
104.9 
93.2 
95.7 
109.0 


124.0 
120.4 
136.5 
120.6 
99.5 
113.3 
110.6 
104.7 


108.0 


1867 


107.7 


1868 


104 5 


1869 


104.9 


1870 


105.6 


1871 


102.8 


1872 


100.9 


1873 


108.6 


1874 


98.7 


111.9 


101.3 


110.4 


102.9 


94.0 


104.9 


1875 


95.2 


103.1 


97.7 


104.3 


109.1 


134.3 


106.9 


1876 


142.1 


104.4 


108.5 


108.0 


106.8 


103.7 


108.3 


1877 


138.7 


102.4 


98.5 


100.3 


104.9 


95.3 


103.0 


1878 


120.5 
124.3 
117.2 


120.6 
95.5 
110.6 


94.8 
108.6 
113.0 


101.5 
105.4 
102.4 


106.8 
105.7 
107.6 


78.8 
106.3 
95.4 


102.7 


1879 


105.4 


1880 


106.1 


1881 


91.2 


111.3 


102.0 


105.9 


109.0 


115.7 


107.2 


1882 


94.7 


110.2 


112.5 


103.1 


106.5 


105.7 


105.8 


1883 


94.0 


97.0 


97.0 


103.5 


108.8 


102.2 


101.4 


1884 


105.0 


111.7 


9S.9 


102.5 


105.8 


99.0 


103.4 


1885 


132.2 


107.3 


98.0 


104.8 


103.6 


104.3 


104.4 


1886 


120.0 


81.7 


102.6 


106.7 


105.0 


121.7 


104.6 


1887 


115.1 


121.7 


106.6 


103.9 


107.9 


106.7 




1888 


98.1 


105.1 


105.0 


108.4 


107.4 


110.2 


105.4 



The following summary will show the average number of males to 
each 100 females, born during thu twenty-six years from 1863 to 
1888, in the different divisions of the State : 



Including cities of Pawtncket and Woonso* u. i. 

11 



86 THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1888. 

Bristol County 114.5 males to each 100 females. 

Kent County 105.4 males to each 100 females . 

Newport County 105.1 males to each 100 females. 

Providence County Towns 104.8 males to each 100 females. 

Providence City 105.4 males to each 100 females. 

Washington County 106.7 males to each 100 females. 

Whole State 104.8 males to each 100 females. 

BIRTHS AND SEASON. 

Table II, on pages 4 and 5 of this report, gives the number of 
births occurring in the different months of the year, in the several 
divisions of the State. 

According to this Table, the greatest number of births in any one 
month in 1888 occurred in October, and the largest in any quarter in 
the third ; a fact not invariably observed in this part of the year. 

The following Table shows the total number of children born in 
the State of Rhode Island, according to the returns, in each quarter 
of each of the last six years ; and also the aggregate number and the 
percentage of the aggregate of each quarter in thirty-five years, from 
1854 to 1888, inclusive : 

Table XIX. 





1888. 


1887. 


1886. 


1885. 


1884. 


1883. 


1854 to 1887, inclusive. 


QUARTERS. 


Number. 


Per cent. 




1,862 
1,833 
2,084 
2,061 


1,828 
1,859 
1,956 
2,025 


1,763 
1,749 
2,041 
2,068 


1,669 
1,736 
1,768 
1,855 


1,734 
1,755 
1,868 
1,948 


1,641 
1,668 
1,893 
1,844 


45,560 
45,491 
50,306 
51,227 


23.66 




23.62 




26.13 
26.60 


Whole Year 


7,840 


7,668 


7,621 


7,028 


7,305 


7,046 


192,584 


100.00 







By the above Table it will be seen that, according to the registra- 
tion of thirty-five years, the average proportions of births to the whole 
number of births, in the different quarters of the year, were as follows : 

January— March 236.6 in every 1,000 births. 

April— June 236.2 in every 1,000 births. 

July— September 261.2 in every 1,000 births. 

October— December 266.0 in every 1,000 births. 

The proportions of births in Rhode Island, in the different quarters 
of the year, to the whole number of births in 1888, were as follows : 



1888.] 



BIRTHS. 



87 



1. January— March 23.7 per cent., or 237 in every 1,000 

2. April -June 23.4 per cent., or 234 in every 1,000 

3. July- September 26.6 percent., or 266 in every 1,000 

4. October— December 26.3 per cent., or 268 In every I.OOq 

100.0 1,000 

First six mouths 471 births in every one thousand. 

Second six months 529 birtlu in every one thousand. 



BIRTHS; SEX AND SEASON". 

In Table II, on pages 4 and 5, will also be found tbe number of 
births of each sex by months, as they occurred in the different divi. 
Bions of the State, during the year 1888. From it we ascertain the 
number of each of the sexes born during each quarter of the year, 
with their relative proportions, and also the aggregates and propor- 
tions of the same for the whole State. 

The following Table will present a summary of the quarterly periods, 
number of births and proportions of the sexes, for the same year : 

Per 1,000, 
Males to each each quarter. 

Males. Females. 100 Females. Males. Females. 

1. January— March 946 916 103.3, or 508 492 

2. April— June 956 877 109.0, or 528 478 



3. July— September 1,075 1,009 106.6, or 516 484 

4. October— December ....1,046 1,015 103.1, or 508 492 



Whole year, 1888 4,023 3,817 105.4, or 513. 



.487 



The following Table shows the number of male children born to 

every 100 female children, in each quarter of the last four years; and 

also the proportion of births of male children to each 100 female 

children born, daring four periods of five years each, from 1866 to 

5, inclusive : 

Table XX. 





FEARS. 


1888. 


1887. 


1886. 


1885. 


5 years, 
1881-1885. 


5 years, 
1876-1880. 


5 years. 

1871-1875. 


5 years. 
1866-1870. 


i irtei 


103.3 
109.0 
106.5 
108.1 


100.2 


103.8 


113.2 


105.8 
104.8 
105.1 
102.5 


106.0 
102.7 
107.1 
108.2 


101.5 
104.7 
104.8 
106.5 


106.7 




110.3 103.8 107.1 


107.3 




108.8 
109.6 


103.5 06 I 
107.8 100.1 


106.0 




104.8 




105.4 


107.2 


104.6 104.4 


104.5 


106.2 


104.2 


106.2 











THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



For the purpose of further comparison, the following summary will 
show the proportions of the sexes born in the State in each quarter of 
the year, in the aggregate of a period of twenty years : 

Males to each 

100 Females. Male9. Females. 

1. Jannary— March 105.0,or 512.2 and 487.8 in every 1,000 births. 

2. April— June 104.9, or 511.9 and 488.1 in every 1,000 births. 

3. July— September 105.7, or 513.9 and 486.1 in every 1,000 births. 

4. October— December 105.5, or 513.4 and 486.6 in every 1,000 births. 

Whole number, 20 years 105.3, or 513.0 and 487.0 in every 1,000 births. 

That the season of the year has any considerable influence in the 
causation of sex, seems to be negatived by the statistics presented 
above. 

PARENTAGE. 

By reference to Table 1, page 2, in the division of births there will 
be found the parentage of the children born in Ehode Island, during 
the year 1888. It will be seen that of the whole number — 7,840 — 
there were 3,028 of American parentage, 3,348 foreign, and 1,464 of 
mixed parentage. 

By mixed parentage is meant the children born of American fathers 
and foreign mothers, and of foreign fathers and American mothers. 
Of American fathers there were 721, and of foreign fathers 743. 

The following Table will show the number and parentage of the 
children born in the State, aud the variations of the same from year 
to year, in each of the last three years; and also the number and 
variations occurring in six periods of five years each, from 1858 to 
1887, inclusive : 

Table XXI. 



PARENTAGE. 


1888. 


1887. 


1886. 


5 years, 
1883 to 
1887. 


R 

5 years, 

1878 to 
1882. 


5 years, 
1873 to 
1877. 


5 years, 
1868 to 
1872. 


5 years, 

1863 to 

1867. 


5 years, 

1858 to 

1862. 


American fath. and mo. . 


3,028 


2,935 


3,139 15,001 


14,169 


13,431 


12,214 


9,712 


10,609 


Foreign fath. and mo 


3,348 3,315 


3,155 15,245 


13,562 


13,990 


12,366 


9,968 


9,697 


American fath., for. mo.. . 


721 ; 672 


652 3,044 


2,327 


1,782 


1,353 


876 


814 


Foreign fath., Amer. mo.. 


743 746 


675 


3,378 


2,887 


2,357 


1,720 


941 


755 


















70 


223 




















Total 


7,840 


7,668 


7,621 


36,668 


34,945 


31,560 


27,653 


21,567 


22,098 



1888.] 



HIRTIIS. 



89 



The following Table of percentages will show, in a different and 
perhaps clearer way, the same changes that have occurred in the pro- 
portions of the births in the different classes of parentage during the 
last three years ; and during thirty years, from 1858 to 1887, inclusive, 
in six equal periods : 

Table XXII. 



PARENTAGE. 


1888. 


1887. 


1886. 


5 years, 


6 years, 
1882. 


1873 to 


is", -j. 


1888 to 

1867. 


1869. 


American fath. and mo... 


88.62 




41.19 


40.01 


43.03 


42.55 


11.17 


45.18 


48.50 


Foreign fath. and mo 


B.70 




41.40 


41.58 


41.23 


44.35 


44.73 


46.87 


44.33 


American fath., for. mo.. . 


9.20 


8.76 


8.55 


8.80 


6.95 


5.84 


4.89 


4.07 


3.72 


ForeigD lath., Amcr. mo.. 


9.48 


9.73 


8.86 


9.21 


8.79 


7.26 


6.22 


4.38 


3.45 


Total 


100.00 


100 00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100 00 







An examination of Table XXI will show that there has been a con- 
stant increase in the number of children of foreign parentage. The 
same may be said relative to the offspring of mixed marriages. More 
than fio per cent, of the children born in this State during 1888 were 
of foreign and mixed parentage. 

The following Table will present the percentages of children of 
American and of foreign-born fathers, and of American and foreign- 
born mothers, respectively, in each of the last three years, and in 
each of six periods of five years each, from 1858 to 1887, inclusive : 

Table XXIII. 



CHILDREN WITH 


1888. 


1887. 


1886. 


5 years, 
1888 to 
1887. 


6 vears. 
1878 i" 
1882. 


:> roam, 
1873 lo 

1877. 


6 years, 
1878. 


1867. 


5 years, 
1868 i" 


American fathers 




47.04 


49.74 
50.86 

50.05 
49.96 


49.21 

51.79 

48.91 

50.09 


50.08 
48.98 

51.79 
48.21 


48.40 
51.00 

49.80 
50.20 


49.06 
50.94 

50.39 
49.61 


49.25 
50.75 

49.56 
50.44 


52 89 


Foreign fathers 


52.18 .V2.!ifi 




American mothers 


48.10 
51.90 


18.01 

51.99 


51.95 
is 06 











The above Table gives the percentages of increase in the number 
of births of both foreign and mixed parentage. The same slnry is 
told here as in Tables XXI and XXII, a gradual falling oil' in the 



90 THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1888. 

birth of children of purely American parentage. There are more 
foreign mothers married to American fathers than American born 
mothers intermarrying with fathers of foreign parentage. For a 
fuller discussion of this subject, see the Reports upon the Registration 
of births, marriages and deaths in Rhode Island, for 1885-6. It may 
be added, however, that the following are some of the results arrived 
at : 

For every 1,000 married women of all nativities there were 13.2 
births ; for every 1,000 in the class of American birth (whether of 
foreign parentage or not) there were in that class 15.1 births ; and for 
every 1,000 in the class of foreign born there were 23.3 births. 

Of the American married females, 998 were colored. 

BIRTHS OF COLORED CHILDREN. 

The number of births of children of colored parentage reported for 
the year 1888 is 202. The number is 9 less than that of 1887. 

In regard to sex, the numbers and proportions were as follows, viz.: 
Males 109, females 93; or 53.5 males and 46.5 females in every 100 
births; or 117.2 males to each 100 females. 

The following summary will show the changes that have occurred 
from year to year, in the proportions of the sexes of colored children 
born in Rhode Island, during the last thirteen years : 





Whole 






Males to each 


rears. 


Number. 


Males. 


Females. 


100 females. 


187C 


Ill 


64 


107 


59.8 


1877 


168 


86 


82 


104.8 


1878 


172 


79 


93 


85.0 


1879 


159 


84 


75 


113.5 


1880 


140 


75 


65 


115.4 


1881 


192 


101 


91 


111.0 


1882 


179 


76 


103 


73.7 


1883 


197 


100 


97 


, 103.1 


1884 


185 


91 


94 


96.8 


1885 


199 


93 


106 

95 


87.7 


188G 


212 

211 


, 117 

Ill 


123.0 


1887 


100 


111.0 


1888 


202 


109 


93 


117.2 



The following Table will show the location, number, sex, etc., of 
colored births during 1888 : 



1888.] 



BIRTHS. 



91 



Table XXIV. 

Showing Number, Sex, etc., of Colored Births, 1888. 



TOWNS AND CITIE8. 



Bristol 

East Greenwich.. 
Warwick 

Middletown 

Newport City 

Cranston 

K«*t Providence. . 

Johnston 

Lincoln 

North Providence 

Pawtucket 

Bcitnate 

Providence City.. 

Charlestown 

ter 

llopkinton 

North Kingstown 
South Kingstown 
Richmond 

Total 



Whole 






Males. 


Number. 




8 


2 


4 


2 


6 


3 


2 


2 


41 


18 


8 


3 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


122 


64 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 
1 




1 


5 


4 


2 


2 


202 


109 



Females. 



COUNTIES. 



1 Bristol County 3 



Kent County. 



23 Newport County 48 



Providence County. ..188 



Washington County... 13 






NUMBER OF CHILD OF THE MOTHBB. 

The following Table shows the number of the child of the mother : 
that is, how many of the children born were reported as the first, 
second or third child, etc., of their respective mothers. The stal 
on this subject begin with the year 1857, and the following Table 
includes the children reported daring the last six years, and also the 
total for thirty years, 1857 to 1886, inclusive: 



92 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION" REPORT. 

Table XXV. 



[1888. 



Number of the Child of the 
Mother, 



First 

Second 

Third 

Fourth 

Fifth 

Sixth 

Seventh , 

Eighth 

Ninth 

Tenth 

Eleventh 

Twelfth 

Thirteenth 

Fourteenth 

Fifteenth 

Sixteenth 

Seventeenth. .. 

Eighteenth 

Nineteenth 

Twentieth 

Twenty-first. .. 
Twenty-second 

Total 



1883. 


1884. 


1885. 


1886. 


1887. 


1888. 


1,764 


1,847 


1,663 


1,783 


1,853 


1,998 


1,365 


1,356 


1,362 


1,559 


1,483 


1,545 


1,026 


1,087 


1,033 


1,144 


1,146 


1,182 


822 


777 


767 


795 


918 


884 


614 


643 


597 


660 


585 


609 


443 


472 


498 


481 


475 


475 


343 


374 


345 


359 


375 


329 


245 


269 


282 


287 


289 


281 


169 


187 


168 


202 


198 


185 


106 


103 


134 


131 


143 


141 


64 


81 


73 


87 


78 


83 


37 


49 


57 


55 


65 


50 


23 


32 


27 


39 


32 


38 


9 


16 


11 


19 


15 


21 


7 


5 


7 


10 


6 


9 


2 





1 


7 


3 


4 


6 


4 


1 


2 


3 


2 


1 


2 


1 


1 





3 








1 








1 





1 








1 









































7,046 


7,305 


7,028 


7,621 


7,668 


7,840 



30 years, 
1857-1886.' 



40,496 

32,941 

25,747 

19,389 

14,633 

10,704 

7,623 

5,324 

3,521 

2,278 

1,345 

850 

459 

218 

122 

63 

42 

14 

6 

4 

3 



165,784 



The increase in the whole number of births in 1888, over the pre- 
vious year, was 172, or two and two-tenths per cent. The increase of 
population was probably not quite as much. 

The increase in number in the class of first child of the mother was 
nearly nine per cent., while there was a slight increase in the class of 
second, third and fifth child of the mother. 

It is not unusual to find varying proportions from year to year, but 
there seems to be an increased proportional number of mothers who 
have ten or more children. 

The proportion of each class to the whole number will be shown by 
the following Table, which gives the percentage of the children born 



1888.] 



BIBTHS. 



03 



in each of the last five years, who were respectively the first, second, 
third, etc., children of the mothers, and which will also give the 
average percentage of each class of births, during a period of ten 
years, from 1868 to 1877, inclusive, and of five years, 1878 to 1 B 
and from 1883 to 1887, inclusive: 

Table XXVI. 



NlMUER OP THE 

Child. 


1888. 


1887. 


1886. 


1885. 


1884. 


5 years. 
1888 to 

1887. 


5 years, 10 years, 
1878 to 1{ 
1882. f 1877. 


Vimt 


25.49 
19.71 
15.08 
11.28 
7.77 


24.16 
10.84 
14.94 

11.84 
7.C3 


23.40 
20.45 
15.01 
10.43 
8.60 


23.66 
19.38 
14 70 
10.91 
8.49 


25.28 
18.56 
14.88 
10.64 
8.80 


24.30 
19.22 
14.82 
11.06 
8.56 


23.1 
18.7 
16.9 
12.2 
9.1 


25.2 




20.7 


Third 

[fourth 

Firth 


15.5 
11.4 
8.4 






First to Fifth 


20.67 


77.91 
22.09 


77 95 
22.05 


77.14 
22.83 


78.16 
21.84 


77.80 
22.20 


80.0 
20.0 


81.1 




18.9 






Total 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.0 


100.0 







PLURALITY IJIKTHS. 



The general statistics in relation to plural births, in Rhode Island, 
may be found on page 6, in Table III. 

There were sixty-six cases during the year, all of which were twins, 
thus making the number of one hundred and thirty-two children. 

Of the 132 children of plural birth, GO were males, and OG were 
females. 

The cases occurred in the different divisions of the State as follows : 
Bristol county, 3 ; Kent county, 2; Newport county towns, 3; New- 
port city, 8; Providence county towns, 24*; Providence city, 2 1 ; 
Washington county, '.'. 

The following exhibit will show the parentage of children of plu- 
rality birth in Rhode Island, in 1888, and number of each: 

* Including Pawtncket and Woonaocket. 

12 



94 THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1888. 

Parent?, both native Americans, or born in tbe United States. . . 50 

" " born in Ireland 12 

" " " France, or French Canadians 12 

" " " England 12 

" " " Switzerland 2 

" Italy 6 

" " " Western Islands 2 

American father and Irish mother 10 

American father and English mother 4 

American father and French mother 2 

French father and American mother 2 

Irish father and American mother 6 

Irish father and English mother 2 

English father and Irish mother 4 

English father and American mother 4 

Scotch father and Irish mother 2 

Total 132 

The months in which the plurality births occurred were as follows: 

January 8 April 14 July 10 October 6 

February 8 May 18 August 8 November 12 

March 4 June 1G September 18 December 10 

First Quarter 20 Second Quarter... 48 Third Quarter 36 Fourth Quarter 28 

First half of year 68 Second half of year 04 

Total 132 

The general statistics of births, and number of cases reported in 
Rhode Island during a period of thirty-five years, that is, from 1854 
to 1888, inclusive, are as follows: 

188,493 cases of single births giving 188,493 children . 

2,012 cases of twin births giving 4,024 children. 

21 cases of triple births giving 63 children. 

1 case of quadruple births giving 4 children. 

190,52T cases of child birth giving 192,584 children. 

Of the whole number of cases of child-birth (190,527) during the 
thirty-five years, one in 96 produced twins, one in 9,358 produced 
triplets, and one in 190,527 produced quadruplets. 

Of the whole number of children born during the same period, 
(192,584), ascertained from the reports, one in every 47.8 was a twin, 
and one in every 3,058 was a triplet. 



188*. I BIRTHS. 95 

Of the 2,034 cases of plurality birth which have occurred in'the 
State during the last thirty-five year.-, there were 845 cases in which 
both parents were Americans; 951 cases in which both parents were 
foreign; 230 cases in which the parentage was mixed, that is, one 
American and one foreign parent; and 8 in which the parentage was 
not stati 

The whole number of children born in plurality eases, during the 
thirty-live years, was 4,091, of whom 2,053 were males, and 2,03-A 
were females ; the Bex of the remaining four was cot given. 

3TIL1 BOBN. 

The whole number of still-born children reported in Rhode Island. 
for the year 1**8, was 295j this number is 19 more than that for the 
year 1887. 

The following are the numbers reported from the different divisions 
of the .State : 

Bristol County 11 

Kent County 15 

Newport County Towns , 4 

Newport City i>4 

Providence County Towns 48 

Pawtueket 24 

Woonsocket 23 

Providence City 14j 

Washington County 4 

Whole State 295 

The following Table will give the Dumber in each town from which 
still-birtlis were reported : 



96 THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1888. 

Table XXVII. 
Still-Born, 1888, Locality, Number, Sex, Parentage and Color. 



TOWNS AND DIVISIONS 
OP THE STATE. 



Barrington . 

Bristol 

Warren 



Bristol County. 



Coventry 

East Greenwich . . 
West Greenwich. 
Warwick 



Kent County. 



Newport City.. . 
New Shoreham . 

Portsmouth 

Tiverton 



Newport Counny. 



Burrillville 

Cumberland 

East Providence . . . 

Johnston 

Lincoln 

North Providence. 

Pawtucket 

Providence City. . 
Woonsocket 



Providence County. 



Charlestown 

Narragansett District. 
Westerly 



Washington County. 



Whole State. 



36 

1 
24 
142 
23 



237 

2 
1 

1 



295 



1 
3 

164 



60 



104 



131 



parentage. 



12 



84 



120 



153 



175 



26 

2 
5 
8 
6 

26 
1 

24 
123 

23 



218 

2 

1 
1 



274 



1888.] 



BIRTHS. 



97 



81 MM \ \i\ (H BEX 01 BTILL-BORST. 

The following Table slums the aumber and sex of the still-born 
children whose births were reported in Rhode Island, daring each of 
the last five years, and also of a period of thirty-two years, extending 
from January 1, 1854, to December 31, 1885 : 

Table XXVIII. 



BEX. 


1888. 


1887. 


1886. 


1885. 


1884. 


January 1, 1^54, 

to 

Dec. 31, 1885. 




164 
131 


169 
107 


157 
136 


149 
128 


178 
94 


3,824 




2,674 






Total 


295 


270 


293 


271 


272 


6,498 







The average proportions of the sexes of the still-born, for the period 
of thirty-two years, were as follows : In every 100 still-births there 
were about 59 males and 41 females. 

Season of Still-Births. — During the thirty-two years included in 
Table XXVIII, the proportions in relation to season were as follows : 

First Quarter 1,613 Third Quarter 1,743 

Second Quarter 1,505 Fourth Quarter 1,637 



First half of the year 3,118 Last half of the year 

Total 6,498 



.3,380 



The births of the still-born in 1888 occurred in the different months 

of the year as follows : 

January 28 April 18 July 80 October 19 

February 23 May 26 AngUSt... 29 November ...19 

March 34 June 20 September 19 December 22 



85 73 77 60 

First 6 months 1D8 Second 6 months 137 

Whole number 295 



98 THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1888. 

PARENTAGE OF THE STILL-BORN. 

Of the 295 still-born children reported in 1888, there were 120 of 
American, and 175 of foreign parentage, reckoned by the nativity of 
the fathers, that is, the father's name given ; and 143 of American 
and 152 of foreign, reckoned by the nativity of the mothers. 

To show the changes that have occurred, from year to year, in the 
percentages of parentage of the still-horn, reckoning by the parentage 
of the mothers, in contrast with the percentages of the same nativities 
to the whole number of births, reckoned by the parentage of the 
father, the following resume, for various years and periods of years, 
is presented : 

Of Whole Number Births. Of Whole Number Still-Born. 



Years. American. Foreign. American. Foreign. 
14 years', 
1859-1872 : . .50.54 and 49.46 in each 100 51.84 and 48.16 in each 100. 

10 years, 

1873-1882 49.10 and 50.90 in each 100 51.84 and 48.16 in each 100. 

1883 49.94 and 50.06 in each 100 50.98 and 49.02 in each 100. 

1884 49.91 and 50.09 in each 100 40.63 and 50.37 in each 100. 

1885 49.76 and 50.24 in each 100 48.00 and 52.00 in each 100. 

1886 49. 74 and 50.26 in each 100 47.44 and 52.56 in each 100. 

1887 47.04 and 52.96 in each 100 49.63 and 50.37 in each 100. 

1888 47.82 and 52.18 in each 100 48.47 and 51.53 in each 100. 

ILLEGITIMATES. 

The following Table will exhibit the number, sex, color, parentage 
and locality of birth of illegitimates in Rhode Island, in 1888 : 



1888.] 



BIRTHS. 

Table XXIX. 



99 



TOWNS. 



Barrington 

I Qreenwicb. 

Tiverton 

Newport City. ... 

Cranston 

Johnston 

North Providence 

Paw tucket 

Scittute 

WooiiHocket 

Providence City. . 
r 

Bichmond 

Whole State 







COLOR. 


■ ' AOE. 


u 

o 

2 

3 

X, 

o 
"o 
■a 

% 








m 

5 

■a 


B 



"3 
£ 

4) 


. 

o 
: 
O 


2 

3 

* 


a 

«3 


?; 


1 


i 






i 


1 




1 


i 






i 


1 




1 




1 




i 


1 




10 


4 


6 


5 


5 


8 


a 


2 


2 




1 


1 


2 




1 


1 






1 


1 




2 




5 




8 


2 




2 


2 






2 


1 


l 


1 




1 




1 


1 





1 




1 




1 




l 


40 

1 


21 

1 


16 


15 


25 
1 


SI 

1 


9 


1 




1 




1 


1 

51 




04 


36 




21 


43 


IS 



IS 



There were returns, during L888, of 64 children of illegitimate pa- 
rentage. The number ia L6 more than thai of L887. 

Sex. — Of the 64 there were 36 males and 28 females. 
The proportions of the sexes were at the rale of about 57 males and 
emales in each LOO births, or L29 males t<> every LOO females. 

Color.— < >f tin! 6 1 illegil imates born during L888, 43 were while, and 

21 colored. 

Parentage. — Of the 04, 51 were born of American mothers and L3 
of foreign horn mothers. The colored illegitimates were of American 
parentage. There were, of the 43 white illegitimates, 30 horn of 
American mothers, and L3 of foreign horn mothers. 

The parentage given is of native born and foreign born, that is, 
mothers born in the United States of foreign born parents are reck- 
oned as of American parentage. 

Nineteen, <>r nearly one-third of the illegitimates, were born of pau- 
per or criminal mothers, in public, charitable or penal institutions. 



MARRIAGES, 1888. 



The number of marriages registered in Rhode Island, during the 
year 1888, was 3,022. This number is 272 more than in 1886, and 
183 more than in 1887. 

The general statistics of marriage in 1888, in relation to season and 
number in the different divisions of the State, may be found in Table 
IV, on the seventh page. 

The statistics in relation to the proportion to population of persons 
married in 1888, in each of the towns and general divisions of the 
State, may be found in Tables XIV and XV, on pages 74 and 78. 



1888.] 



MARRIAGES. 



101 



The following Table will present the number of marriages, and the 
ratio of marriage to population, in each year for a period of twenty- 
nine years, 1860 to 1888, inclusive : 

Table XXX. 



TEARS. 



I860 

ISC! 

1862 
1863 
1864 

] 865 
1866 
1867 

18G8 
1869 

1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 



eo 

1 

s 

a 

3 


Of population, one 
person married in 
every 


■si 

.2 o 

fc- 
to 

<X> o O 


1,748 


50.0 


20.0 


L,533 


56.8 


17.6 


1,450 


61.1 


1.-..1 


1,618 


54.7 


18.3 


1,844 


50.1 


19.9 


1,896 


48.7 


20.5 


2,318 


39.9 


25.1 


2,344 


39.8 


25.1 


2,285 


40.5 


24.8 


2,289 


47.5 


21.1 


2,362 


46.0 


21.7 


2,336 


46.5 


21.5 


2,537 


42.9 


23.2 


2,630 


41.3 


24.2 


2,541 


50.8 


19.6 


2,485 


52.0 


19.2 



FEARS. 



1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1 ss l 
1885 
1886 
l ss; 
1888 



2,253 
2,282 
2,324 
2,396 
2,769 
2,750 
2,634 
2,611 
2,558 
2,488 
2,750 
2,839 
3,022 



Annual Average. . 



o - 
S S 



V. — " 
O 



57.3 
56.6 
55.7 
57.8 
49.9 
50.3 
52.5 
54.4 
58.1 
61.3 
56.5 
55.8 
53.5 



50.6 



e-£ 



£^ 



17.5 
17.7 
17.9 
17.5 
20.0 
19.9 
19.0 
18.3 
17.2 
16.3 
17.7 
18.0 
18.7 



19.8 



8EASON. 



The following Table will show the number and percentage of mar- 
riages in Rhode Island, in each quarter of the year 1888, together with 
the aggregate number and percentage in each quarter for thirty-fire 
years, viz., from 1854 to 1888, inclusive : 



18 



102 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 

Table XXXI. 



[1888. 



MONTHS. 



January. . 
February. 
March 



April. 
May . . 
June 



July 

August 

September. 



October . . . 
November. 
December. 

Total 



Number of Mar- 
riages each Quar- 
ter, 18K8. 



270] 
I 
245 1- 1st Quarter... 615 

100 J 



302 1 

222 ; 2d Quarter... 818 

I 
294 J 

2241 

211 ; 3d Quarter. 

273' 



3051 

I 

357 \ 

186 J 



4th Quarter . . 848 






20.35 



27.06 



24.52 



28.07 



Number of Mar- 
riages per Quarter, 
35 yrs., 1854-1888. 



3,022, 100.00 



1st Quarter... 16,852 



2d Quarter... 19,025 



3d Quarter... 17,897 



4th Quarter. .22,691 



*76,485 



<*. 



22.03 



24.88 



23.39 



29.70 



100.00 



The largest number of marriages, in any one month during 1888, 
occurred in the month of November. This is in accordance with the 
rule for thirty-five years. 

There was an agreement with the rule, also, in the proportions of 
the number of marriages, in the different quarters of the year, to the 
whole number during the year. The rule has been as follows : The 
largest proportion in the last quarter ; the next largest in the second 
quarter ; followed by the third quarter ; and, finally, the first quarter 
having the smallest proportion. 

During 1888 the proportions in the different quarters, from the 
largest to the smallest, were as follows : Last quarter, 28.07 per cent.; 
second quarter, 27.06 per cent.; third quarter, 24.52 per cent.; first 
quarter, 20.35 per cent. 

NATIVITY OF PERSONS MARRIED. 

The following Table shows the number of marriages, according to 
the nativities of the parties, for each of the last five years, and also 

* Including 20, date not given, recorded previous to 1860. 



1888.] 



MARRIAGES. 



103 



for the aggregate of five years, from 1878 to 1882, inclusive, and of 
twenty years, from 1858 to 1877, inclusive : 

Table XXXII. 



HI UTII PLACE. 



United States 

Foreign countries 

American groom, foreign bride. . 
Foreign groom, American bride 
Not stated 



Total. 



1888. 


1887. 


1886. 


1885. 


1884. 


1,496 


1,465 


1,480 


1,374 


1,410 


035 


808 


780 


677 


668 


329 


303 


290 


236 


257 


262 


263 


241 


201 


223 


3,022 


2,839 


2,750 


2,488 


2,558 



5 years, 

1883-1887. 

Total. 



7,157 
3,601 
1,888 
1,165 



13,240 



25 years, 
1650 188*. 

Total. 



33,553 

13.753 

:■;. 188 

8,878 

64 

54,734 



There was an increase in the whole number of marriages of all clae 

of nativity, in 1888, over any year since 1882, and over any previous 
year in all classes except that of which both were natives of the United 
States. 

It will be understood that in the above enumeration the parentage 
of the persons married is not considered, but the country where born, 
and not whether the parents were native or foreign born. 

In the following Table are given the percentages of American, for- 
eign and mixed marriages, in each of the last five years, and in the 
aggregate of five years, 1883 to 1887, inclusive, and of twenty-five 
years, 1858 to 1882, inclusive: 

Table XXXIII. 



BIBTB PLACE. 


1888. 

49.50 
80.94 

19.56 

100.00 


1887. 

51.60 
28.40 

l'.i.'.U 

100.00 


1886. 


1885. 


1884. 


5 ytM 
1883 : 


25 years, 
1858 1889. 




53.81 
26.87 
19.88 


56.89 

27.21 
1?.M 


56.19 

20.12 
18.76 


54.02 
27.19 
18.79 


61.30 














Total 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100 00 



It will be seen, in Table XXXIII, that the proportions of the dif- 
ferent classes of persons married, to the whole number of marriages, 



104 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION" REPORT. 



[1888. 



follows closely the absolute numbers given in Table XXX II. It will 
also be noticed that the proportion of those born in the United States 
(although largely of foreign born parents) is smaller than in any other 
year since 1857, and unquestionably smaller than in any year since the 
commencement of registration. 

AGES OF PERSONS MARRIED. 

The following Table will show the number of grooms who were 
married, in 1888, to brides in the same age period of life, or in age 
periods earlier or more advanced : 

Table XXXIV. 





AGES OF BRIDES. 


an 

2 


AGES OP GROOMS. 


o 

u 
a> 
•a 


m 

CV 

o 

o 


o 

CO 

o 

m 
at 


m 

CO 

o 
o • 

TO 


o 
o 
in 

CO 


■n 
o 
© 


o 

lO 

o 

lO 


•n 
in 

o 

o 
m 


o 

CO 

o 

lO 

•a 


in 

<0 

o 
o 

CO 


o 

£- 
O 

in 

CO 


O 

o 


© 

CO 

o 
m 


o 

a 

o 
3 

a 
a 


Under 20 


59 
304 
100 
25 
5 
2 


21 

665 

458 

128 

47 

11 

5 

1 


5 

112 

310 

134 

58 

29 

16 

2 

2 

1 






















85 


20 to 25 


7 

55 

82 

44 

31 

13 

7 

4 

2 

1 


2 
10 

16 

37 

27 

18 

8 

5 

1 


1 

4 

9 
25 

7 
6 
9 
9, 
















1,091 
939 


25 to 80 


2 

1 
3 
5 
7 
10 
4 
1 
4 
1 














30 to 35 


1 












394 


35 to 40. 












203 


40 to 45. . 


2 
1 

5 
2 
1 

1 
1 












132 


45 to 50 












67 


50 to 55 . 


2 


4 
2 

1 

1 


1 

2 

1 
2 








46 


55 to 60 


4 

1 


1 




28 


60 to 65 






11 








o 


18 


70 to 75 












6 


75 to 80 










1 


1 


2 


























497 


1,336 


669 


246 


127 


75 


38 


14 


8 


6 


5 


1 




3,022 







The same results, in relation to numbers only, in the different age 
periods, may be presented in a different and perhaps clearer way as 
follows : 



1888.] 



MARRIAGES. 

Table XX XV. 



105 



































•a 




8 
































1888. 




-i 


o 


in 

CO 


o 


■ -. 

T 




■a 




_ 




rt 






5. 


g 






O 


o 


t 


o 


o 


5 


o 


o 


3 




O 













































85 


o 

•M 


& 


g 

894 


2as 


9 
188 


- 
67 


g 

46 


lO 

88 


g 
11 


3 
18 


6 


i- 

8 


© 

CO 


/ 


fc 


Males 


1,001 


939 






497 


1,336 


669 


2 16 


i*> 


75 


38 


14 


8 


6 


• r > 


1 












582 


2,427 


1,608 


640 


330 


». 


106 


60 


36 


17 


. 


7 


2 









In Table X XXIV, as among the curiosities of matrimonial alliances, 
may be found the record of three grooms, aged from 20 to 25, who 
took brides aged from 35 to 45, and one groom of from 30 to 35 whose 
spouse was from 50 to 55. 

The whole number of persons in each division of ages, of both 
sexes, married in Rhode Island in each of the last twenty-three years, 
that is, from I860 to 1888 inclusive, is presented in Table XXXVI, 
on the following page : 



106 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 

Table XXXVI. 



[1888. 





o 






























•6 
S 


YEARS. 


t 


1C 


o 

CO 


m 

CO 





tt 



m 


10 











m 
tr- 




CO 


in 

CO 


- 


a 




a 


o 


O 


o 











O 





O 





O 











~ 




i 


in 


§ 




CO 





10 

81 
91 



m 

59 

48 


m 

in 

25 
37 




21 

18 




so 

12 

18 


O 
1- 

1 

5 


m 



CO 


m 

CO 


fc 




693 
696 


1,931 
1,886 


1,025 
1,104 


419 
416 


213 
211 


127 

148 


SB 




3 


1 




9 




644 


1,835 


1,050 


432 


219 


133 


82 


61 


30 


29 


11 


8 


4 






32 




642 
744 
697 
786 


1,814 
1,883 
1,914 
2,073 


1,051 
1,084 
1,118 
1,182 


408 
415 


227 

216 


134 
159 
115 

131 


79 
86 
73 
81 


46 
64 
56 
61 


35 
26 
35 

43 


15 
24 
22 
21 


11 
12 
6 
13 


2 
3 

7 
6 


3 

2 
3 
1 


2 


1 


49 




6 




392 228 
434' 237 


6 




5 




7 (12 
770 


8,177 

1,992 


1,156 

1,179 


507 
159 


253 
268 


140 

159 


87 
101 


6s 
52 


35 
36 


24 
39 


12 
8 


6 

g 


6 
1 






27 




9 




681 
691 
631 
618 


2,058 
1,741 
1,745 
1,832 


1,108 
1,041 
1,118 
1,123 


475 
450 
459 
•111 


252 
224 

241 

259 


150 
154 

125 
162 


101 
80 
92 
74 


60 

53 
52 
49 


32 
27 
46 
39 


29 

19 
14 

20 


13 

12 
15 

17 


4 
1 

11 
2 


1 
2 
2 

4 


1 




6 




9 




9 




8 


1879 


639 
688 
599 


1,879 
2,301 
2,208 


1,156 

1,262 
1,410 


481 
556 
547 


272 
329 
298 


123 
163 
187 


78 
91 
107 


56 
65 
54 


39 

33 
31 


26 
27 
31 


18 
15 
16 


9 

3 
5 


2 
3 

1 


2 

1 
1 


1 


11 


1880 


1 




2 


1882 


498 
497 


2,125 
2,108 


1,377 
1,370 


563 

486 


301 
319 


161 

m3 


102 
115 


57 
73 


36 

3, 


27 
20 


11 
14 


5 
3 


3 
2 




1 










1884 


484 
438 
505 


2,027 
1,973 
2,133 


1,289 
1,296 
1,552 


569 
540 
603 


Ml 17 
309 
283 


152 
163 
174 


114 
102 
103 


64 
57 
73 


48 
45 
24 


30 

27 
26 


23 

13 
18 


6 
7 
5 


3 
3 

1 








1885 




1 


2 


1886 




1887 .... 


501 
582 


2,308 
2,427 


1,552 
1,608 


607 
640 


294 
330 


162 
207 


114 
105 


49 
60 


39 

36 


23 

17 


19 
23 


7 

7 


3 
2 








1888 

















The following summary will show the number of persons married, 
the number of persons married under twenty years of age, and the 
percentages of marriages of persons under twenty years of age, during 
three periods of five years each, that is, from 1870 to 1884, inclusive, 
and during the years 1885, 1886 and 1887, and in 1888 : 

Percentage of 
Number Number married persons married 

of persons under twenty under twenty- 

married, years of age. years of age. 

1870 to 1874 24,812 3,759 15.2 

1875 to 1879 23,480 3,260 13.9 

1880 to 1884 26,644 2,766 10.4 

1885-1887 16,154 1,444 8.9 

1888 6,044 582 9.6 



1888.] 



M IRRIAGES. 



107 



In the following Table will be found the number and proportion of 
the persons married under 20 years of age, of both sexes, in seven 
periods of five years each, Erom 1854 to 1888, inclusive, and for the 

whole period of thirty- five years : 

Table XXXVII. 



5-YEAB PERIODS. 


3 7 


V 

E - : 

= - 


•a 

= 

-J 

= 
U 

Z 

S- 


1854-1&58 


18,842 

16,042 
81,874 

24,308 
23,770 
26,320 
27,314 


1,932 

2,500 
3,019 
8,831 
3,891 

2,921 
2,510 


18 96 


1859-1863 




1864-1868 


1 1.26 


1800 l B78 


14.93 


1874-1878 


13 84 


1879-1883 


11.09 


1884-1888 


9.19 






35 years, 1854-1888 


152,970 


19,934 


U 08 







108 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



PROPORTION OF SEX. 



The following Table will show the percentages of grooms in each 
division of ages, in each of the last twenty-nine years: 

Table XXXVIII. 



YEARS. 


Under 20. 


30 to 2.S. 


25 to 30. 


30 to 40. 


40 to 50. 


50 & over. 


Total. 




'I860 

1801 

1862 

186S 


5.0 
4.0 
4.2 
3.5 
4.3 
3.5 
5.3 
4.3 
4.1 
4.3 
4.8 
5 3 
4.3 
3.8 
4.1 
3.5 
5.1 
4.3 
3.9 
3.9 
3.6 
2.8 
2.2 
2.9 
2.5 
2.6 
2.5 
1.7 
2.8 


42.8 
44.5 
37.8 
38.0 
38.8 
37.0 
40.9 
40.1 
39.9 
39.6 
40.4 
40.1 
41.3 
42.4 
40.4 
40.9 
37.5 
36.0 
38.5 
37.8 
38.9 
37.2 
36.0 
36.2 
36.2 
34.7 
35.2 
37.1 
36.1 


26.9 

25.4 
27.9 
29.6 
27.3 
28.4 
27.0 
27.9 
28.2 
27.7 
28.1 
28.9 
28.2 
26.7 
27.2 
27.8 
28.6 
30.2 
29.0 
28.8 
27.5 
29.7 
31.4 
31.7 
29.1 
30.2 
31.9 
31.6 
31.1 


16.3 
15.5 
18.3 
17.2 
17.9 
18.9 
10.4 
16.8 
17.1 
185 
10.0 
10.5 
10.0 
17.0 
17.5 
17.6 
17.9 
18.7 
18.0 
19.3 
19.9 
19.5 
20.0 
17.7 
21.0 
20.9 
19.6 
19.6 
19.8 


5.7 
5.8 
5.9 
5.8 
7.4 
7.5 
6.3 
8 
6.1 
0.1 
6.4 
4.9 
5.2 
0.0 
6.4 
0.1 
5.6 
5.9 
6.3 
5.4 
5.8 
6.8 
6.1 
7.2 
6.2 
6.8 
6.8 
6.2 
6.5 


3.3 
4.2 
5.9 
5.9 
4.3 
4.7 
4.1 
4.1 
4.6 
3.8 
4.3 
4.3 
4.4 
4.1 
4.4 
4.2 
4.3 
6.9 
4.3 
4.8 
4.3 
4.0 
4.3 
4.3 
5.0 
4.8 
4.0 
3.8 
3.7 


100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100 




1864 

1865 


100.0 
100 




1800 


100 




1807 . 


100.0 




1808 


100.0 




1869 

1870 


100.0 
100.0 




1871 


100.0 


S 




1872 


100.0 


1873 


100.0 


1874 


100.0 





1875 . 


100.0 


1876 


100.0 


1878 


100.0 
100.0 




1879 


100.0 




1880.. 


100.0 




1881 


100.0 




1882 


100.0 




1883 


100.0 




1884 


100.0 




1885 


100.0 




1886 


100.0 






100 






100.0 









1888.] 



MAKIUAGES. 



109 



Tlie following Tabic will show the percentages of BRIDES in each 
division of ages, in each of the last twenty-nine years : 

Tablb XXX IX. 



YEA US. 


Under 20. 


20 to 25. 


86 to 30. 


30 to 40. 


40 to 50. 


50 & over. 


Total. 




r 1860 


25.8 


44.1 


17.0 


9.1 


2.6 


1.4 


100.0 




1801 


80.6 


42.0 


16.9 


7.8 


1.1 


1.3 


100.0 




1862 


24.9 


41.3 


16.7 


11.8 


4.1 


1.2 


100.0 




1888 




42.6 


16.9 


9.8 


4.1 


1.7 


100 




1864 


24.9 

24.7 
25.4 


43.4 

42.9 
10.5 


17.8 
19.1 
17.4 
19.3 


10.3 
11.0 
11.0 
10.0 


2.9 
3.5 
8.7 
34 


I.I 
1.5 
1.3 
1.4 


100.0 




1865 


100.0 




1866 


100.0 




1861 


100.0 




1868 


24.4 


40.9 


18.1 


11.6 


3.3 


1.7 


100.0 




I860 


94.1 

96.8 


40.5 
39.4 


18.7 

17.9 


18.1 

10.8 


3.4 

3.9 


1.2 

1.2 


100.0 




1870 


100.0 




1871 


24 


41.9 


19.1 


10.1 


3.1 


1.2 


100.0 


H 


1879 


26.7 
96.8 


40.5 
40.8 


18.4 
17.5 


9.9 

12.0 


2.2 


1.3 
1.7 


100.0 


1S73 


100.0 


Q 




26.3 
98.9 


38.1 
42.1 


19.3 
16.8 


11.1 
11.8 


3.9 
4.0 


1.3 
1.4 


100.0 


H 

P5 







100.0 


n 


1878 


25. C 
98. 1 


39.8 
40.4 


17.6 

18.8 


12.0 
12.1 


3.7 
3.6 


1.3 

1.7 


100.0 




1877 


100.0 




1878 


98.7 

22.8 


40.4 
40.7 


19.3 
19.4 


12.2 
12.1 


3.8 
3.0 


1.6 
2.0 


100.0 




1879 


100.0 




1880 '. 


81.1 

19.0 
16.7 


14.9 

43.0 
14.8 


18.0 

21.5 
20.9 


12.0 
11.8 
12.6 


3.3 
3.8 
3.9 


1.4 
1.5 
1.1 


100.0 




1881 


100.0 







100.0 




1883 


16 2 


44.2 


20 6 


13.2 


4.3 


1.5 


100.0 







16.4 

14.9 


43.0 
44.6 
43. 4 


21.3 
84.6 


13.2 
13.2 
12.5 


1.2 

3.8 
3.3 


1.9 
1.7 
1.5 


100.0 




1885 


100.0 




1886 


100.0 




1887 


15.9 


44.1 




12.1 


3.5 


1.6 


100 




Ll888 


10.4 


14,8 


88.1 


12.4 


3.7 


1.1 


100.0 









It will be noticed, in the preceding Tables, that the proportions of 
persona married of both sexes, under twenty years of age, largely de- 
creased during the last two decades, with a slight increase in the class 
of males in 1SS8, and a rather larger increase in the class of females. 

14 



110 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



Of males, the proportion has decreased about 40 per cent., and of 
females about 30 per cent., the increase during 1888 not materially 
changing the results of previous years. 

The proportion of males married, between the ages of twenty and 
twenty-five, has decreased about 12 per cent., and has correspondingly 
increased in the more advanced age periods. 

The proportion of females married, between twenty and twenty-five 
years of age, has continued about the same, while of those between 
twenty-five and forty there has been an increase of proportion similar 
to that of males. 

There has been an increase of about one year in the average age of 
the males who were married during the ten years 1879 to 1888, inclu- 
sive, over the average age of the males who were married during the 
ten years 1859 to 18G8, inclusive. The average age of the females 
married, during the same periods, increased about one and one-half 
years during the last ten. 

NUMBER OF TIMES MARRIED. 

There will be found in the following Table the number of grooms 
and of brides who were married for the first, second, third, etc., time, 
in 1888 : 

Table XL. 





First 
Marriage. 


Second 

Marriage. 


Third 

Marriage. 


Fourth 

Marriage. 


Fifth 

Marriage. 


Total. 




2,536 
2,692 


448 
305 


33 
22 


5 
3 




3.022 






3,022 



The proportion of groo?ns married for the first time, in 1888, was 
83.9 per cent, of the whole number, and the proportion of brides 
married for the first time was 89.1 per cent. 

The following Table will show not only the number of times each 
of the parties was married, but also the number of bachelors and 
widowers, who married spinsters, the number who married widows of 
first or second widowhood, and of spinsters and widows who married 
bachelors, and widowers of the second, third or fourth marriage : 



1888.] 



MARRIAGES. 



Ill 



Table XL! 



GROOMS. 



First marriage . . . 
Second marriage 
Third marriage.. 
Fourth marriage. 
Fifth marriage. . . 



Total, Brides. 



BRIDES. 



First. Second. Third. 



3,394 

•-■-; 
12 
2 



8,892 



135 

151 

17 

2 



305 



Fourth. Fifth 



Total, 
Grooms. 



2,5»6 

448 

33 

5 



3.025 



It will be seen, by Table XLI, that 142 bachelors married widows, 
7 of whom married brides that had been twice or thrice widowed. Of 
the 486 widowers who married in 1888, 298 married spinsters, and 188 
married widows. Of the widows who married widowers, 16 had been 
twice married previously, and three married for the fourth time. 

MARRIAGES OF PERSONS OF COLOR. 

The number of marriages of persons of color, in Rhode Island, in 
1888, was 69. This includes four marriages in which one of the par- 
ties was white. The number and coior of the individuals were, there- 
fore, 134 persons of color and 4 persons white. The white persons 
were females. The marriages, however, may be properly classed as 
colored marriages, inasmuch as the offspring of such marriages are 
persons of color. 

The number reported during 1888, from the different towns, was as 
follows, viz. : 

Providence (iucluding four white brides) 47 

Newport City 8 

South Kingstown 5 

East Greenwich 2 

Bristol, 1 

Eabt Provtdi 
North Kiugtstowu. 
Pawtuckct, 
Scitnate, 
Warwick, 

ily, J 



; each 1 7 



Total 



oy 



112 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



MARRIAGES OF THE DIVORCED. 

The following Table will give the names of the towns from which 
returns of marriage with the facts of divorce were reported during 
1888, the whole number of marriages and of divorced persons mar- 
ried, also whether the second or third marriage of the divorced groom 
or bride, and number of re-marriages of same persons : 

Table XLII. 





















a 




, 
















E 




a 


u 






So 




So 


o 
M 


0Q 


TOWNS. 


o a> 


S-d 






£8 


■g s 

i- o 


ea !5 


"S-Si 








1 


o 5 

— 


s 

o 
o 

5 


6 

pa 


S° 

00 


Eh 


8° 

ai 
oo 




E 
K 


Providence City 


80 


87 


40 


47 


38 


2 


44 


3 


3 




6 
4 


4 


4 
1 


3 
3 


3 
1 


1 


3 
3 












Burrillville 


1 

1 


1 

1 


1 


1 






1 








1 








Total State 


92 


100 


46 


54 


43 


3 


51 


3 


3 







There were 92 marriages, in 1888, in which one or both of the par- 
ties had been divorced, and in 8 of which both parties had been 
divorced. Of the 8 marriages where both parties had been divorced, 
3 were re -marriages of the same persons. 

The proportion of the number of marriages, of which one or more 
of the parties had been divorced, to the whole number of marriages, 
was about one in every 33, or about 3.0 per cent. 

But the proportion of divorced persons married during 1888, to the 
whole number of persons married in the same year, was about one in 
every 60, or 1.6 per cent. 

The number of divorced persons married in 1888 was 15 less than 
in the previous year. 



DIVORCES, 1888 



According to the returns made to the Secretary of the State Board 
of Health by the clerks of the Supreme Courts of the different counties 
in Rhode Island, the number of applications for divorce, during 1888, 
was three hundred and four (304). 

The number of divorces granted, during 1888, was two hundred and 
twenty-four (224). 

There were eighteen less applications, during 18SS, than during the 
preceding year, and the number of divorces granted was twenty-four 
less. 

Divorces are decreed for the following seven statute causes, viz. : 

1. Adultery. 

2. Extreme cruelty. 

3. Wilful desertion for five years of either of the parties, or for a 
shorter period, in the discretion of the court. 

4. Continued drunkenness. 

5. Neglect or refusal to provide necessaries (having ability) for the 
subsistence of a wife. 

6. Gross misbehavior and wickedness other than aforesaid. 

7. Impotency. 

Divorces are also decreed, or marriages set aside, in the discretion 
of the court, for ascertained affinity, consanguinity, idiocy, insanity. 
penitentiary crimes, and bigamous or otherwise illegal marriaf 



114 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION" REPORT. 



[1888. 



The following Table shows the number of applications for divorce, 
and the number granted, in 1888, in each county of the State ; also 
the causes alleged for the applications : 

'Table XLIII. 





a 




Causes Alleged. 


























>o 




a 










a 


V 


d> 






be 


COUNTIES. 


< 


t3 
<v 

a 

at 

a 




5 


□ 
o 

o 


M 

a 
a 


— <° 


a . 


>> 


Si 

.S 


< 

OD 

3 

(A 




<» 

a 

a 


o 

s 


O 

•3 


o 
3 
o 

M 


"3 


2 a 
a 

a 






a 
o 


3 


4 

o 
"3 




& 


fc 


< 


H 


£ 


° 


fc 


O 


£ 


3 


h 




6 

20 

8 

244 


5 

14 
4 

188 


3 

1 

43 


1 

3 
2 
55 


3 

7 

3 

130 


1 

1 

1 

63 


l 

7 

4 

162 








6 


Kent 


21 




3 

36 






14 


Providence 


l 




499 


Washington 


26 


13 


4 


3 


8 


1 


9 




l 




26 


Whole State 


304 


224 


51 


64 


160 


67 


183 


39 


2 




566 







There were, during the year 1888, three hundred and four (304) 
applications for divorce, and the whole number of causes alleged was 
five hundred and sixty-six (566). There were, therefore, an average 
of less than two causes alleged in each application. That average is 
not far from the rule of many years. 

The causes alleged why divorce should be granted, in the applica- 
tions during 1888, were 112 less in number than in 188?. 

In order to show the actual number of applications, and the num- 
ber of divorces granted in each of the last sixteen years, the following 
summary is presented : 



3-] 


DIVORCES. 






115 








Applications 




Applications 


Divorces 


refused 


or continued 




for Divorce. 


Granted. 


or withdrawn. 


1878 


261 


.... 173 




.... BS 


1874 


276 


.... 342 




.... 34 


1876 


227 


.... 158 




.... 69 


1876 


254 


.... 19*1 




.... 58 


1877 


257 

258 


... 178 




. ... 79 


1878 


.... 196 




.... 58 


1879 


255 


.... 2»6 




.... 9 


1880 


347 


.... 273 




. ... 74 


1881 


350 


.... 268 




.... 82 


1882 


330 


.... 271 




.... 68 


1883 


381 


.... 257 




.... 64 


1884 


320 


.... 206 




.... 54 


1885 


293 


.... 227 




.... 66 


1886 


336 


.... 257 




.... 70 


188T 


322 


.... 248 




.... :i 


1888 


804 


.... 224 




80 


16 years, total 


4,720 


...3,680 




..1,040 



During the last sixteen years the proportion of decrees of divorce, 
to whole number of applications, was 78 per cent. During 1883 it 
was 80 per cent., during 1884 it was 83 percent., during l* s "> it was 
78.5 per cent., during 1880 it was 70.5 per cent., during 1887 it was 
77 per cent., and (luring 1888 it was 73.6 per cent. 

The proportion of divorces granted, in 1888, to the whole number 
of marriages during the same year, was one divorce to every thirteen 
and five- tenths marriages. 

The proportion of applications for divorce to whole number of 
marriages, during the year, was one application to about every ten 
marriages. 

The following Table shows the number of divorces granted in each 
county, and in the whole State, in each of the last twenty years, and 
the proportion of marriages to each divorce granted in each year: 



116 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION - REPORT. 

Table XLIV. 



[1888. 





Bristol 


Kent 


Newport 


Providence 


Washington 


Whole 




County. 


County. 


County. 


County. 


County. 


State. 




-d 


o 


d 


a 


T3 


a) 


>p 


a> 


■d 










o 






a 


a> 




Hi 




9 








YEARS. 


a 


o 


a 


o 


a 


o 


a 


o 


a 


o 


a 


o 




t-> 


Xv 


*H 


2<u 


u 


o» 




2* 


L. 


So 


■a 


2ci 




O 


rf} t-4 


a 


„ ^ 


O 




O 









O 






OD 


<h o 


DD 






o P 








o o 




9 O 




a> 




O 


t£ !J 




tc> 


» 


t£> 


<o 










FN 



> 


■SO 

u 
a 


o 

> 


c3 


o 

o 

> 


3 


o 

o 

> 


3 


o 

o 

> 


C3 


h 

O 


Is 




p 


z 


Q 


S 


O 


<, 


(5 


3 


o 


» 


Q 


a 


1869 


10 


10.6 


15 


12.5 


6 


27.7 


120 


13.8 


11 


15.5 


162 


14.1 


1870 


3 
5 


27.7 
16.8 


18 
11 


11.8 
17.9 


6 
4 


20.3 
49.7 


152 
123 


11.3 
13.3 


21 

18 


9.3 

11.4 


200 
161 


11.8 


1871 


14.5 


1872 


8 


10.2 


13 


15.7 


8 


22.9 


149 


12.6 


22 


8.9 


200 


12.7 


1873 


6 


16.2 


22 


9.8 


8 


21.9 


131 


14.8 


6 


33.7 


173 


15.2 


1874 


10 


8.9 


20 


8.0 


6 


29.0 


190 


10.0 


16 


11.6 


242 


10.5 


1875 


2 
6 


50.0 
14.5 


18 
15 


8.8 
12.8 


7 

7 


23.4 

20.5 


120 
148 


14.9 
11.1 


11 
20 


20.S 
8.8 


158 
190 


15.7 


1876 


11.5 


18T» 


7 


12.0 


9 


16.3 


7 


26.0 


134 


12.4 


21 


9.9 


178 


12.8 


1878 


4 


26.0 


11 


13.8 


13 


12.8 


156 


10.9 


12 


17.3 


196 


11.9 


1879 


5 


18.8 


19 


9.0 


7 


24.1 


195 


9.1 


20 


9.7 


246 


9.7 


1880 


8 


12.1 


23 


9.4 


11 


17.6 


208 


9.7 


23 


17.0 


273 


10.1 


1881 


6 


20.1 


26 


73 


10 


16.9 


207 


10.0 


19 


11.0 


268 


10.4 


1882 


6 


15.0 


18 


10.3 


15 


13.0 


221 


8.9 


11 


16.8 


271 


9.7 


1883 


6 


15.8 


15 


11.5 


9 


21.2 


214 


9.2 


13 


13.3 


257 


10.2 


1884 


4 


16.7 


20 


8.0 


12 


15.7 


209 


9.3 


21 


8.2 


266 


9.6 


1885 


3 
5 


23.0 
16.0 


9 

17 


18.6 
11.0 


17 
15 


11.2 
12.3 


186 
194 


10.1 
10.9 


12 
26 


15.0 
7.3 


227 
257 


11.0 


1886 


10.7 


1887 


1 


75.0 


23 


8.0 


13 


13.4 


187 


11.8 


24 


7.9 


248 


11.4 


1888 


5 


15.8 


14 


13.5 


4 


46.0 


188 


12.5 


13 


16.5 


224 


13.5 



The ratio of divorces granted in the entire State, during 1888, to 
the whole number of marriages during the same year was one divorce 
to about every thirteen and five-tenths marriages, as previously stated. 

During the ten years 1869 to 1878, inclusive, the ratio of divorce to 
number of marriages was one divorce to every thirteen ; during the 
ten years 1879 to 1888, inclusive, the ratio was one divorce to every 
ten and six-tenths marriages. 

The average of the last four years was one divorce to every eleven 
and six-tenths marriages. 

The small number of applications for divorce granted in Newport 
county will not fail to be noticed. The proportion of only one to 
every forty-six marriages, in 1888, has not been equalled or apj>roached 



1888.] DIVOBCML 11 



but once in twenty years. The average <>f the last twenty years, in 
Newport county, is one divorce to every twenty-two and five-tenths of 
the marriages. 

The difference in the other counties is not remarkable. 

During the twenty years 1869-1888 the average proportions of 

divorce to marriage, in the several counties and the State, have been 

ollows: 

* 

Biistol County One divorce to every 80.1 marriages. 

Kent County One divorce to every 11.4 marr 

Newport County One divorce to every 42.6 marriages. 

Providence County One divorce to every 11.4 marriages. 

Washington County One divorce to every 13.8 marriages. 

Whole State One divorce to everv 11.9 marriages. 



16 



118 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION" REPORT. 



[1888. 






"te 








°0 




^ 






» 






<» 


© 










Ci 






9S 


<co 

CO 




Ssj 


'-1 


















s 


> 




as 


X 






w 


C* 




l-l 


* 


5^ 


m 




r* 


< 
H 



^ 

^ 



<i c 



• — 






«» 



cc 


>o t- 










CO 

CO 


cc. >o 










' ' 












t~ 


-i 


»o 


CI <C 


J> 


00 

CO 
I— I 


r- 


Hi 


<* CO* 


d 


r_ 


C^ 




1—1 


i—( 


CO 


i> O 


o? o 


CO 


CO 


© d 


«* d 


CO 


CO 


—1 


i— i 




>— 1 












>o 


O -* 1 


co ; 


OS 


CO 
CO 

1—1 


i-J cd 


CO 


© 


rH <N 


I— 1 


r— 1 


X# 


co o? 


cr 


* 


-+ 


CO 
CO 


OS CO 




d 


I— I 












cc 


CN 


CO 


r- 


■* 


CO 


CO 


c 


t- 


OJ 


CO* 


o? 


CO 

I— 1 




o* 


■" 


I— 1 


■"" ' 


C<J 


e> 


CO 


a 


CO 


OS 


CO 

CO 

I— 1 


Oi 


"<* 


CN 


J> 


d 




CO 


*" 


iH 


1—1 


* 


X* 


os 


cr 


o 


^ 


CO 


cr 


© 


,_ 


CO 


d 


CO 

T— 1 


i — 


-tf 


r" 


i— l 




© 


i— 


CO 


OJ 


O 


t- 


CO 


c 


cd 


CC 


d 


f^ 


CO 


t— 


o* 


r— 


o? 




OS 


i> 


«# 


x* 


o 






£~ 


C 


CO 


CC 


— -< 






co 




o* 


1 — 1 


CN} 






I— 1 












GO 


b: 


»* 


2> 


© 






i> 




^J 


c 


■* 






CO 

I— 1 




O* 


r-< 


i— • 






i> 


CC 


I— 1 


T— 


o 


: 


CO 

7—\ 


<Ti 


CO 


c 


uO 






o? 




i— ( 




to 


uC 


<n 


o: 




: 


i- 


T— 


«* 


cr 


d 


• 


CO 

1—1 


T— 


CNJ 


r- 


r-i 


• 


m 










as 


H 




CO 






.— 


H 




+3 










-U 






co 


< 




CO 

CO 








"H 


r oE 


C 


• 


s 


CO 


a 


1 


c 
a 


o 






■t: 


GO 




S 


IS 




c 


GO 


p 


E 






c3 


c 


CD 


o 




& 


S 


O 


S> 


^H 





1888.] DIVORCES. 119 

It was intended by the State Registrar to give, in tabulated form, 
and for each county, some other facts of interest in connection with 
the applications for divorce in tthode Island, during 1888, facts which 
are now taken quite largely into account in the consideration of the 
subject of divorce. 

The clerks of the Supreme Courts (with the exception of the 
clerk of the Supreme Court in Providence county, who declined) 
courteously, as was reasonably to be expected, furnished the desired 
information. As Providence county has considerably more than half 
of the divorce cases in the State, the omission of that county in any 
divorce statistics would invalidate all the rest. 

Such statistics are furnished, by the clerks of the Supreme Courts 
in other States. 



DEATHS, 1888. 



The number of deaths registered in Rhode Island, during 1888, ac- 
cording to the returns made to the State Registrar, was six thousand, 
five hundred and ninety-four (6,594). 

Tli is number is larger by 254 than that of the year 1887, and an 
increase of 745 over that of 1886. It is the largest ever recorded in 
the State. 

The death rate (twenty and four-tenths in every 1,000 living per- 
sons) was about five tenths in excess of that of the previous year, and 
about two and seven-tenths in excess of the census year, .1885. 

The following summary will show the death rates per 1,000 for each 
of the last seven census years, in comparison with 1887 and 1888 : 



1SG0. 


1865. 


1870. 


1875. 


1880. 


1885. 


1887. 


1888. 


15.4 


18.4 


14.9 


16.7 


17.5 


17.7 


19.9 


20.4 



On the following page will be found the death rates, by counties, 
for twenty-nine years : 



1888.] 



DEATHS. 



m 



Table XLVI. 

Death rates per 1,000 living, by counties, in each of twenty-nine years, 
from i860 to 1887, inclusive; also the average rate oj each 
period of five years each, from I860 to 1884, inclu- 
sive, for the whole State. 



\ EABS. 


■ 

- 




7C 

o 

c. 
s 
o 


s 

a 
3 

-3 
'> 
O 

E 

£ 


a 



si 

c 

2 

CS 


00. 


STATE. 

ANNUAL .wi.lm.i. Ot 

rrvB n lb pen 

1884. 


I860 


16.4 
18.9 
13.8 
13.0 
20.2 

22.8 
19.2 
17.0 
15.7 
17.9 

15.5 
16.3 
81.1 

18.4 
14.7 

14.9 
14.7 
18.2 
17.5 
18.2 

19.2 
17.9 
16.5 
17.7 
17.7 

16.3 
19.2 
18.2 
21.3 


13.7 
17.6 

14.6 
13.0 
18.1 

16.1 
14.2 
15.1 

13.7 

16.7 

13.5 
17.5 
16.1 
13.8 
13.2 

14.9 
11.7 
13.1 
14.2 
15.1 

14.9 
16.5 
15.3 
14.6 
17.1 

16.4 
17.5 
15.5 
18.4 


13.7 
16.9 
13.1 
27.5 
19.6 

17.5 
17.3 
15.0 
14.7 
13.2 

14.1 
12.2 
14.5 
19.0 
10.8 

13.5 
13.5 
12.4 
13.7 
14.8 

14.5 
15.7 
17.2 
17.7 
14.5 

14.5 
15.0 
15.1 
18.0 


17.7 
16.9 
15.1 
18.9 
18.5 

19.2 
16.6 
16.4 
17.0 
16.0 

15.5 
15.9 
81.8 

22.0 

17.7 

17.5 
16.8 

18.3 

17.2 

18.5 
19.3 
19.7 
20.8 
17.8 

18.5 
19.2 
81.1 

21.0 


12.6 
14.1 
10.6 
10.5 
12.8 

14.2 
11.4 
10.9 
10.4 

12.8 

12.0 
12.8 

14.7 
15.1 
13.7 

15.5 
15.9 
12.8 
13.0 
11.1 

12.7 
11.8 

11.0 
9.8 
12.6 

14.0 
15.0 
15.5 
16.0 


15.4 
16.8 
14.3 
18.1 
18.1. 

18.4 
16.1 
15.6 

15.7 
15.6. 

14.9] 

15.4 

19.1 

20.2 

10.3 

16.7 

15.9 
17.2 
17.2 
10.2, 

17.6 

18.1 
18.4 
19.1 
10.9, 

17.7 
18.8 
19.9 
20.4 




1861 




1862 


- ...16.5 per 1,000 living. 


1863 




1864 




1865 




1866 




1868 


- ...16.5 per 1,000 living. 


1869 




1870 




1871 






■ ...17.2 per 1,000 living. 


1873 




1874 




ISTi 

1878 


f ...16.0 per 1,000 living. 


1879 




1880 




1881 




1882 


• ...18.0 per 1,000 living. 


1883 


1884 




1885 




1886 ... 




1687 




1888 









Annual average, twenty-five years, 1860-1884 17.0 per 1,000 living. 



122 THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1888. 

SEX OF DECEDENTS. 

Of the 6,594 persons whose deaths were returned, during the year 
1888, 3,199 were males, and 3,395 were females; the ratio standing at 
106.1 males to each 100 females, or 485 males and 515 females in every 
1,000 decedents. 

The following Table will show the number and proportion of males 

and females among the decedents in Rhode Island, during the ten 

years* 1853 to 1862, inclusive; also in each of the twenty-six years 

from 1863 to 1888, inclusive, and for the entire period of thirty-six 

years : 

Table XLVII. 



DEATHS. 



Males to 
Males. Females. every 100 females. 
10 years, 1853-1862 10,930 11,869 96.9 

1863 1,621 1,586 102.2 

1864 1,633 1,727 92.4 

1865 1,686 1,719 98 1 

1866 1,497 1,473. 101.5 

1867 1,442 1,447 99.7 

1868 1,413 1,499 94.3 

1869 1,696 1,686 100.6 

1870 1,588 1,650 96.2 

1871 1,621 1,723 94.1 

1872 2,118 2,129 99.4 

1873 ' 2,166 2,237 95.5 

1874 2,111 2,118 99.7 

1875 2,108 2,209 95.4 

1876 1,969 2,147 91.7 

1877 2,132 2,318 92.0 

1878 2,161 2,280 94.8 

1879 2,183 2,289 95.4 

1880 2,366 2,463.. 96.0 

1881 2,367 2,559 96.8 

1882 2,487 2,587 96.5 

1883 2,627 2,655 99.0 

1884 2,486 2,655 93.6 

1885 2,607 2,782 93.7 

1886 2,833 3,016 93.9 

1887 3,177 3,163 100.4 

1888 3,199 3,395 95.4 

36 years 66,324 68,671 96.7 



1888.] 



i»i: \iiis. 



123 



The following Table of births, daring the same period of time ae 
the preceding, will Bhow by comparison the different proportions of 
the Bexes in the two classes of events: 

Table XLVIII. 



BIRTHS. 



Females. 
10 years, 1858 1662 1P.377 l: 



1863. 
1864. 
1865. 
1866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 



Mules to 
every 101 remalee. 
106.4 



1,892 

1,949 

2,096 

2,546 

2,655 

8,746 

2,685 

2,679 

2,878 

8,086 

8,186 2,887 

3,311 8,165 



1,788 105.8 

1,942 100.3 

112.9 

108.1 

2,464 107.7 

2,627 104.5 

2,560 104.9 

2,586 105.6 

2,800 102.8 

3.053 100.9 

108.6 





3,302 3,146. 

3,291 3,038. 

8,168 3.072. 

3,402 3.312. 

3,091. 



1880 84941. 

1881 8,498 

1882 3,509. 

1883 8,648. 

1884 3,713. 

1885 3,591. 

3,897. 

1887 3,968. 

1888 



8,054. 

3,310. 
3,498. 



.106.9 
.108.3 
. 103.0 
102.7 
105.4 
.106.1 
.107.2 
. 105.8 
101.4 
.103.4 



8,487 104.4 

8,794 104.6 

3,700 Hi7. S 

105.4 






.99,498 96,350. 



.106.8 



124 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION EEPOET. 



fl888. 



SEASON AND MORTALITY. 

The whole number of decedents, and the sex of the same, in each 
month of the year 1888, and in each division of the State, may be 
found in Table VI, on the ninth page. 

The influence of season upon mortality may be further illustrated 
by the following Table, which shows the number and percentage of 
deaths in each quarter of each of the last four years, and in the aggre- 
gate for thirty-six years, 1853 to 1888, inclusive: 

Table XLIX. 





1888. 


1887. 


1886. 


1885. 


1853-1888. 


SEASONS. 


<V 

a 

S3 


a 

o 
o 


c 

,0 

B 
a 
is 


a 
s> 
o 
u 

o 
Oh 


a 
£ 


a 

u 

o 
Ph 


a 
.a 

a 

c 

53 


d 
S 
u 

u 
a 


O 

a 

(3 


s 
o 

o 
Rh 


January-March 


1,709 
1,496 
1,911 
1,478 


25.92 
22.69 
28.99 
22.40 


1,448 
1,412 

1,887 
1,593 


22.84 
22.27 
29.76 
25.13 


1,413 
1,297 

1,745 
1,394 


24.16 

22.17 
29.83 
83.84 


1,433 
1,237 
1,575 
1,144 


26.59 
22.95 
29.22 
21.24 


31,928 
28,792 
39,087 
35,288 


23.63 
21.31 




29.01 


October-December 


26.05 


Total 


6,594 


100.00 


6,340 100.00 


5,849 


100. 00 


5,389 


100.00 


135,095 


100.00 













Comparing the percentages of 1888 with those of the thirty-six 
years, we find the per cent, of the first quarter somewhat larger; the 
second quarter slightly greater, and the last quarter considerably 
smaller than the same for the average of the thirty-six years. The 
greatest mortality for any one season of any one year may be found 
in the third quarters of 1886 and 1887, as in the case of the general 
average. 



1888.] 



DEATHS. 



125 



— — — . o 



< ►? 



b 3 i 

^ O -«! 






s5 



* 






O « i-i 



< 55 n 



B J 



s p < o 



= a 



<- 
OS 


C5 
O 


1- 




■ - 


- 


e 


■e 


- 
— 


- 


n 




Tl> 


— 




T 


■^ 




— 


— 




« 




• Ei 

= 
< 


P 
< 


= 

•-5 


03 


£ 
- 


i 
1 

8 


= 
g 
0. 
CO 


- 


O 


c 
c 
- 


g 





^h ~« o 



< r x Q 



co ^ to t- ?o 

— — CO CO CO 



* 4 



X 















19 


i< 


i- 


-: — 
























ia 


O 


•9 


•» 


•>* 


O 


— 






BC 


to 



TO 














L- 


.3 






— 




























> 


> H 
< 


(I 




1 

< 




- 
- 


3 
i> 
O 

P 




— 
r 


1 
O 


- 

a 

•-5 



8 



o o « « 00 

qo « — -* co 



. 


c 


|4 

B 

■g t. 
= 9 


> 




5 » 
g - 

p . 




3 



5 5 a 



co O i-s < P A 7L 







ss 


9 


<C 


10 








fa 


- 








- 


> 


1 
^ 1 


3 
-- 


a 
- 


T 


< 





b „ „ _ 31 

O O O O T 



o | — 

z v. -. < 



- S 



>. _r 



-■ 



: : ~ 7 .- o f? 



= = 3 
< ►? •■s 

~ ?< » 



MAO^hSQi^n 



Ifl 



126 THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1888. 

PARENTAGE OF DECEDENTS. 

The number of decedents, in 1888, of the two general classes of 
parentage, that is, American and foreign, may be found in Table I, 
on pages 2 and 3. 

Of the whole number of decedents, 6,594, reported in 1888, 3,043 
were of American, and 3,551 were of foreign parentage. 

By the term "foreign parentage" is meant the decedents whose 
fathers were born in some other country and not in the United States. 
The grandchildren of foreign born grandfathers are reckoned as of 
American parentage, if their fathers were born in the United States. 

The following fourteen towns reported a larger number of decedents 
of foreign pareutage than of American, namely : Barrington, Warren, 
Warwick, Tiverton, Burrillville, Cumberland, Johnston, Lincoln, 
North Providence, North Smithfield, Pawtucket, Providence, Smith- 
field and Woonsocket ; also the State Institutions at Cranston. These 
fourteen towns give the following proportions of foreign parentage 
over American : 

Barrington 122 of foreign parentage to each 100 of American. 

Burrillville 146 of foreign parentage to each 100 of American. 

Cranston (State Institutions) 169 of foreign parentage to each 100 of American. 

Cumberland 186 of foreign parentage to each 100 of American. 

Johnston 109 of foreign parentage to each 100 of American . 

Lincoln 362 of foreign parentage to each 100 of American . 

North Providence Ill of foreign parentage to each 100 of American. 

North Smithfield 121 of foreign parentage to each 100 of American. 

Pawtucket 160 of foreign parentage to each 100 of American. 

Providence City 137 of foreign parentage to each 100 of American . 

Smithfield 105 of foreign parentage to each 100 of American. 

Tiverton 132 of foreign parentage to each 100 of American . 

Warren 121 of foreign parentage to each 100 of American. 

Warwick 122 of foreign parentage to each 100 of American. 

Woonsocket 298 of foreign parentage to each 100 of American. 

The following Table gives the number and proportion in every one 
thousand deaths of decedents of American and' of foreign parentage, 
in each of the last five years; and in the aggregate for thirty years, 
or from 1858 to 1887, inclusive : 



1888.] 



DEATH8. 



127 



Table Id. 





1888. 


1887. 


1886. 


1885. 


1884. 


30 years. 
1858-1887. 


PABBNTAGB. 


- 

S 

3 

V. 


o 

8 

- 

Cm 


V 

jo 

a 

3 

•A 


3 

o 

0] 

PH 


a 

9 


o 
Pi 


u 

S 

S 

1 


o 
o 
o 

h 


u 
5 

a 

3 


- 

a. 


S5 


- 

- 


American 


8,048 


461.5 


8,926 
8,414 


461.5 
538.5 


8,741 
3,102 


169.7 

530.3 


2,624 


513.8 

486.2 


2,485 
2,666 


516.6 


62,619 


539.4 
460 


Total 


6,594 


1000.0 


6,340 


1000.0 


5,849 


1000.0 


5,389 


1000 


5,141 


1000.0 


185,964 


1000.0 



AGE OF DECEDENTS. 



In Table I, on pages 2 and 3, may be found t bo aggregate and 
average age of all the decedents whose deaths occurred in 1888, and 
with the age of each sex, in each town and county in the State. 

By that Table it will be seen that the average age of all the male 
decedents in the State, in 1888, was 33. 17 years, and that the average 
age of all the female decedents, in the same year, was 35.74 years; 
the average age of all decedents, of both sexes, 34.53 years. 

The average age of all the decedents in the State, in lsss, was over 
two years more than the average for 1887. 

The following Table will present, separately, the average age of the 
male and female decedents, and the average age of all decedents, in 
each year for twenty-nine years; also the average age in five periods 
of five years each, from I860 to 188-4, inclusive : 



128 



Thirty-sixth registration report. 
Table LIL 



[1888. 



YEARS. 


Average 

Age 

of Mules. 


Average 

Age 
if Femalee 


Average 
Age 

of All. 

29.641 

28.82 
31.15 \ .. 


Average Age, 

:> year periods, 

1860-1884. 




28.51 
36.95 

29.64 
28,29 
28.13 

26.38 
81.18 
32.16 
30.47 
28.62 

31.02 
32.57 
28.41 
26.18 
28.03 

29.72 

31.47 
29.25 
29.02 
31.29 

29.62 
30.99 
31.33 
33.64 
32.29 

33.53 
33.02 
30.97 
33.17 


30.70 
30.58 
82.65 

30.86 
30.43 

28.97 
35.07 
35.80 
35.08 
31.29 

32.75 
34.43 
31.15 
28.62 
31.66 

32.75 
33.21 
31.56 
81.11 
33.24 

32 06 
34.07 
35.57 
37.44 
35.12 

35.60 
34.91 
32.91 
35.74 










29.71 


39.56 

29.40 J 

87.691 

33.0!) 

32.85 

30.25 J 

31.901 
33.52 
29.77 \ 
27.42 

28.86 J 

31.271 
32.37 

30.09 
32.29 J 

30.86 1 
32.55 
33.50 1- 
35.55 
33.76 J 

34.591 
34.01 1 


































30.30 
































33.24 




















33.75 




31.95 1 
34.53 J 













The above Table shows that the average longevity of the decedents 
in Rhode Island increased over three years, during a period of twenty- 
five years, ending with 1884, and of four years increase, as the 
average of the last four years. 



1888. 



■J 



MATHS. 



129 



The following Table will present some of the facts of the preceding 
as occurring in the different divisions of the State, as well as of the 
State at large. It will show the average age of the decedents in each 
of the larger divisions of the State, in each of the last four years, and 
also the average of each of six periods of five year- cad), comprising 
the thirty years from 1858 to 1887, inclusive : 

Table LI 1 1. 



Divisions op the State. 



Bristol County 

Kent County 

Newport County 

♦Providence County 

Providence City 

Washington County 

Whole State 



1SSS. 



35.53 
32.78 
39.93 
30.49 
34.83 
44.37 



84.68 



1-S 



33.20 
39.15 
37.15 



ism;. 



40 04 
33.83 
50.00 



29.60 30.07 



30.00 
40.70 



31.95 



32.45 
44.12 



34.01 



iss.l. 



IJ.1I 
34 78 
44.08 
32.41 
33.81 
42.G1 



34.50 



38.45 
37 00 
42.41 
31.83 
32.19 
43.39 



88.91 



36.68 
37.11 
39.21 
30.60 
29.50 
41.01 



33.61 
36.20 
40.68 
28.46 
27.19 
41.14 



31. 8G 30.28 



i o 
t _ 

■c ' 
r •" 



35.12 
84.77 

40.04 
25.26 



31.06 



34.78 
35.81 
8ft 64 

29.10 



86.46 28.60 
39.07 ■•S0.S7 



30.73 



35.56 
32.15 
35.01 
28.44 
25.78 
34.21 

29.42 



PERCENTAGE OF DECEDENTS BY DIFFERENT AGB8. 

In Table VI, on pages 10 to 15, inclusive, will be found the num- 
ber of deaths in 1888, in each town and each county, of each sex, and 
in each period of life, with the percentage of the whole number of 
deaths in each division to the population of the same, as estimated by 
the authorities of each. 

The following Table shows the percentages of decedents in each 
division of ages, to whole number of deaths, in' each of the last six 
years, and in the aggregate for three periods ; one of ten years and 
seven months, from June 1st, 1852, to December 31st, 1862, inclu- 
sive ; one of ten years, from 1S63 to 1872, inclusive ; and one of ten 
years, from 1873 to 1882, inclusive : 



* Exclusive of Providence City. 



130 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



Table LTV. 



Periods op Life. 


1888. 


1887. 


1886. 


1885. 


1884. 


1883. 


10 years, 
1873 to 
1882. 


10 years, 
1863 to 
1872. 


10 years, 

■"i months, 

1852 to 

1862. 


1 and under 2 

2 and under 5 


19.3 
5.9 
6.G 


19.G 
6.6 

8.2 


19.9 
5.3 
6.5 


18.8 
5.2 
6.1 


20.1 
5.6 
6.6 


18.1 
5.1 
4.1 


18.9 
7.6 
8.4 


18.0 
7.8 
7.9 


17.6 
9.8 
9.6 




31.8 

4.2 
5.7 
9.0 
7.5 
7.9 
8.4 
95 
9.0 
5.0 
1.4 


34.4 

5.2 
5.1 
7.6 
7.0 
6.7 
8.0 
9.9 
9.2 
5.3 
1.6 


31.7 

4.0 
5.5 
8.7 
7.5 
7.4 
8.1 
9.1 
10.6 
5.3 
2.1 


30.1 

3.3 
5.6 
8.6 
7.9 
7.7 
8.1 
10.4 
10.4 
6.2 
1.7 


32.3 

3.5 
4.8 
9.2 
8.1 
7.2 
8.1 
9.1 
9.5 
6.9 
1.3 


27.6 

3.4 

5.4 
10.3 
8.4 
7.6 
9.0 
9.2 
10.5 
6.5 
2.1 


34.9 

5.0 
5.8 
9.2 
7.8 
6.9 
7.2 
8.2 
8.8 
5.1 
1.1 


33.7 

4.6 
6.2 
9.7 
8.1 
7.2 
7.3 
8.3 
8.4 
5.4 
1.1 


37.0 


5 and under 10 

10 and under 20 

30 and under 40 

50 and under 00 

70 and under 80 

80 and under 90 

Over 90 and not stated. . 


5.0 
5.8 
9.5 
8.7 
7.5 
6.7 
6.9 
7.3 
4.6 
1.0 


Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 







There was a slight decrease in the proportional number of deaths 
in all the diyisions of age under ten years, in the percentage to the 
whole number in 1888. Under five years the percentage was two and 
six-tenths less than the year previous. But this proportion was three 
and four-tenths less than the average of thirty years previous to 1883. 

Above the age of ten years the proportionate mortality was some- 
what larger in nearly every period. 

The rule for several years, however, has been an increased percent- 
age of mortality in the divisions of age above fifty. 

The following Table will present the varying proportions of deaths 
to whole number of deaths, in four different periods of life, from 50 
years of age to 90 years, grouped in three periods of ten years each, 
and one period comprising the five years, 1883-1887 : 



1888.] 



DEATHS. 



131 



Taim.e LV. 



Ace OP Decedents. 


l.«t Decade. 
1852-1862. 


2d Decade. 
1868-1872. 


3d Decade. 

1873-1882. 


5 Y 
Ending 1887. 


50 to CO 


6.7 per cent. 

6.9 

7.3 

16 


7.8 per cent. 

8.3 

8.4 

5.4 


7.2 per cent. 
8.2 " 
8.8 
5.1 


8.2 per cent. 
9.5 
10.0 " 


60 to 70 

70 to 80 


80 to 90 


6.0 



It lias been elsewhere observed that the natural result of a lessened 
proportion of deaths in the earlier periods of life would be a larger 
proportion of living persons in the later periods, and consequently an 
increased death rate in those periods, because of the larger propor- 
tional number liable to disease and other causes of death. 



COLORED DECEDENTS. 



The number of deaths of colored persons in Ehode Island, during 
1888, was 200. They occurred in the different towns as follows : 

Providence City 130 

Newport City 29 

Warwick 6 

State Institutions 4 

Burrillville, "1 

East Providence, 
Ilopkinton, } 3 each 

South Kingstown, 
Richmond. 
Bristol, 1 

Greenwich, I 
Pawl ticket, 
Charles town, 
North Kingstown, 
NarraganaetL J 
North Sttiilhfield,! 
Lincoln, 
Cranston, 
Tiverton. J 



}-2cach IS 



}• 1 each I 



Total 200 



132 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



Sex. — Of the decedents of color, 90 were males, and 110 were females. 
Season. — The deaths were in the different months as follows : 



Months. Deaths. 

January. 19 

February 12 

March 14 



Months. 
April.... 

May 

June ... 



Deaths. 

11 

17 

25 



Months. Deaths. 

July 14 

August 28 

September 17 



Months. Deaths. 

October 21 

November 7 

December 15 



First Quarter 45 Second Quarter 53 Third Quarter 59 Fourth Quarter 43 

i 

First six Months, 98; Second six months, 102; Total, 200. 



The following summary will show the proportion, to the whole esti- 
mated colored population, of each of the events of birth, marriage and 
death of colored persons, during the eleven years from 1878 to 1888, 
inclusive : 

One Birth One Person One Death 

in every married in every in every 

1878 36.4 39.2 40.2 

1879 39.6 51.4 37.3 

1880 47.1 43.3 44.0 

1881 34.3 39.2 35.4 

1882 36 8 44.5 45.4 

1883 33.4 63.3 39.7 

1884 34.8 46.0 34.5 

1885 36.7 51.7 40.1 

1886 34.6 43.2 37.8 

1887 35.8 38.9 37.2 

1888 37.6 55.0 38.0 

In every one thousand of the colored population there were, in 1888, 

Of Births. Married. Of Deaths. 
26.6 18.2 26.3 



The following exhibit will show the number of births, marriages 
and deaths among the colored population of Rhode Island, during 10 
years, from 1861 to 1870, inclusive; 10 years, from 1871 to 1880, \\\-. 
elusive ; and for the last seven years, from 1.880 to 1888, inclusive, as 
well as the aggregate of the same : 



1888.] DEATHS. 133 

10 years, 1801-1870 1,131 births 557 marriages 1,168 deaths. 

10 years, 1871-1880 1,615 births 705 marriages 1,578 deaths. 

1881 188 births 84 marriages 18G «1- ■ 

1882 170 births 74 marriages 146 deaths. 

1883 197 births 52 marriages 100 deaths. 

1884 185 births * 70 marriages 187 death-. 

1885 199 births 09 marriages 188 deaths. 

1886 212 births 85 marriages 198 deaths. 

1887 211 births 97 marriages 203 deaths. 

1888 202 births 69 marriages 200 deaths. 

Last8ycars 1,577 births 600 marriages 1,468 deaths. 

Total, 28 years 4,323 births 1,862 marriages 4,194 deaths. 

Excess of births over deaths during the twenty-eight years 129 

During the first ten years (1861-1870) there were twenty-two more 
deaths than births ; during the second ten (1871-1880) forty-two more 
births than deaths; During the last eight years (1881-1888) one hun- 
dred and nine more births than deaths. For the whole twenty-eight 
years there was an average excess of less than five births a year. For 
the last eight years the excess of births over the deaths have averaged 
nearly fourteen per year. During the last year, however, it will be 
noticed that the number of births was only two more than the deaths. 



136 



THIRTY-FIFTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



■a 

S 
•pa 

5* 



^ -a 

« a 

a s 

8 -2 



s 


ts 










e 

•?, 


3 

3 






^3 


■» 


S 


as 


«, 


« 






a, 


5! 




$ 


















"%, 


3 


Q 
» 


6, 


i 


v 



"te» 



3 



i 









O o 



2 m a S 



« a ? a o h ? 






a s 



j a !5 a, h 



a § 1 

- -5 £ PU 

h as K ■ 

3 £ 3 OS 

B3 © O H 



1888.] 



DEATHS. 



13? 



o 2 



■- — 
a - 



34 



S 3 



bs? 



ys 

— i ■- 

ijl 

3 "* 3 

•o a - 
||| 

0> i — 

^ t 2 

. r: — 

• x - 

J *£ 

s|| 

; BS 

■z . 

Its 

b5« 



* S ! 



ill 

= « S 

5 -• 3 

-»i 
III 

7«~ 



~ 5 » 

C S 3 

i i * 

~= »- 

- — r 

£ = a 



C ** 



- 3 a * 



s ? >• 2 ; 



a S - 
o a — 
a S. * 



a j E 2 



>, 3 >5 S! 5 in « st -. i y a s '« /, B a 



* ? 



?3£ 



S8| 

B — 3 

c . s 

= r 3 



'-.£. 



CAUSES OF DEATH, 1888. 



The statistics of the causes .of death in Rhode Island, in 18SS, may 
he found in Tables yil, VIII. I.\ and XI. The whole number of 
deaths, as previously stated, was 6,594. The number of which the 
cause of death was reported was 6,566, and the number of which the 
cause was not staled was IS. 

The following Table shows the number of deaths in 1888, in each 
large division of the State, and the number and proportion in each 
division from which causes were reported unknown : 

Table LVI. 



1888. 




- 


Newport 
County, 
Towns. 


I'rn\ Idence 
County, 
Tow us. 


a 

a . 

II 


y. 


M 

a 

s 
- 


E 

- ■■ 

it 

- 


t 

M 
a 

-- 

'- 
o 
c 

i= 

143 

1 


7. 

■- 



— 
I? 


Number of Deaths 


251 


408 


130 

1 


1,466 

- 


i 


319 
•i 


6 


9 


98 


Cause not Btated 
















139 


188.9 


368 


159.5 


93 




149 


235 5 











140 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



Table LVII. 

Proportion of Deaths reported with " Cause Unknoivn" in each Divis- 
ion of the State, and in {he whole State, for a period of thirty- 
four years, from 1855 to 1888, inclusive, arranged in 
six periods of five years each, and in each 
of the last four years. 





State Divisions. 


.a 


YEARS. 


o>- 


« >> 

go 

Mo 

O 


o 5 
£0 


o» 
S £ 

2c 

> 3 
O O 

u n 


o 

a 

u 
Ph 


e 
o . 

5 a 
•S3 


o 
2 

03 
9) 

"o 


O 

8 

o 
>> 

> 
<u 

a 


1855-1859, One in every 

1860-1864, One in every 

18G5-1809, One in every 


19.8 
25.7 
60.2 


7.6 
10.G 
12.6 

19.3 

81.2 
5.8 
16.0 
15.2 


15.4 

17.8 

28.7 

23.6 
7.9 
10.0 
25.4 
14.0 


5.8 
8.4 
7.1 

11.8 
8.4 
6.8 
9.8 

17.2 


34.3 
35.3 
58.8 
90.2 
83.6 
72.8 
102.5 
73.7 


5.3 

25.1 

21.3 

26.9 

9.8 

9.8 

27.5 

21.2 


9.0 

14.7 

14.0 

23. G 
13.0 
11.3 
20.3 
27.8 


111.1 
68.0 
71.4 
42.4 




151.0 
13.3 

54.0 


76.9 
88.5 




49.3 
45.9 




43.7 

55.0 
11.5 


27.5. 

7.4 
7.9 
17.7 
7.4 
9.2 


16.2 

15.6 
18.5 
9.7 
9.0 
12.4 


10.8 

13.7 
9.9 
11.9 
13.7 
9.5 


84.6 

91.2 
124.3 
323.0 
124.2 
225.1 


19.0 

11.9 
22.8 
16.0 
21.7 
8.6 


19.2 

20.9 
19.3 
23.2 
21.1 
17.6 


52.1 

47.8 




45.8 




43.1 




32.1 
16.6 


47.4 




56.8 






1880, One in every 


23.0 

21.9 
204.0 
37.6 
40.4 
100.0 


9.9 

23.5 
13.0 
11.6 
15.9 
40.0 


13.0 

13.5 
11.2 
10.9 
15.0 
81.6 


11.7 

10.5 
7.3 
10.6 
15.3 
91.7 


177.6 

122.3 
143.0 
187.0 
392.8 
372.1 


16.2 

17.8 
6.5 
7.7 
17.0 
94.0 


20.4 

20.7 
14.4 
18.8 
28.4 
122.4 


49.0 
48.3 


1881, One in every 


69.4 


1883, One in every 


53.2 
36.2 




8.2 








80.8 


20.8 


26.4 

137.0 
86.0 
73.5 

152.7 


27.1 

45.6 

87.0 

782.6 

164.3 


243.4 

309.1 
195.1 
264.0 
293.8 


28.6 

52.2 
55.2 

308.0 


40.9 

91.3 
113.7 
333.7 
235.7 


24.5 

10.9 




110.5 


192.5 


7.9 




3.0 








4.3 











*Not including Providence City. 



1888.] CAL'SES OF DEATH. 141 

The average annual proportion of deaths in the whole State, reported 
with cause unknown daring the first ten of the above thirty-four years, 
that is, from 1855 to 1864, inclusive, was one in every 11.8; or 89.5 
in every one thousand decedents. 

The average annual proportion of the same for the last four years 
was one in every 193.5, or less than 5.2 in every one thousand dece- 
dents, showing great improvement in the complete idling out of the 
returns. 



142 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[U 



•ha 



C 






•S 



M 

►— c 


<3 


r— 1 
> 


^ 


1-1 








w 


.0 


t-1 


*^ 


pq 







o 1 



g 






^ 
^ 



00 of 
No of 
s, 30 

ths. 








;= o-g a a 




1. a ? 2 




d,'^ 





C» .-i 






1 ,r5 





T 





















70 





«r 


1 






d 









(3 




ft 


a 





Oi t-< 



m g bs 



* I I * 



P 



1) o 






£ 3 * 

ft o 



C» r< »H »-l rl th 



B ,2 



n mS 



0.3 

as 



00 .5 



2 C^ 



.so 
a 



i-c I Si 



CO T-. 



ft a 



P 5 = 



a a 



o 2 



o - 



O *.£> 



« aril 

« ft"- 1 

a < 



g B 
& >> 

a 






< 



W M 



t-i CO 



Or-.r-.r- 



.2 




• 

s 


I 





cq a 



as 



"2 « 



e>i <-. 



£- CO — 

O C5 CS 

C» ■-. T-l 



>» 33 



ftfc 

< 



- M 



1888.] CAUSES OF DEATH. 143 

Consumption partially recovered, during 1888, the loss in the num- 
ber of its decedents in 1887 (710) compared with that of 1886 (826), 
the decedents in 1888 numbering 800. The proportion of deaths 
from consumption to whole number of deaths from all causes, and to 
the population, has steadily declined, with some yearly fluctuations, 
during the last thirty years. 

Pneumonia caused a larger unmber of deaths than in any previous 
year, but not much larger than the proportional increase of the pop- 
ulation, perhaps two per cent. more. 

Cholera infantum had a rather larger prevalence than in the pre- 
vious year, ami in a few towns was quite fatal, but was not epidemic 
in any locality. 

Diseases of the heart have been steadily on the increase for a num- 
ber of years, causing the largest number of deaths, during 1888, ever 
before recorded from those diseases. 

Typhoid fever, bronchitis, diseases of the kidneys, and cancer, were 
each the cause of a considerably increased number of deaths over the 
previous year, while diphtheria and scarlatina had a considerably 
lessened mortality. 



144 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



!> 



GQ 



S 



I 5 






Ss, 



55* 









^ 
r 

e 



•i[3noo 3aidooiiA\ 



TfC^H«H«t'^lffli(ffl 



•■BUnt![Jt!OS 



CM ri r-H 



'gSaii'i jo uoia 
-saSaoo pun ■muouitiouj 



t- CO 



C- — 
(M 30 

<N CQ 



•siiiaojuoj 



coioMt-iooiHouc^'^ii: 



•9gy PIO 



Ol T-H — 1 T-H 



•sasraasig joaii 



OtOiOC-'C'*Xt'iO»«0 



•BDSBasia jfoupig 



ff* rtH t-h 



■SBSBaSIQ ")JBDJI 



rtd CJ >-H 



•D}3 'pioqdXj, 'saaAa^j 



<CQ T-H t-H 



00-* l-H 



■[Tji-ibibjij; -gjaAaj 



■» CO C! IC 00 » O » « S « M 



■Xj3;uos^d 



•Buaqmdja; 



•tiaoqjaxjjd 



•dnojo 



nM>»M'*WMC£»b'li 



•noiidcaiisuoo 



— C5 

o o 

CO •* 



GO —i 



•ran,m!jui BJ3[c>no 



C5 00 
CO O? 
CI CJ 



00 go 



•jaonrjo 



» o - « •* a 5: o x a o ■* 



•sijtuoucug 



Ctt HH 



•sassasiQ nitug 



•S8SB3STCI pAvog 



•bisa*i«jbj pan A"xa[dodv 



-tf CO 
O O 

t-i e» 



-># CO 

CO CO 
<?4 t-h 



•sjuappov 



23 os "~ •- 






S '53 



3 3 J _; 



S^^ c.* 5h 3 cry o o 



•x:>[£ •aov.Hvj 



•xosvag 



isss. I 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



145 



5?s 



<3 



^> 



a 
w 

t-l 
H 

o 
O 



- 



S» g 



■♦a ©a 



*1 



ft? 






a)3 'pioipI.Cx 'BJDAa^j 


ic a i - e)i - - -^ <m co co ■ 

« i-h Cl tJ< O (M — i i-h 


o-*c-t>iooo» — o» 

Ol CM ■* _■ O i-h 

l-H 


•|BUU[i:K 'M9A8,a 


Tfcoioco»ot-osos^i-H 

T-H 1-1 


i-i Ol 


CO 00 t- CS n 
Clrlrl 


Aa.ijiias.CQ 


0*-*< • n SO <M O tH OS CD CS 

l-H 


i-H »0 (M i-i OS CD a :: -■ 

CO T^ 


•Biioinndia 


Ot»«IOHrtT)l •!-! • 

i-h o i-i • • 

1—1 ... 


CO CO 

1—1 


n to -T ^ / 3 
:; - — ,T. rH 


•BaoiiJitifa 


■«* • • • CO CJ i-h • ©J <N CO 

ta • • • --i 


i- cr 


• ion co -co 

• ©} i-H CO • 


•dnoJO 




-*CM 


O* Ol 



•qSnoo "iiidooii.w 



n or.?'/ 



-nii!)n[jBJg 



s-rnrj jo ikiij 
-seSuo; » ptra eraumasnj 



•Hjlinoiu-M 



lO « "« O l- » IS CO O tn 



•o3y PIO 



•bosbosiq I9A]1 



•63OTas!([ .C.)iip!M 



•83SB0SIQ 1JB0H 



•noijdmnsiioo 



osooao^o-^cocicsiotoff*' 
o* rtjo-tt-ftiflifniH 

O* l-H 



icooooot-ti . r: 
wm n i.o i - - - 1 3 

— CO 



•raiwiujni Tuoioijo 



\IO0UBQ 


TO • ■ r, CI (• O 3 I C « r- 
• • H«*lfNH 


CSOfflCOC»'VCOOt- 

1-H CO l-H 30 l-H 


•sijiipuoag 


loiooioicscsooeoaooi* 

l-H IH CI 51 H 

l-H 


eO'S'co-^r-oJco^HCO 

l-H tO CO 30 l-H 


•838B8SI(I UlKjg 


M»^r»rtOoc»noao 

JO CM l-H l-H l-H l-H l-H 

l-H 


x> o co -r cs tc x - ■- 

OJ HOJI-iHrH 
l-H 


•BOSBOSId pMOg 


— . i- to c< :: — -r -> -' c> a 


if tt ^ r. t" to — ~ 
co ^h lo 


•8i>.C[BaBj pub A"x3pdodv 


conn ■ ■* oo a ^ w o o 


oseocoto^osc-oco 
cifiiHr-t-pi OQ 7) co 


■ffjnoppDv 


GOOCOO»CO-hCSC-i-hi-hOOi- 

CMOl iHCJlHWHrtrt 


■^coooeot^csao^co 

m* ao i-i 



OOOOOOC: 3 S 
ih ih N n ^i in o t- I 1 



o T3 

U9 3 



so § t;t; s* 



UT3 - --::::: -og^Og.gjjJ 

£ * S 3 S S 5 S ggSfcntSfcfcouiS 



•- = -= 

> o*S 

O O o3 



ssoy 



•s:>iij.nvooq 



18 



146 THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1888. 



COMMENTS. 

In the preceding pages there have been presented, numerically and 
in tabular form, the various causes of death in Kb ode Island, in L888. 
In Tables VII and VIII they wvw presented at considerable length, in 
various specific terms, and in Table IX more or less grouped in a g 
eral nosological arrangement. 

In Table VII the number of deaths from each cause and of each sex 
is shown, for each month in the year, and the parentage of the dece- 
dents from each cause during the year. 

In Table V1I1 the number of decedents of each sex from each cause, 
in the different periods >>f life is given. 

In Table IX, with the classification and percentage of causes of 
death, the number of each general cause, in each division of larger 
population, is given. 

Table LIX is a compend in part of the three tables previously 
alluded to, and contains the particular's of the causes of death, in 1888, 
of the principal causes which will be commented upon in the follow- 
ing pages. 

DEATHS FROM ACCIDENTS. 

The number of deaths from accidental causes of all kinds, reported 
in Khode Island, in 1888, was 190. This number is 16 less than dur- 
ing 1887. 

Among the 190 deaths from accident there were 8 from asphyxia ; 
27 from burns and scalds; 46 from drowning; 18 from falls ; 8 from 
fractures of various kinds; 12 from poison; 25 from accidents of 
various forms on railroads ; and 46 from numerous other accidental 
circumstances. 

Of the whole number of deaths by accident 145 were males, and 45 
were females ; 63 were of American, and 127 were of foreign parentage. 

Of the sexes the proportion was 76.3 per cent, of male decedents 
to 23.7 per cent, of female decedents. Of parentage, 66 per cent, 
was of foreign, and 34 per cent, of American. 

The number of deaths in each division of the year was as follows : 

First Quarter 31 Third Quarter 45 

Secoud Quarter 56 Fourth Quarter 58 

First half 87 Second half 103 

Whole Year 190 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 1 i; 

In regard to periods of life, the decedents from accidental causes 
were divided as follows: Under 5 years, 28; 5 and under LO, 20; be- 
tween 10 and 20, 18; between 20 and 40, 3*3 : between 40 and 60, 
over 60, 30 ; and 1 . age nol 

In regard to sectional divisions of the State, 4 of the deaths from 
incidental causes were in Bristol county; 6 in Kent county; 1-1 in 
Newport county; 8 in Washington county, and 158 in Providence 
county. 

The whole number of deaths from accidental causes, in 18? 
proportion to the whole number of deaths from specified causes, in the 
State, was ahout 28.7 in every one thousand. 

In the following Table may he found the number, sex, parenl 
and locality of mortality from accidents, for twenty-four years, ending 
December 31, 1888. 



148 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 

Table LX. 



[1888. 



Mortality in the State from Accidents, with the Percentage of the Whole 
Numher of Deaths; Sex, Parentage and Locality, for twenty- 
four years, from 1865 to 188S, inclusive, in two 
periods of five years each, and for 
the last fourteen years. 



























VARIETIES. 




SEX. 


AGE. I 


STATE DIVISIONS. 










- 








T3 








































<C 











































u 


















• 




>. 


YEARS. 












c 








ft 






















a 




u 

E 


3 
a 
CO 






U 
ti 

B 
03 






S3 


P 












>> 


c 


a 
p 
o 
o 


o 
O 

V 


>> 

'6 

o 




o 

a 






t) 


hfl 










o 






















u 






S5 

Si 
o 

t 
515 


c 

7. 

= 
— 

SI 


- 

"3 



111 


03 
fa 

70 


— 

o 
oj 

i- 
fa 


c 

'5 

c 

'5 

fa 
14 


o 
« 
32 


09 

a 

a 
| 

1 


00 

5 

03 

203 


a 

o 

fa 

3.31 


"3 
397 


GO 

o 
fa 

118 


03 

a 



< 

245 


a 

.£? 
'5 

o 

fa 

270 


u 

« 

26 


o 

q 
u 

36 


— 
o 
ft 

to 

52 


2 
o 

fa 

192 


S 

> 

p 

166 


3 

■jj 

= 

is 


5 years, 1805-1869 


43 


5 years, 1870-1874 


612 


73 


159 


89 




17 


68 


10 


196 


3.16 


493 


119 


284 


328 


22 


45 


49 


219 


233 


44 




142 


17 


35 


20 




6 


12 


5 


47 


3.15 


107 


35 


65 


77 


7 


7 


8 


37 


62 


21 




132 

137 
135 
112 


12 
18 
11 
13 


37 
30 
44 
38 


12 
14 
13 
16 




4 
9 
6 
6 


10 
13 

10 


9 
5 


48 
48 
54 
45 


3.20 
3.08 

3.19 
2.50 


98 

104 
97 

81 


34 
33 

38 

31 


48 

66 
56 

48 


64 
71 
79 
64 


1 
6 
4 
2 


10 
12 
7 
9 


11 
10 
9 
12 


37 
41 
51 
26 


62 

61 
59 
59 


11 




7 




5 




4 


1875 1879 


658 


71 


168 


75 




31 


52 


19 


242 


3.02 


487 


171 


283 


375 


20 


45 


50 


192 


303 


48 




146 

155 

118 
153 


21 
16 
17 
18 


33 

29 
40 
27 


14 
19 
31 
21 




5 
9 
6 
6 


18 
20 
16 

16 


19 
8 
12 


55 
43 
60 
53 


3.02 
3 09 
3.50 

•2.81 


108 
107 
130 
117 


38 
48 

48 
36 


57 
62 
72 

61 


89 

93 
106 
92 


5 
5 
5 
4 


17 
17 
9 

8 


10 

12 
15 
9 


39 

60 
60 
63 


71 

56 
80 
66 


4 


1881 


5 


1882 


9 




3 




19? 


20 


41 


31 




7 


16 


11 


71 


3.82 


147 


50 


90 


10? 


5 


19 


14 


65 


76 


18 




— 


1880-1884 


829 


92 


170 


116 




33 


86 


50 


282 


3.26 


609 


220 


342 


487 


24 


70 


60 


287 


349 


39 


1885 


173 
190 
206 
190 


19 
23 
17 
27 


42 
58 
39 

46 


25 
19 

17 
18 


23 

8 


9 
6 

12 


15 
20 

•24 
25 


9 
9 

14 

8 


54 
55 
65 
46 


3.20 
3.25 
3.24 

2.87 


135 
141 
158 
145 


38 
49 

48 
45 


72 

84 
92 

63 


101 
106 
114 

127 


5 
16 
5 
4 


6 
11 
11 

6 


8 
10 
•23 
14 


58 
62 

81 
70 


83 
72 

71 
88 


13 


1886 


13 


1887 


10 


1888 


8 




3373 


■103 


796 


429 


31 


129 


322 


120 


1143 


3.17 


2565 

1 


808 


1465 


1908 


122 


330 


872 


1161 


1365 


223 



* Exclusive of Providence City. 



1888.] 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



149 



Table LXI. 

Mortality in the State from Alcoholism, with the Percentage of the 

Whole Number of Deaths, Sex, Parentage and 

Locality, for twenty-four years, from 

1865 to 18S8, inclusive. 





a 
o 




SEX. 


PARENTAGE 


STATE DIN 1- 
















































>, 




















































- 


YEARS. 


t 1 












>. 




>> 


a 
a 


>> 


o 

- 

= 
o 
ti 

_a 




MO 

oS 


a 

- 


■/! 


9 


1 


a 


a 
= 
o 
O 

o 


a 
a 
o 
o 


= 
o 
o 




- 
- 


o 
u 

a 

■3 




£ 


L 


3 


s 


s 






a 

9 


> 
- 


> 
o 


> 
o 






?. 


- 


a 


£u 


< 


■- 


- 


M 


fc 


0. 


- 


£ 


5 years, 1865-1869. 


55 


.38 


48 


7 


27 


28 


1 


4 


5 


12 


29 


4 


5 years, 1870-1874. 


93 




74 


19 


40 


53 


4 


7 


9 


33 


37 


3 


5 years, 1875-1879. 


81 


.39 


56 


25 


27 


54 


2 


4 


7 


17 


is 


3 


1880 


15 




9 


6 


5 


10 


1 




1 


4 


8 


1 


1881 


24 
28 
29 
27 


.61 

.51 

.58 


17 

16 
17 
19 


7 
12 
12 

s 


5 
8 
7 
10 


19 
20 
22 
17 


1 




1 


7 
9 
10 
9 


14 
18 
16 
12 


1 


1882 


1 


1868 




1 
1 


1 
4 


1 


1884 


1 


1880-1884 


188 


50 


78 


45 


35 


88 


2 


•J 


7 


39 


68 


5 


1885 


83 

12 


,11 

so 


16 
9 


6 
3 


6 
2 


16 
10 


2 
1 


1 


1 


11 
3 


7 
7 


1 


1886 




1887 


16 

it; 


.25 


14 
10 


2 

(i 


4 

r. 


12 

11 


•J 


•.' 


2 

•J 


5 
5 


4 
9 


1 


1888 




Total 


118 


.39 


305 


113 


146 


272 


14 


20 


88 


125 


809 


17 





APOPLEXY AXI) PARALY8I8. 



There were 361 deaths from apoplexy and paralysis in Rhode Island, 
iii 1SSS, according to the returns. The number reported is 39 more 
than in i!e' year 1887. 

The following Table will present the SeZj parental and local relations 
of apoplexy and paralysis, as causes of death, during the last twenty- 
four years : 

* Paw tucket and Woonaocket Included. 



150 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION" REPORT. 

Table LXII. 



[II 



Presenting the Whole Number and Percentage of the Deaths in the 
State, from Apoplexy and Paralysis combined; and also the 

Sex and Parentage of the Decedents from these causes, 
and the Number of the same in each, of the Coun- 
ties, from 18G5 to 1888, inclusive. 





5 

P 

IH 

o 


APOPLEXY AND PARALYSIS. 




6.2 




SEX. 


PARENTAGE 




DIVISIONS OP 


THE 


STATE 




YEARS 


"3 


s S 


a 

V 

o 
u 


03 
3 


15 
£ 


s 

s 
s 

<! 


p 

o 


"3£? 

to c 


Z 5 

M 3 

o 


hi h? 
OS 

a. a 

i 3 


3> „ 

16 

7= = 
S3 
a. 


O 

a 
1 5 

N 

Oh 


a 
o . 

S '■-■ 
£a 


1805.... 


3,405 


100 


2.93 


52 


48 


81 


19 


9 


8 


14 


23 


38 


8 


18GG ... 


2,970 


92 


3.09 


46 


46 


80 


12 


7 


5 


17 


24 


29 


9 


1807.... 


2,889 


124 


4.29 


59 


05 


101 


23 


9 


9 


13 


35 


49 


9 


1808 .. 


2,912 


111 


3.81 


56 


55 


86 


25 


9 


6 


19 


27 


46 


4 


1809... 


3,382 


117 


3.46 


55 


62 


92 


25 


12 


13 


18 


20 


48 


6 


1870.... 


3,238 


130 


4.32 


68 


62 


105 


25 


14 


10 


10 


39 


52 


5 


1871.... 


3,344 


156 


4.66 


73 


83 


113 


43 


10 


17 


15 


40 


61 


13 


1872 ... 


4,217 


125 


2.97 


62 


63 


96 


29 


17 


9 


10 


27 


52 


10 


1873 ... 


4,403 


134 


3.04 


59 


75 


109 


25 


9 


8 


17 


26 


57 


17 


1874.... 


4,229 


156 


3.69 


84 


72 


120 


36 


14 


10 


16 


42 


59 


15 


1875 ... 


4,317 


166 


3.61 


79 


87 


133 


33 


7 


13 


17 


46 


75 


8 


1876.... 


4.110 


165 


4.01 


79 


86 


130 


35 


13 


11 


18 


45 


68 


1 


1877.... 


4,450 


181 


4.07 


87 


94 


123 


58 


10 


10 


16 


52 


74 


19 


1878 ... 


4,441 


188 


4 23 


104 


84 


145 


43 


12 


16 


21 


58 


66 


15 


1879.... 


4,472 


220 


4.92 


114 


100 


146 


74 


12 


9 


29 


71 


89 


10 


1880.... 


4,829 


215 


4.67 


109 


106 


157 


58 


18 


13 


22 


71 


78 


13 


1881.... 


5,016 


244 


4.86 


116 


128 


170 


74 


17 


15 


25 


70 


101 


16 


1882.... 


5,074 


265 


5.22 


139 


126 


108 


97 


15 


29 


25 


65 


117 


15 


1883.... 


5,282 


275 


5 22 


138 


137 


192 


83 


11 


28 


22 


75 


118 


21 


1884 ... 


5,141 


298 


5.80 


135 


163 


170 


122 


21 


14 


28 


108 


105 


22 


1885.... 


5,389 


289 


5.38 


144 


145 


183 


100 


16 


18 


28 


99 


110 


18 


1880.... 


5,849 


333 


5.70 


173 


160 


230 


103 


11 


27 


32 


108 


120 


35 


1887.... 


6.340 


328 


5.17 


161 


167 


213 


115 


21 


27 


23 


101 


128 


28 


1888.... 


6,594 


367 


5.41 


164 


203 


234 


133 


29 


26 


29 


113 


137 


33 


Total. . . 


100,324 


4,779 


4.49 


2,338 


2,441 


3,383 


1,396 


324 


351 


478 


1,385 


1,877 


364 



* Not including Providence city. 



I sss. 



(A I SE8 OF DEATH. 



151 



Table LXIJ shows a large proportional as well aa actual increi 
deaths from apoplexy and paralysis, daring the twenty-four years. 
The proportions, however, have not varied much during the lust 

six years. 

Table LXIII. 

Ages of Decedents from Apoplexy and Paralysis, in each of the last 
twenty-four years. 



APOPLEXY AND PARALYSIS. 



1866 

is.:; 

1869 
1870 

1ST! 
1878 

1874 

1876 

1880. 
1881 

1884 

1885 . 



Total. 



D8 of Lira. 



l 
9 
2 

1 

i 

a 

i 

9 

1 
6 
4 
1 
4 
•1 
1 
1 
4 
8 

10 
8 
7 

19 

10 

■y, 






8 


19 


4 


13 


'.i 


18 


7 


14 


11 


18 


8 


18 


11 


20 


14 




11 


19 


16 


91 


7 


86 


10 




13 












19 

9 
15 
16 
20 
12 
21 
20 
89 
30 
83 
25 
84 
41 
27 
21 
36 
41 
45 

- 

60 

61 

691 



20 
21 
38 
87 
28 
33 
16 
26 
35 
39 
40 
43 
50 
40 

59 
55 

57 
56 

OS 

76 
66 
90 
85 



27 
-10 
31 
34 
II 
4.", 
41 
37 
40 
45 
19 
61 
53 
59 
70 
70 

S3 

M 

112 

100 

1,117 



19 

7 

17 

16 9 

15 1 
80 

16 1 

11 

16 1 

86 1 

39 1 

88 .. .. 

22 

36 l 

l 

34 
19 

19 

44 
61 

'.i 

s 



619 



84 



152 THIKTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1888. 



BRAIN DISEASES. 

The number of decedents from diseases of the brain proper, for 
1888, was 212. 

Of the 212 decedents 114 were males, and 98 were females. In re- 
gard to parentage, 109 were of American, and 103 of foreign parentage. 

The deaths in the different seasons of the year were as follows : 

First Quarter 79 Third Quarter 58 

Second Quarter . „ 69 Fourth Quarter 78 

First, half 148 Last half 136 

Whole number 284 

It is not in accordance with the rule that the largest number of 
deaths from diseases of the brain should occur in the first quarter of 
the year. 

Brain diseases occur largely in children. Of the 212 decedents from 
those causes, in 1888, 53 were under five years of age, and 22 were 
from five to ten years of age. 

The following Table will present the statistics of mortality from 
diseases of the brain, for twenty-four years : 



1SSS. ] 



0A1 Efi OF DEATH. 



153 



Table LXIV. 

Mortality in the State from Brain DUeases, with the Percentam of 

the Whole Number of Deaths, Sex, Parentage <ni<l Locality, 

for twenty-four years, from 1863 to 1888, inclusive. 



YEAKS. 



I860 1889 



1P70 
1871 
1879 

18! I 



1870-1874. 



1875. 
1876 
1877 

1878. 
1879 






1880 

1881. 

1883. 



1880 1884. 



1885 .. 
1886... 

1888 .. 



Total. 



- £~ 



= a z 
y. pi, 



in 



134 
136 

127 



584 

US 
150 
160 
14-2 
168 



733 
164 
181 
148 



880 

189 
189 
808 

212 



3,413 






B9 8.75 



3.16 
3.09 
300 



2.99 

3.64 

3.59 
8.19 
3.65 



3.39 
3.G9 
3.50 
8.64 

2.88 



3.40 

3.51 
3.09 

3.21 



3.68 



49 

71 
74 

71 



317 

63 

88 
75 
82 



400 



87 
103 



169 



108 

III 



1,869 



201 

46 
43 
63 
68 
53 



267 

58 
72 
67 
81 



91 
74 
83 



1,644 






281 

46 
60 
79 
76 

71 



335 



413 

89 
85 
92 
100 
77 



n; 

94 

103 
109 



1,869 



103 



49 



55 



58 



249 

49 
61 
69 
66 
75 



320 

75 
101 
89 

87 
71 



423 

95 
98 
100 
103 



1,551 



STATE lil\ ! 



b 3 z g >. 



, - g e =-H 
_ Mo o o 



17 



87 



W o 

_ 



s~ 



87 






10 I 31 
6 25 
IS 41 

10 31 
40 



207 



44 108 



214 

56 
58 
71 
52 
41 



278 

53 
69 
75 
76 



809 

42 
43 
69 
86 
74 



314 

66 

85 
85 



378 

81 
91 
80 
94 
83 



249 



1,061 



1,1 



T 
is 



80 



489 



100 3 

> 4 

95 



110 



♦ Providence city m>t Included. 

N. l?. Cerebro spinal meningitis, hydrocepbala*, tubercular meningitis and insanity not In. 

eluded in the above Table, 

19 



154 THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1888. 



BRONCHITIS. 

The number of decedents, in 1888, whose deaths were reported as 
having been caused by bronchitis, was 228. This is a considerably 
larger number than was ever before returned in a single year. 

Of the 228 decedents 105 were males, and 123 were females ; or at 
the rate of 82 males to each 100 females. 

In relation to parentage, 79 were of American, and 149 of foreign 
parentage. 

In regard to age, 115 of the decedents were under 5 years of age, 
9 were between 5 and 20 years, 18 between 20 and 40 years, 24 be- 
tween 40 and 60 years, and of the remaining 62 decedents above 60 
years of age, there were 15 deaths from chronic bronchitis. 

The following Table will show various facts in relation to the mor- 
tality from bronchitis, for twenty-four years : 



isss. 1 



( \ i 3ES OP DEATH. 

Table LXV. 



L55 



Mortality in the State from Bronchitis, twenty-four years, from 1866 

to 1888, inclusive. 













BRONCHITIS. 














ID 

s 

i» 
Q 

o 

a 

a 


a 

V 

u 

u 

II 

Sh 


BIZ. 


PABBNTASl 




DITIBIOl 


THE 


-TATK. 




\ EARS. 


"3 


00 

S 

a 

£ 
fa 


6 
a 

s 
< 


i 

3 

u 

o 
fa 




£ i 


— = 
Z - 


o * 

a ■■ 

■- - 
2 = 
> a 
o o 


9 
U 

c , 

.§& 

u. 

fa 


c 
o 

i£ 5 

/. 3 


1886 


9 
14 
19 
20 
20 
26 
2-1 
25 
27 
39 
57 
57 
C9 
80 
62 
91 
84 
100 
111 
118 
168 
174 
176 
228 


.27 

.51 

.71 

.76 

.66 

.si 

.78 

.65 

.61 

96 

1.39 

1.46 

1.62 

1 89 

1.47 

1.98 

1.80 

2.08 

8 10 

2.29 

3.08 

2.96 

277 

3.45 


4 

3 

8 

9 

8 

15 

10 

10 

12 

22 

32 

23 

32 

30 

31 

49 

48 

39 

56 

58 

B8 

75 

90 

105 


5 
11 
11 
11 
12 
11 
11 
15 
15 
17 
25 
34 
37 
60 
31 
42 
36 
61 
55 
60 
86 
99 
86 
123 


6 
10 
10 
7 
9 
11 
11 
11 
11 
12 
29 
26 
35 
37 
31 
44 
39 
47 
51 
40 
01 
81 
60 
79 


3 
4 

'.i 
13 

„ 

1C 

13 
14 

10 
27 
28 

:;i 

34 i 

43 

:;i 

47 

45 

53 

60 

78 

93 
116 
149 


i 

i 


1 
9 

1 


3 
2 
1 
2 
1 
8 
1 
1 
1 


7 
5 
5 
4 
8 
5 
6 

6 
81 

7 

22 
22 
21 
21 
. 25 
25 
41 
42 
71 
74 
68 
110 


5 
4 
10 
10 
15 
17 
17 
16 
18 
32 
33 
4G 
44 
48 
34 
56 
53 
60 
57 
62 
76 
Bfl 
84 
88 










1(s(i7 




1868 


2 


1860 




1870 








1871 


i 


1 
1 




1878 




1873 


1 


1874 


1 


1875 


.. 

i 
i 
i 
i 
i 

3 
5 

5 
3 
3 
3 


2 

1 
2 
1 
6 
1 
o 

2 

3 
4 

6 
4 


1 

1 
6 
5 
6 
2 
6 
3 
8 
13 
9 
19 
17 


2 


187G 


o 


1877 




1878 


1 


1879 




1880 


1 


1881 


2 


1882 


4 


1888 


:• 


1884 

1885 




1886 


1 


1887 


1 


1888 


6 






Total, 84 years. . 


1,798 


1.60 


851 


947 


788 


1,010 


37 


40 


109 


619 


968 


26 



Daring the Brat tour months of the year the decedents from bron- 
chitis numbered 131, daring the last four months the number was 58. 



* Not Inclnding Providence city. 



156 THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [I8i 

CANCER. 

There were 193 decedents, in 1888, whose deaths were caused by 
cancer, according to the returns. The term cancer includes all the 
various kinds, and in whatever place located. 

The varieties of cancer, as reported, may be found in Tables VTL 
and VIII, on pages 17 and 18. They are classed in Table IX as fol- 
lows : Cancer in various localities, or cancer (various), 01 ; cancer of 
the breast, 21 ; of the liver, 23 ; of the stomach, 35 ; of the uterus, 
23. 

In 1888 the deaths from cancer, in the several divisions of the year, 
were as follows : 

First Quarter 44 Third Quarter 58 

Second Quarter 43 Fourth Quarter 48 

First half 87 Last half 106 

Whole number '. 193 

Sex. — Of the 193 decedents from cancer, G7 were males, and 126 
were females ; or 34 males and 66 females in every 100. 

Parentage. — There were 128 of American parentage, and 65 of for- 
eign. 

The following Table will show the facts of mortality from cancer, 
in relation to sex, parentage and locality, for twenty-four years : 



1888.] 



OF DEATH. 



157 



Table LXVI. 
Mortality in the Sin!* from Cancer, from 1865 lo 1SSS, inclusive. 















can. i:i: 














5 

a 

o 
u 

• XI 

£ 

B 


- 
= 

9 

- 


BBX. 


PABBNTAOB. 


STATE DIVISIONS. 


TEARS 


-32 
3 


X* 

9 

a 
S 

V 


a 
u 

B 
< 


c 
w> 

'v 

- 

■- 


"5^ 


_ ^. 

Z ~ 
SI 

- 


- . * 

. - 

■A'~ 


■j 

- * 

a. 


o 

a 

i- 


g 
: . 

■= 5 


I86G 

1866 

1867 


55 
64 
68 
60 
66 
80 
66 
95 
106 
87 
95 
106 
135 
119 
186 
125 
145 
182 
169 
156 
193 
16-,' 
159 
198 


1.70 

2.29 
2.15 
2.29 

2.14 

2.18 
2 16 

2.18 
2.81 
2.72 

3.17 
2.82 
2 96 
8.72 
2.90 
2.75 
3.20 
3.05 
3.59 
2.77 
2.50 
2.08 


18 

17 
It 
21 
19 
27 
25 
26 
15 
28 
24 
K 
29 
38 
39 
45 
40 
40 
51 
39 
52 
42 
49 
67 


\- 
47 
44 
89 
47 
53 
41 
69 
61 
04 
71 
79 
106 
81 

80 
105 

92 
118 
117 
141 
120 
110 
126 


16 

57 

45 

45 

56 

66 

47' 

66 

76 

67 

62 

72 

87 

79 

70 

73 

90 

82 

105 
88 

111 
75 
96 

128 


10 
7 
13 
15 
10 
14 
19 
29 
30 
20 
33 
:;i 
48 
40 
55 
52 
66 
50 
64 
68 
79 
87 
63 
65 


5 
7 
5 

2 
5 

4 
4 
4 
3 
5 
3 
5 
9 
5 
8 
5 
3 
2 
8 
6 
8 
9 


7 
5 

3 
8 
5 
12 
7 
7 
6 
6 
6 
6 
7 
11 
6 

10 
10 
15 
17 
18 
9 
11 
5 
10 


8 

1 

10 
6 
7 
8 
5 
9 
12 
12 
7 
8 
9 
8 
9 
12 
12 
9 
12 
21 
8 
9 
10 
12 


16 
18 
19 
11 

19 
25 
25 
21 
32 
24 
25 
27 
37 
37 
28 
26 
42 
43 
49 
41 
67 
37 
49 
57 


17 
27 
18 
32 
27 
27 
25 
50 
44 
38 
49 
53 
66 
48 
66 
68 
65 
52 
86 
70 
88 
87 
80 
88 


2 
5 
3 




1801) 


3 
6 


1870 


3 


1S71 

1872 


4 
4 




8 


Ih74 

1875 


3 

5 


1878 


7 


1877 

1878 

1879 


13 
10 

7 


1880 


4 


1881 


B 




8 




1883 


•J 


1884 


4 


1885 


13 


1886 


IS 


1887 


7 


1888 


17 






Total, 24 yi-ars.. 


8,761 




812 


1,939 


1,791 


960 


115 


207 


830 


770 


1,271 


168 



OHILD-BIBTH. 

Under the bead of "Child-birth" are included puerperal fever, 
puerperal convulsions, and whatever causes of death that occurred as 

the result of child-birth. 
* Providence city not Included. 



158 THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1888. 

The number reported in 1888 was 51 ; 27 of which were from the 
immediate effects of child-birth, including metritis, hemorrhage, &c, 
6 from puerperal convulsions, and 18 from puerperal fever. 

Of the whole number 13 were of American, and 38 of foreign pa- 
rentage. 

The following Table will present the various relations in regard to 
mortality from child-birth, for twenty-four years, 1805-1888 : 



1888. | 



CAU8E8 OF DEATH. 



159 



Table LXVII. 

Mortality in the State from Child-Birth, with the Percentage of the 

Whole Number of Deaths, Parentage and Locality, for 

twenty-four years, from 1865 to 1888, intlusive. 





•5- 

3 Z. 

-■- 
-~ 

?! 

z- 

fs 

= p 
?:- 


- 
- 

u 
o 

2- 


•TAGB.' 


STATE DIYISIOHB. 


YEARS. 


= 

s 

< 


5 

'Z 
o 

- 


§5 


- - 

^ : 

- 


; - 

■^ z 

y.- 


> = 




Z + 

S 


= 
a . 

= - 
^ = 

1 - 


1805 1869 


145 

38 
45 
41 
46 
60 


1.00 

1 28 
1.45 
1.06 
1.09 
1.18 


59 

19 

18 
18 
20 
29 


86 

• 19 

2: 
23 

3! 


: 


8 


18 

6 
2 
3 
3 
4 


58 

1) 
18 
14 
15 
19 


51 

17 
19 
11 
18 
31 


9 


lsrn 


4 


1871 

1878 


2 
2 
1 
1 


3 
6 
3 
3 


1 
6 




G 


1874 


2 






1870-1874 


230 

53 
48 
46 
43 
43 


1.19 

1.30 
1.24 
1.09 
1 01 
1.02 


104 

26 
21 
18 

23 

21 


126 

27 
87 

28 
20 
83 


6 

1 
3 

4 
2 

1 


15 

6 

3 
4 
7 


17 

1 

1 
S 
3 
8 


77 

10 
18 
17 
9 
6 


96 

31 
23 
17 
21 

- 


19 


1875 


4 


1876 


3 


1877 




1878 


4 




4 







1875-1879 


888 

51 
00 
50 
58 

47 


1.13 

1.11 
1.28 
1.03 
1.10 
.91 


109 

23 
96 

18 
86 

17 

> 


121 

34 
32 
32 
30 


11 

4 

1 

1 


20 

4 
1 

:. 
5 
3 


12 

3 
3 

1 
9 
3 


60 

10 
22 
16 
14 
19 


115 

27 
29 
27 

81 

18 


15 


1880 


3 


1881 


4 


1889 


1 




8 


1884 


4 






1880-1884 


266 

47 
41 
53 
51 


109 

.87 
.70 
.71 


110 

21 
17 
15 

13 


156 
26 

■:i 
88 

88 


6 


18 

3 
4 
5 
3 


19 

4 
4 
4 


81 

15 
15 
18 


128 

24 

17 
26 
20 


14 


1885 


1 


1886 


1 


1887 




1888 


3 






Total 


1,066 




448 


618 


80 


76 


72 


349 











•Not Including Providence city. 



160 THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1888. 

CHOLERA INFANTUM. 

The number of deaths from cholera infantum, according to the re- 
turns for 1888, was 467, an increase of 112 over 1887. 

Of the 467 decedents, 239 were males, and 228 were females. 

Of parentage, 184 were of American, and 283 of foreign parentage ; 
or 153 of foreign to every 100 of American parentage. 

The following Table shows the whole number of reported deaths 
from cholera infantum; the sex and parentage of the decedents; and 
the number in each of the larger divisions of the State, in each of 
the last twenty-four years : 



1888.] 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 

Table LXVIII. 



161 











(HOLER A 


INFANTUM. 










■ 

a 
- 
O 

V- 


u 

= 

a 

V 

145 
110 
117 
154 
151 
213 
172 
391 
285 
265 
318 
250 
259 
168 
161 
247 
240 
325 
242 
325 
279 
377 
355 
467 


SEX. 


PABD 

= 
a 

a 


TAOE 
§ 

i 




DIVISIONS OF 


THE 


STATE. 




YEARS. 


0Q 

13 


o 

£ 

3 




= - 
v - 

W 3 
O 


- 3 

v 5 


-z - 

S ~- 


O 

= 


- 

z 

is = 


1865 


63 

67 

64 

85 

81 

106 

85 

195 

148 

140 

156 

131 

139 

96 

88 

188 

130 

173 

124 

177 

150 

179 

200 

239 


82 

43 
53 
69 
70 
107 
87 
196 
137 
125 
162 
119 
120 
72 
73 
124 
110 
152 
118 
148 
129 
198 
155 
228 


61 
50 
62 
66 
79 
95 
98 
167 
165 
115 
155 
105 
96 
73 
71 
109 
102 
183 
104 
139 
128 
143 
145 
184 


84 
60 
55 
88 
72 
118 
90 
224 
120 
150 
163 
145 
163 
95 
90 
138 
138 
192 
138 
186 
151 
234 
210 
283 


17 

1 

4 

13 

6 

15 

14 

16 

17 

4 

20 

5 

12 

7 

8 

13 

10 

20 

19 

10 

5 

4 

16 
18 


7 
7 
3 
4 
15 
15 
12 
16 
14 
12 
16 
12 
12 
14 
16 
11 
22 
11 
7 
12 
23 
29 
16 
35 


14 

7 
12 

6 
13 
12 
21 
16 

5 
20 
29 

9 

7 
21 
10 
14 
19 
22 
26 
16 
15 
35 
28 


48 
39 
45 
44 
48 
69 
59 
157 
120 
84 
108 
68 
% 
64 
51 
93 
75 
132 
68 
114 
133 
194 
160 
219 


50 
47 
49 
70 
65 
93 
62 
151 
88 
134 
136 
124 
122 
71 
50 
100 
102 
130 
108 
144 
86 
120 
119 
149 


9 


1866 


8 


1867 


9 


1868 


11 


1869 


11 


1870 


8 


1871 

i8ra 

1873 


13 
30 
19 


1874 

1875 


26 
18 


1876 


12 


1877 


7 


1878 


5 


1879 


6 


1880 


20 


1881 


17 


1882 

1883 

1884 


13 
5 
19 


1885 


10 


1886 


35 


1887 


9 


1888 


18 






Total, 24 years 


6,016 


8,139 


2,877 


2,629 


3,387 




342 


879 


2,308 


8JM 


344 



The number of decedents from cholera infantum, during the twenty- 
four years from 1805 to 1SS8, inclusive, was 6,016. 

The proportion to total mortality, for the period of twenty-four 
years, was 5.7 per cent, lor 1888 the proportion was 7.8 per cent. 

There were 109 males to every 100 females among the decedents 
during the twenty-foul years ; and 128 decedents of foreign parentage 
to every 100 of American, during the same period. 

•Not including Providence city. 
20 



162 THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1888. 

CONSUMPTION". 

The decedents from consumption, during 1888, numbered 800. The 
number is 90 more than in the preceding year. 

Sex. — Of these 800 decedents 391 were males, and 409 were females; 
giving 104.6 female decedents to every 100 male decedents ; or 49 males 
and 51 females in every 100 decedents from consumption, an unusually 
small difference. 

As a rule there are one hundred and twenty or more females to every 
one hundred male decedents from consumption. 

Parentage. — There were 284 decedents of American parentage, and 
516 of foreign ; a proportion of 181 of foreign parentage to every 100 
of American. 

Season. — The largest number of deaths in any one month, 81, oc- 
curred in March ; the next largest, 72, in January ; the smallest num- 
ber, 55, in July. 

The number in each quarter of the year was as follows : 

First Quarter 223 Third Quarter 186 

Second Quarter 202 Fourth Quarter 189 

First half 425 Last half 375 

Whole Number 800 

Ages. — During 1888, of the 800 decedents from consumption, 244 
or nearly one-third, were between the ages of 20 and 30 ; and 173, or 
more than one-fifth, were between the ages of 30 and 40. 

In order to show more concisely the relation of age to mortality 
from consumption, during 1888, the following synopsis is presented : 

Under 10 years of age 37 

Between 10 and 20 years 104 

Between 20 and 30 years 244 

Between 30 and 40 years 173 

Between 40 and 50 years 99 

Between 50 and 70 years 104 

Over 70 years 38 

Not stated 1 

Total 800 

The following Table shows the total deaths from all reported known 
causes, with the number and percentage of deaths from consumption 
of the same, in each of the larger divisions of the State, and in the 
whole State, in each of the last seventeen years; and also the aggregate 
for a period of twenty-five years, from 1860 to 1884, inclusive : 



1888.] 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



163 



CO M rH 



t* f-< VH 



3 *: t^ 

00 Tf ^H 



s 



s 



00 -* ,-| 



CO 


CO 


00 


t~ 


re 


Tj 


" 




© 


■"* 


co 


CM 


TI 




TO 


■^ 




o 


C- 


c* 


— 


*"" < 






1— * 


r-« 






00 


.-* 


lO 


e» 


CO 


t- 


<-> 




o 


o 


6" 


UO 


i/a 


id 


eo 


•^ 




CO 


CO 


e» 


i- 








""* 


1— i 







90 U3 T-l 



o <?* 

eo e* 



o ~. 

*H CO 



>-i t-i o 



CO o 
CM CM 



H 
P 

& 

C 



;-• « CO 



O 

o 
B 

31 

5 
pq 



5 -2 



o 

o 

g 
u 



55 



— .- <o 



■3 ■- 



C3 C 

CJ « 



H O &h 



■ — • — " 



E- O Ph 






R 
W 

o 
■ 



<» 5 
•3 O 

cs a tea 
v ? « - 

=5 S S 



H O 0- 



164 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 






rH rH IO 



rH -* rH 



CO 


-* 


co 


JO 


GO 


o 


GO 


•* 


o 


co 


-* 


© 


co 


© 


lO 


io 


© 


o 




GO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 




CO 


IO 


CO 


co 


1-1 


co 




* H 






•"* 


© 




f— » 


t^ 


o 


co 


CO 


pH 


© 


o 


** 


© 


-. 


CO 


CO 


CO 


•o 


->* 




CO 






GO 


© 


CO 


co 


CO 




CO 


CO 


l> 


,_; 


^H 


CJ 




rH 






•^ 


© 




-* 





H 


-* 


GO 


00 


CO 


5 


to 


© 


CO 


GO 
CO 


io 


© 


•* 


O 




© 


© 


o 


CO 


co 


IO 


CO 




io 


o 


t> 


io 


1-1 


CO 




1— I 








IO 




•"* 



l> 


GO 


o 


t~ 


CO 




© 


_- 


CO 


io 


t* 




o 


o 


© 




GO 


■<*« 


1—1 


CO 


CO 


co 




t> 


CO 


t~ 


■>* 


« 




1-1 






iH 


IO 




*""' 



© 


■* 


IO 


© 


© 


t- 


© 


© 


co 


CO 


"■* 




CO 


CO 


co 


© 


© 




""1, 


CO 


© 


CO 




CO 


© 


l> 


IO 


CO 




~* 






i—i 


■* 




rH 


co 


co 


© 


© 




co 


© 


CO 


^ 


© 


co 


© 


l~ 




CO 


© 


T»l 


© 


© 


CO 


IO 


CO 




CO 


IO 


© 


•<* 


CO 




rH 






rH 


■>* 




""* 



— © GO 



co 


Tt< 


CO 


© 


co 


_H 


GO 


_ 


CO 


co 


© 


CO 


-*< 


■«»< 


© 


IO 


© 


IO 


© 


CO 


IO 


CM 




t> 


CO 


© 


IO 


*"* 




1-1 






1— 1 


■^ 




*"• 


© 


Tfl 


IO 


© 


GO 


CO 


CO 


IO 


CO 


IO 


GO 




© 


© 


CO 


© 


IO 


i> 


GO 


CO 


IO 


CO 




CO 


© 


© 


© 


r-l 




T-l 






CO 


CO 




T— ( 



H CO i-i' 



r-i r- rH 



I 1 



•2 .2 

£ a 



£ 



•5 •£ 

as q^ 

-S a 

r-, 3 



63 
H 
< 

H 




O Ph 



o 



•=> .2 



— PC 

£ ° 3> 
H O Oi 



1888.J 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



Table LXX. 

Mortality in the State from Consumption, with the Percentage of the 

Whole Number of Deaths from all Causes, and the Sex, 

Parentage and Locality, in the Aggregate of 

Different Periods, 1865-1888. 





3 
o . 

.2 
fJE 

O tn 

_ C 

13 


d 
B) 
5 
a 
6 
Q 

V 

Ph 

V 

u 

OS 

C 
6 

> 
< 


8EX. 


PARENTAGE. 


DIVISIONS OP THE STATE. 


YEARS. 


■J 

n 


m 

B 

1 

E 


9 

a 


a 

.2? 
"v 

E 
O 


™ S 

is 


" 3 

Mo 


o 2 

o> o 


8. 

a £ 

> 2 
o o 

Ph 



u 

3 . 


c 
2- 

= a 

SI ~ 

* o 


1865-1869 

1870-1874 

1875-1879 

1880-1884 

1885 


2,690 

2,808 

3,879 

3,590 

781 

826 

710 

800 


17.29 
14.43 
15.04 
14.16 
14.45 
14.12 
11.19 
12.13 


1,244 

1,217 

1,436 

1,597 

382 

382 

312 

391 


1,446 

1,591 

1,843 

1,993 

399 

444 

398 

409 


1,575 

1.507 

1,499 

1,399 

315 

308 

266 

284 


1,115 

1,301 

1,780 

2,191 

466 

518 

444 

516 


116 
99 
106 
120 
12 
23 
20 
28 


226 

216 
192 
208 
45 
43 
34 
55 


233 
159 
195 
229 
47 
57 
41 
32 


909 
924 
1,060 
1,138 
273 
276 
246 
273 


1,004 

1,175 

1,473 

1,725 

348 

368 

323 

362 


202 
235 
253 
170 
56 


1886 

1887 


59 

46 


1888 


50 


Total 


15,484 


14.56 


6,961 


8,523 


7,153 


8,331 


524 


1,019 


993 


5,099 


6,778 1,071 







The proportion of deaths from consumption to the population in 
the different counties and the city of Providence, during the last four 
years, may be seen in the following summaries : 

consumption. Proportion of Deaths to Population. 
For four years, 1885 to 1888, inclusive. 

Persons, In every 1,000 

One Death to every of Popnlation. 

Bristol County 614 or 1 .63 

Kent County 515 or 1 .94 

Newport County 692 or 1.45 

Providence County Townst 406 or 2.46 

Providence City 345 or 2.90 

Washington County. 434 or 2.30 

Whole State 384 or 2.60 



* Providence city not included. 



t Including Pawtuclcet and Woonsocket. 



1G6 THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1888. 

1888. 

Persons, In every 1,000 

One Death to every of Population . 

Bristol County 421 or 2.38 

Kent County 412 or 2.43 

Newport County 942 or 1.06 

Providence County Towns* 416 or 2.40 

Providence City 345 or 2.90 

Washington County 459 or 2.18 

Whole State 404 or 2.48 

CROUP. 

There were 79 decedents from croup, in Ehode Island, in 1888. 

Sex. — Of the 79 decedents from croup, in 1888, there were 43 males 
and 36 females, a proportion of 120 males to each 100 females, which 
is in accordance with the rule of twenty-four years, in which there 
has been a preponderance of males. 

Parentage. — There were 34 decedents of American parentage, and 
45 of foreign parentage. The proportions were in the ratio of 132 of 
foreign to each 100 of American parentage. 

Age. — There were 11 of the decedents under one year of age, 17 of 
one year and under two, 39 of two years and under five, and 12 be- 
tween five and ten, and none above ten years of age. 

Season. — 

First Quarter 35 Third Quarter 11 

Second Quarter 15 Fourth Quarter .18 

First half year 50 Second naif year 29 

Total 79 

The following Table will exhibit various facts in relation to mortal- 
ity from croup, for twenty-four years : 

* Including Pawtucket and Woonsocket. 



1888.] 



CAU8E8 OF DEATH. 



167 



Table LXXI. 

Mortality from Croup, with the Percentage of the Whole Number of 

Deaths, the Sex, Parentage and Localities, for 24 years, 
from 1865 to 1888, inclusive. 





CROUP. 




3 




SEX. 


PARENTAGE. 


STATE DIVISIONS. 


\EARS. 


Q 


























o 

S 

£> 

3 

a 

z 


s 

Ml 

a 

g 


a' 

s 


w 
V 

"3 

E 

4) 

Be) 


d 

s 

s 

< 


1 

3 

o 


~. a 
£ o 


O 


o i? 

?■ = 

V o 


a 

- * 
a ^ 


o 
o 

a 


! I • 
= - 
1| 
is 


1865 


94 


.92 


44 


50 


32 


62 


16 


4 


2 


40 


29 


3 


1866 


53 


1.89 


26 


27 


22 


31 


3 


3 


3 


18 


23 


3 


1867 


50 
30 


1.86 
1.14 


25 
13 


25 
17 


21 
14 


29 
16 


3 


1 
2 


7 
3 


20 
14 


19 
11 




1868 




1869 


41 
53 


1.33 
1.70 


19 
29 


22 

24 


14 
25 


27 

28 




4 
3 


5 
1 


10 
20 


19 
27 


3 
o 


1870 


1871 


72 


2.33 


39 


88 


31 


41 


6 


8 


2 


20 


86 


1 


1872 


66 


1.70 


37 


29 


17 


49 


4 


2 


3 


28 


27 


2 


1873 


68 


1.62 


30 


38 


35 


33 


2 


7 


3 


33 


22 




1874 


05 


1.59 


39 


26 


38 


27 




10 


1 


24 


29 




1875 


96 


2..S3 


53 


43 


43 


53 


1 


3 


4 


26 


56 




1876 


102 
95 


2.61 

2.23 


50 
48 


52 
47 


42 
34 


60 

61 


1 
4 


6 
3 


1 


26 
47 


65 
40 








1878 


93 


2.20 


45 


48 


43 


50 


14 


3 


- 


25 


39 


5 


1879 


96 


2.28 


58 


38 


40 


56 I 


3 


6 


15 


25 
20 
38 
33 
25 


43 
30 
49 
32 
35 


4 
6 
2 
3 


1880 


66 


1.45 


32 


84 


27 


39 


3 


3 


4 


1881 


101 


2.16 


45 


56 


38 


63 


2 


6 




1882 


17 


1.60 


41 


36 


32 


45 


1 


2 


6 


1883 


71 


1.40 


32 


39 


33 


38 


1 


6 


4 




80 


1.55 


40 


40 


32 


48 


2 


11 


4 


29 


34 




1885 


94 


1.74 


45 


49 


42 


53 


4 


g 


6 


46 
24 
43 
34 


28 
32 
39 
27 


2 

a 

6 
5 


1886 


91 


1.58 


45 


45 


89 


61 


2 


18 


12 


1887 


118 


1.79 


58 


65 


43 


70 


g 


12 




1888 


79 


1.19 


48 


36 


34 


45 


4 


2 


7 


Total, 24 year*.. 


i.sir. 


1.78 


986 


909 


771 


1,074 


85 


133 


108 


668 


790 


61 



* Excepting Providence city. 



168 THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1888. 



DIARRHCEA AND DYSENTERY. 

There were 157 decedents from diarrhoea and dysentery, in 1888. 

g ex . — Of the 157, 69 were males, and 88 were females, or in the 
ratio of about 72 males to each 100 females. 

Parentage. — There were, of the 157 decedents, 97 of American pa- 
rentage, and 60 of foreign parentage, or a proportion of about 162 
of foreign parentage to every 100 of American. 

Age. — There were 79 of the decedents from diarrhoea and dysentery 
under 5 years of age, and there were 42 over 70 years of age, leaving 
36 for all the years between 5 and 70. 

Locality. — Of the 157 decedents, 125 were in Providence county. 
Only 3 deaths from diarrhoea were reported from each of Kent and 
Washington counties, and one death from dysentery from Bristol 
county. 

Season. — There were 101 of the deaths from diarrhoea and dysentery 
that occurred during the months of July, August and September. 

The following Table will show the deaths from diarrhoea and dys- 
entery, with the percentage, sex, parentage, etc., for each of twenty- 
four years, beginning with 1865 : 



1888.] 



CAUSES OF DEATH". 



169 



Table LXXII. 

Mortality in the State from Diarrhcea and Dysentery, from 18G5 to 

1888, inclusive. 



YKARS. 


OD 

j§ 

a 
a 
Q 

3 

o 


s 

V 

a 

fa 

41 

9U 


1805 


264 
197 
157 
97 
124 
102 
88 
183 
100 
103 
106 
122 
142 
93 
97 
98 
119 
158 
182 
153 
120 
159 
199 
157 


8.20 

6.63 

5.43 

3.33 

3 67 

3 15 

2.63 
• 
4.31 

2. 87 

2.44 

2.46 

2.96 

3.19 

209 

2.17 

2.03 

2.37 

3.11 

3 45 

2.98 

2 23 

2.72 

8.11 

8.81 


1866 


1867 


1868 


I860 


1870 


1871 


1878 


1873 .. 


1874 


1875 

1S7G 


1S77 


!n7s 


1879 


1880 


1881 


1882 


1883 


1884 

1885 

1886 


1887 


1888 




Total 


3,820 


8.12 





SEX. 


PARENTAGE. 


STATE DIVISIONS. 


"a 

8 


"5 

a 


s 

a 
< 


□ 

'3 
o 


of- 
7 a 

T 3 

as 


^ 6? 

s 3 

i< — 

M 3 
O 


O Z? 

=.- 


- 

o # 

c „; 

g g 
> = 

o o 


a 
S 

a . 

--- 

I s 


d 
o . 

ti £? 

a a 

2 = 

* o 


136 


128 


133 


131 


9 


24 


26 


87 


96 


22 


104 


93 


95 


102 


7 


11 


15 


67 


72 


25 


79 


78 


80 


77 


8 


9 


28 


49 


58 


5 


46 


51 


42t 


55 


2 


7 


20 


26 


39 


3 


64 


60 


60 


64 


9 


12 


14 


35 


47 


7 


60 


42 


4I> 


56 




7 


12 


38 


38 


7 


48 


40 


43 


45 


3 


3 


5 


34 


40 


8 


112 


71 


81 


102 


5 


17 


11 


63 


87 




47 


53 


70 


80 


8 


13 


3 


30 


44 


2 


50 


53 


51 


52 


2 


7 


3 


22 


67 


2 


60 


46 


60 


46 


9 


6 


1 


34 


51 


5 


66 


56 


52 


70 


3 


6 


2 


41 


65 


5 


64 


78 


73 


69 


8 


6 


9 


54 


55 


10 


42 


51 


51 


42 


5 


8 


2 


34 


39 


5 


48 


49 


47 


50 


9 


6 


10 


27 


42 


3 


49 


49 


50 


48 


4 


6 


10 


32 


42 


4 


56 


63 


51 


65 


2 


4 


3 


47 


57 


6 


75 


83 


69 


89 


2 


4 


28 


57 


64 


3 


86 


96 


88 


94 


7 


7 


16 


74 


75 


3 


74 


79 


69 


84 


10 


5 


11 


66 


56 


5 


61 


59 


51 


69 


7 


6 


6 


62 


35 


4 


64 


95 


70 


89 


7 


11 


1 


73 


59 


8 


107 


92 


70 


129 


6 


16 


4 


92 


78 


9 


69 


88 


97 


60 


6 


8 


3 


54 


71 


15 


1,667 


1,653 


1,602 


1,718 


138 


209 


243 


1,98 


1,871 


161 



tone of unknown pareutago Included. 
21 



* Excluding I'roviilence city. 



170 THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1888. 

DIPHTHERIA. 

The number of deaths from diphtheria, in 1888, was 191, which was 
96 less than in 1887. 

g ex , — Of the 191 decedents, 87 were males, and 104 were females, 
or a proportion of 84 males to each 100 females. 

Parentage.— -There were 79 of American, and 112 of foreign pa- 
rentage, a proportion of about 41 of American and 59 of foreign in 
each 100 decedents. 

Season. — There were 55 deaths from diphtheria in the first quarter, 
44 in the second quarter, 39 in the third quarter, and 53 in the fourth 
quarter. 

Age. — There were 110 deaths under five years of age, 69 between 
five and ten, 11 between ten and fifty, and one between seventy and 
eighty. 

Locality. — Of the 191 decedents, ?56 were in Providence county; 3 
in Kent county; 13 in Bristol county; 9 in Newport county; and 10 
in Washington county. 

The following Table shows the mortality in the State from diph- 
theria, for each of twenty-four years, beginning with 1865, also the 
percentage of deaths, the sex, parentage* etc.: 



1888.] 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



171 



Table LXXIII. 

Mortal i(>/ in the State from Diphtheria — 1865-1888. 





m 
g 

a 
S 

R 

o 
u 
5 
A 
S 
p 
fc 
<a 
o 
ft 

% 


DIPHTHERIA. 




00 

OS 

5 

P 

o 

h 

a 

£ 

9 

S3 


o 

eg 

c 
S 
5 

b 

Pu 


BBS. 


PARENTAGE 




DIVISIONS OF 


THE 


STATE 




YEARS 


m 


9 
13 
£ 


S 
« 

o 
"C 

i 

< 


E 
o 


7 a 

si 


*> 3 

MS 
O 


o £■ 

a = 
? ; 

V o 
Z.O 


C -J 

S 3 

o o 

0* 


V 
O 

a . 

F 

a, 


a 

o . 
u •*■ 

- 2 

x O 


1865.... 


3,405 


82 


2.54 


41 


41 


62 


20 


8 


11 


6 


19 


16 


22 


1866 ... 


2,970 


64 


2.29 


26 


38 


36 


28 


1 


8 


17. 


16 


11 


11 


1867.... 


2,889 


31 


1.15 


14 


17 


19 


12 


4 


4 


5 


9 


5 


4 


1868. ... 


2,912 


20 


.76 


8 


12 


11 


9 




2 


8 


8 


5 


2 


1869.... 


3,382 


33 


1.07 


18 


15 


19 


14 




5 


2 


3 


13 


10 


1870.... 


3,238 


33 


1.00 


17 


16 


18 


15 




9 


3 


4 


10 


7 


1871.... 


3,344 


57 


1.84 


23 


34 


29 


28 


1 


14 




12 


21 


9 


1872 ... 


4,247 


48 


1.24 


24 


24 


35 


18 




4 


6 


7 


27 


4 


1873 ... 


4,403 


45 


1.08 


24 


21 


35 


10 




2 


7 


12 


23 


1 


1874.... 


4,229 


59 


1.45 


30 


29 


37 


22 


2 


11 


4 


15 


20 


7 


1875.... 


4,317 


33 


.80 


17 


16 


18 


15 


1 


4 


3 


8 


14 


8 


1876.... 


4,116 


159 


4.07 


77 


82 


69 


90 


1 


2 


9 


29 


111 


7 


1877.... 


4,450 


492 


11.56 


239 


253 


283 


259 


12 


44 


2 


122 


295 


17 


1878.... 


4,441 


435 


10.28 


224 


211 


201 


234 


21 


29 


23 


106 


245 


11 


1879.... 


4,472 


259 


6.14 


121 


138 


143 


116 


7 


19 


20 


95 


106 


12 


1880.... 


4,829 


152 


3.40 


73 


79 


75 


77 


8 


6 


2 


63 


61 


17 


1881.... 


5,016 


216 


4.63 


106 


110 


118 


98 


10 


16 


8 


53 


116 


13 


1882.... 


5,074 


101 


2.10 


48 


53 


55 


46 




3 


4 


29 


48 


17 


1883.... 


5,282 


95 


1.88 


39 


56 


45 


50 


1 


7 


3 


26 


54 


4 


1884 ... 


5,141 


119 


2.31 


05 


54 


47 


72 


8 


1 


9 


39 


58 


4 


1885.... 


5,389 


99 


1.83 


47 


52 


48 


51 


5 


5 


6 


39 


37 


7 


1886.... 


5,849 


228 


3.90 


98 


130 


101 


127 


20 


21 


23 


64 


N 


2 


1887.... 


6,340 


287 


4.53 


135 


152 


101 


186 


15 


11 


4 


114 


108 


35 


1888.... 


6,594 


191 


2.86 


87 


104 


79 


112 


13 


8 


9 


58 


Be 


10 


Total, 
24yrs. 


106,329 


8,338 


3.14 


1,601 


1,737 


1,634 


1,704 


133 


241 


178 


960 


1,600 


286 



FEVER, MALARIAL. 

The number of deaths, during 1888, from diseases classed as fever 
malarial, was 71. The number in 1887 was 85. In 1886 there were 
43; in 1885, 30; in 1884, 25; in 1883, 12. 

* Not including Providence city. 



172 THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1888. 

Sex. — Of the 71 decedents from malarial fevers, in 1888, 33 were 
males and 38 were females, or 87 males to every 100 females. 

Parentage. — There were, of the 71 decedents from malarial diseases 
24 of American parentage, and 47 of foreign, or 196 of foreign pa- 
rentage to every 100 of American. 

Season. — The deaths from malarial diseases occurred in the different 
seasons of the year as follows : 

First Quarter 9 Third Quarter 27 

Second Quarter 21 Fourth Quarter 14 

First half of year 30 Second half of year 41 

Whole year 71 

Age. — The number of decedents in the different periods was as fol- 
lows : 

Under 5 years of age 14 

From 5 to 20 years of age 11 

From 20 to 40 years of age 16 

From 40 to 60 years of age 16 

60 and over 14 

71 

It will be seen that the disease was most fatal in the early and late 
periods of life. 

Localities — Bristol county, 1 ; Kent county, 2; Newport county, 3 ; 
Providence county, 65; Washington county, none. 

PETERS, TYPHOID, ETC. 

The number of decedents, whose deaths were returned as having 
been caused by "fever" of some form, not malarial nor cerebro-spinal, 
was 235. Deaths from puerperal fever are not included. 

The term "fever" includes the following types of febrile diseases, 
as may be seen in Table VII, on page 20 : "fevers unspecified," 11 ; 
"typhoid," 224. 

, The following Table exhibits, for each of the last twenty-four years, 
the number and the percentage, and the sex and parentage of the 
decedents from such fevers, and the number in each division of the 
State : 



1888.] 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 

Table LXXIV. 



173 











TYPHOID FEVER, 


ETC. 












CD 

3 

9 

a 

o 

k 

<U 

A 

9 

□ 


o 

to 

OS 

c 

V 

g 

fa 


SEX. 


PARENTAGE. 


STATE DIVISIONS. 


YEARS. 


9 

S 


J) 
"3 

s 

5 

fa 


C 

03 

o 
'C 
B 

E 
< 


s 

E 
O 
fa 


7 = 
So 


^ 6j 

a a 


o £> 
> = 

O O 


- » 

> = 
o o 

fa 


s 

c 

Is 

is 

c 

fa 


§ . 

3 g 

is 


1865 


229 
150 
119 
84 
101 
153 
125 
179 
172 
117 
147 
126 
134 
150 
114 
158 
143 
229 
258 
165 
158 
169 
127 
235 


6.4 
6.0 
4.1 
2.9 
3.0 
4.7 
3.7 
4.2 
3.9 
2.8 
3.4 
3.0 
3.0 
3.4 
2.7 
3.4 
2.8 
4.7 
4.8 
3.2 
2.9 
2.9 
2.0 
3.6 


114 
73 
60 
45 
53 
66 
60 
87 
73 
57 
73 
65 
63 
68 
47 
74 
74 

111 

146 
83 
71 
78 
67 

125 


115 
77 
59 
39 
48 
87 
65 
92 
99 
60 
74 
61 
71 
82 
67 
84 
69 

118 

112 
82 
87 
91 
60 

110 


149 
82 
84 
57 
79 
80 
69 
91 

113 
56 
90 
71 
65 
77 
63 
94 
74 

100 

117 
78 
70 
76 
58 
88 


80 
68 
35 
27 
22 
73 
56 
86 
59 
61 
57 
55 
69 
73 
51 
64 
69 
129 
141 
87 
88 
93 
69 
147 


8 
7 
9 
4 
7 
5 
2 
4 
4 
1 
1 
5 
8 
13 
4 
8 
4 
6 
9 
7 
6 
6 
2 

20 


17 
5 

10 
5 
7 
11 
8 
12 
9 
10 
4 
9 
10 
13 
13 
12 
13 
11 
16 
7 
14 
8 
14 
M 


22 
32 
17 
7 
1 
14 
10 
6 
9 
3 
6 
13 
8 
6 
6 
5 
14 
5 
10 
12 
8 
11 
9 
14 


82 
54 
47 
30 
37 
57 
41 
75 
61 
37 
49 
44 
52 
59 
44 
66 
58 
56 
82 
66 
69 
66 
49 
66 


79 
45 
31 
23 
33 
49 
51 
65 
56 
58 
69 
33 
44 
47 
40 
52 
41 
145 
134 
64 
53 
70 
38 
102 


21 


1866 


7 


1867 


5 


1868 

1869 


15 
16 


1870 


17 


1871 


13 


1872 


17 


1873 


33 


1874 

1875 


8 
18 


1876 


22 


1877... .* 


12 


1878 


12 


1879 


7 


1880 


15 


1881 


13 


1882 


6 


1883 


7 


1884 


9 


1885 


8 


1886 


8 


1887 


15 


1888 


9 






Total, 24 years.. 


3,742 


3.4 


1,889 


1,909 


l.'.tsi 


1,761 


150 


162 


248 


1,847 


1,422 


313 



Duriug the period of twenty-four years, 18G5 to 1888, inclusive, the 
proportions of the sexes of the decedents from "fever," in Rhode 
Island, were 105 females to every 100 males. 

Parentage. — There were 88 decedents from fever, of American pa- 
rentage, in 1888, and 147 of foreign parentage, a proportion of about 
60 of foreign and 40 of American in every 100 decedents. 

* Providence city not included. 



174 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888 



The following Table shows the number of decedents from fevers, 
in each division of ages, in each of the last twenty-four years, in the 
State of Ehode Island : 

Table LXXV. 



TYPHOID FEVER. 


Periods of Life. 


YEARS. 


o 

h 

a 
a 
P 


o 

o 


o 
at 

o 
m 


o 

CO 

o 
o 


o 
•& 
o 

o 

CO 


o 
in 
O 

o 


o 
o 

o 

o 


© 
i- 
o 

s 


o 

CO 

o 

g 


. 

u 
9 
o 
-9 
o 

00 


•6 

V 

<a 
at 

o 
S3 




35 
38 
17 
10 
10 
15 
13 
17 
27 
10 
83 
21 
22 
17 
19 
25 
25 
24 
36 
24 
35 
29 
24 
27 

526 


18 
10 

6 

7 

8 
13 
10 
18 
12 
14 
14 
10 
13 
16 

7 
12 

9 
22 
25 
13 
12 

9 

8 
27 

313 


46 
21 
24 
10 
14 
28 
20 
34 
34 
26 
19 
15 
13 
27 
14 
24 
19 
44 
46 
19 
16 
25 
16 
42 

595 


54 
26 
33 
21 
28 
39 
28 
54 
31 
32 
43 
24 
36 
47 
26 
43 
27 
69 
75 
47 
25 
41 
31 
75 

965 


30 

21 
12 
8 
9 
16 
18 
20 
25 
9 
18 
14 
20 
13 
15 
23 
14 
27 
31 
22 
26 
20 
16 
29 

456 


14 
16 
11 

8 

7 
20 
16 

9 
13 

5 
10 

9 

8 
11 

6 
12 
11 
14 
12 

9 
11 
14 
10 
16 

272 


18 
9 
8 
10 
9 
7 
9 
12 
13 
10 
10 
6 
5 
12 
3 
10 
9 
9 
11 
12 
11 
17 
5 
12 

237 


7 
14 
4 
4 
8 
7 
4 
11 
7 
3 
6 
16 
7 
2 
12 
5 
12 
10 
10 
10 
12 
8 
8 
3 

190 


5 
10 
2 
5 
6 
6 
5 
3 
8 
6 
4 
£ 
2 
3 
8 
3 
11 
9 
8 
5 
6 
5 
4 
4 

134 


2 

2 

2 
1 
2 
1 
2 
2 

3 
2 
2 
3 

4 
1 
2 
3 
4 
1 
4 

43 










1 




































2 




1 








1 




1 












2 




1 












1 








10 







Of the 3,742 decedents from fever, during the last twenty-four 
years, 1,434 were under 20 years of age, and 1,421 were between 20 
and 40 years of age. There was, therefore, over 38 per cent, of the 
decedents under 20 years of age, and nearly the same per cent, be- 
tween 20 and 40 ; or about 75 per cent, of the whole number of dece- 
dents from typhoid fevers were under 40 years of age. 



1888.] 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 

Table LXXVI. 



175 



Comparative Exhibit of the Percentages of Deaths from Typhoid Fever, 
to Total Deaths from Specified Causes, in four New England 

States, fur thirteen years, 1816-1888. 



1870 



1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 



1— J iss:} 



1884 1886 1886 1881 



1888 



Rhode Island 

Massachusetts.. . 

Connecticut 

Vermont 



3.6 
2.2 



DISEASES OF THE HEART. 

The number of decedents from diseases of the heart, as reported in 
1888, was 436. The number is larger by 30 than that of 1887. 

Sex. — There were 196 male decedents, and 240 female decedents ; a 
proportion of about 81 males to every 100 females. 

Parentage. — Of the 436 decedents from diseases of the heart, in 
1888, there were 240 of American parentage, and 196 of foreign, a 
proportion of 123 of American parentage to every 100 of foreign. 
This is in accordance with the invariable rule of the whole period of 
registration. 

The following Table exhibits for each of the last twenty-four years, 
1865 to 1888, inclusive, the number and percentage, and the sex and 
parentage of the decedents from diseases of the heart, and the num- 
ber of the same in each division of the State : 



176 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 

Table LXXVIL 



[1888. 











DISEASES OF 


THE 


HEART. 










£ 

3 

£ 


S 
o 
u 
a 


SEX. 


PARENTAGE 




DIVISIONS or 


THE 


STATE 




YEARS. 


CO 

JO 

cS 


op 

u 

S 

9 


a 

a ' 

< 


a 

bp 

'v 
u 
o 




? = 
o 


H 

4> o 


o* 

C £ 

2a 

> 2 
o o 

Pt 


U 

c . 

'I s 


a 
2 • 

5 a 
£ 3 
« o 


1865 


98 
115 
114 
116 
128 
117 
144 
189 
189 
214 
186 
166 
182 
166 
202 
231 
264 
255 
325 
285 
349 
330 
406 
436 


2.88 
3.87 
3.94 
3.96 
3.78 
3.61 
4.30 
4.45 
4.29 
5 06 
4.31 
4.03 
4.09 
3.73 
4.78 
5.03 
5.65 
5.31 
6.20 
5.60 
6.48 
5.20 
6.40 
6.56 


51 
58 
67 
58 
75 
77 
78 
104 
83 
109 
84 
81 
94 
88 
114 
125 
131 
116 
167 
135 
162 
152 
205 
196 


47 
57 
47 
58 
53 
40 
66 
85 
106 
105 
102 
80 
88 
78 
88 
106 
133 
139 
158 
150 
187 
178 
201 
240 


65 

90 

81 

89 

79 

77 

91 

119 

122 

150 

113 

109 

110 

109 

127 

146 

154 

162 

179 

163 

198 

184 

240 

240 


33 
25 
33 
37 
49 
40 
53 
70 
67 
64 
73 
57 
72 
57 
75 
85 
110 
93 
146 
122 
151 
146 
166 
196 


6 
7 
4 
5 
2 
4 
4 
5 
4 
6 
2 
9 
3 
5 
8 
9 
9 
8 
8 
6 
13 
12 

11 


5 

8 
9 
8 
13 
10 

9 
11 

6 
13 
11 

7 
11 
20 
31 
21 
16 
27 
16 
27 
20 
21 
22 


8 
10 

7 
12 
11 

8 

8 
10 
14 
28 
22 
10 

9 
15 
16 
29 
24 
23 
30 
25 
25 
18 
36 
40 


27 
41 
37 
35 
36 
35 
42 
59 
48 
50 
49 
38 
57 
38 
38 
59 
73 
55 
70 
87 
94 
82 
123 
122 


47 
40 
49 
52 
62 
59 
77 
83 
101 
106 
88 
86 
93 
83 
111 
104 
121 
142 
172 
139 
159 
168 
193 
210 


5 


1866 

1867 


9 
8 


1868 


4 


1869 


4 


1871 


1 
6 


1872 


13 


1878 


11 


1874 


18 


1875 

1876 


12 

12 


1877 


13 


1878 


14 


1879 


9 


1880 


9 


1881 


16 


1882 


11 


1883 


18 


1884 


12 


1885 


31 


1886 

1887 


30 
26 


1888 


31 


Total 


2,207 


4.60 


2,615 


2,592 


3,167 


2,040 


157 


339 


438 


1,395 


2,555 


323 







Sex. — Of the 5,207 persons deceased from diseases of the heart, in 
the last twenty-four years, 2,615 were males, and 2,592 were females ; 
or 101 males to each 100 females. 

Parentage. — Of the 5,207 decedents, during twenty-four years, 3, 167 
were of American parentage, and 2,040 of foreign. 

•Not including Providence city. 



1888.] 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



177 



The proportions would, therefore, stand as follows : To every 100 
of foreign parentage there were about 155 of American ; or about 64 
American and 36 of foreign parentage in every 100 deaths. 

The following Table shows the number of decedents from diseases 
of the heart, in each divisional period of life, in each of the last twenty 
four years : 

Table LXXVIIL 



V SABS. 


8 

h 

V 

•a 

a 


8 

2 
8 


© 
o 

CO 


© 
o 

© 


© 

CO 

o 

i 


o 

i 


o 
an 
O 


- 
> 
o 

1 

CO 

© 

CO 


•a 

9 

3 

■ 

o 
Z 


1865 


14 

18 
11 
15 
21 
19 
9 
27 
19 
20 
14 
14 
15 
16 
19 
15 
32 
22 
39 
15 
38 
39 
52 
39 


4 

8 

11 

5 

4 

6 

12 

12 

11 

16 

16 

10 

11 

8 

9 

10 

13 

17 

13 

25 

13 

18 

30 

25 


6 
14 
10 
13 
14 
11 
10 
22 
28 
26 
25 
15 
20 
18 
13 
18 
26 
24 
21 

u 

24 

2s 
23 
30 


7 
17 
13 
11 
18 
13 
19 
19 
18 
21 
20 
19 
18 
16 
25 
23 
23 
25 
33 
32 
42 
38 
35 
54 


22 
10 
22 
14 
20 
20 
23 
31 
25 
27 
32 
20 
27 
26 
33 
38 
37 
36 
52 
45 
61 
52 
61 
-I 


17 
23 
16 
28 
22 
21 
36 
36 
35 
50 
29 
38 
45 
36 
51 
49 
49 
51 
65 
61 
69 
68 
79 
to 


19 

21 
27 
25 
21 
23 
28 
29 
42 
40 
41 
39 
33 
35 
36 
49 
53 
61 
76 
50 

;- 

68 

87 
74 


9 
4 
4 
5 
7 
3 
6 
13 
9 

12 
9 
10 
13 
11 
16 
28 
21 
17 
86 
89 
24 
18 
39 
88 




1866 




1867.. 

1868 




1869 

1870 


1 
1 


1871 


1 


1872 




1873 


2 


1874 


2 


1875 . . 




1876 


1 


1877 

1878.. 




1879 




1880 


1 


1881 




1882 


2 


1883 




1884 


4 


1885 




1886 




1687 




1888 








Total 


542 


307 


460 


569 


818 


1.071 


1,056 


369 


15 







The proportion of about one-ninth under 20 years of aire will be 
noticed. 

The results of twenty-four years of registration, with record of ages 



178 THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION" REPORT. [1888. 

of decedents from diseases of the heart, show in periods of twenty years 
each of life, the following percentages : 

Under 20 years of age 10.6 per cent. 

Between 20 and 40 15.0 per cent. 

Between 40 and 60 26.6 per cent. 

Between 60 and 80 40-8 Per cent. 

Over 80 r >'-° P er cent • 

100.0 per cent. 

It will be seen that about 41 per cent, of all the deaths from diseases 
of the heart were of persons over sixty years of age, and under eighty. 

Diseases of the heart have acquired large importance as a cause of 
death. From 28.8 in every 1,000 deaths from all causes, in 1865, 
heart diseases have gradually increased to about 64 in every 1,000, in 
1888. 

INSANITY. 

There were 43 deaths from insanity, in 1888, a decrease of 21 from 

1887. The percentage to the whole number of deaths was a trifle over 
six-tenths of one per cent. These deaths occurred chiefly at the 
Cranston institutions, and in the Butler hospital. One death occurred 
in Bristol county, and two in Kent county. 

Sex. — There were 21 male and 22 female decedents, 

Parentage. — The number of American decedents from insanity was 
24, and of foreign parentage 19. 

The following Table shows the mortality in the State from insanity, 
for each of twenty-four years, with sex, parentage, etc., from 1865 to 

1888, inclusive : 



1888.] 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



179 



Table LXXIX. 

Mortality in the State from Insanity. 





.= 

a >, 

3 — 

Pa 

o c 

11 


03 

5 


SEX. 


PARENTAGE. 


STATE DIVISIONS. 


YEARS. 


■ 
6 

"3 


Ob 
« 

"3 
S 
s 
fa 


a 
3 

V 

a> 
E 

< 


a 
M 

2 

o 
fa 




gs 

* - 

Mo 
O 


o O 


c * 

i >. 

o§ 

Oh 


- 
= 

o^ 
c 

fa 


a 
o . 

B - 
|| 

= 


1806 


20 
18 

14 
13 
14 


.59 
.47 
.52 
.44 
.45 


9 

7 

7 
7 

6 


11 

6 

7 

. 

I 


16 
10 
12 
8 
9 


4- 

3 
2 
5 
5 




3 
2 
2 

1 


3 


2 

1 

2 


14 
10 

11 
10 
9 


1 


1866 . 




1867 


1 


1868 

1869 












1870 


71 

18 
16 
26 
19 
13 


.49 

.55 
.45 
.61 
.45 
.32 


86 

6 
11 

11 
8 
7 


88 

12 
5 
15 

11 
6 


55 

13 
13 
16 
11 
11 


19 

5 
3 

10 
8 
2 




8 


3 

1 
1 
1 
2 


7 

2 
4 

12 
5 
3 


51 

15 
11 
10 
12 
9 


8 


1871 




l^r-.' 


3 






1873 




1874 





1 




1875 


92 

32 
12 

19 
22 
17 


.48 

.78 
.28 
.49 
.50 
.40 


43 

18 
5 

5 
11 


49 

14 
7 
10 
17 
6 


64 

25 
9 
9 
16 
10 


88 

7 
3 
10 
6 
7 


8 

1 


1 

1 

2 
1 


5 

4 

1 

1 


26 

9 
1 
5 
3 
5 


57 

16 
6 

12 
17 
11 


2 


1876 


1 


1877 

1878 

1879 


1 
1 
1 












1880 


102 

19 
32 
23 
29 
36 


.49 

.39 
.63 
.45 
.55 
.69 


48 

9 

15 

9 
12 
17 


54 

10 
17 
14 
17 
19 


69 

13 
22 
18 
17 
24 


33 

G 
111 

5 
12 
12 


1 

1 

1 
2 


4 

1 
1 

1 
2 
3 


6 

2 
3 


23 

6 

10 
8 
7 

21 


68 

9 
16 
12 
18 

9 


6 

1 


1881. 


1 


1882 

1883 


2 
1 


1884 


1 






1885 


139 

35 
49 
64 
43 


.54 

.67 

.83 

1.01 

.64 


62 

16 
21 
35 
21 


77 

19 
28 
29 
22 


94 

18 
28 
33 
M 


45 

17 
21 
31 
19 


4 


8 


6 

2 
1 

1 


52 

23 
37 
56 
33 


64 

10 
7 

7 


6 


1886 


3 
1 

1 


1 
2 




1887 


6 


1888 








Total, 24 years.. 


598 


.56 


2-J 


316 


385 


813 


18 


84 


88 


257 


261 


80 



* Providence city not included. 



180 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



Table LXXX. 

Mortality in the State from Kidney Diseases, with the Percentage of 

the Whole Number of Deaths, Sex, Parentage and Locality 

J or twenty-four years, from 1865 to 1888, inclusive. 





m 

°3 m 

Si 03 

Q % 

~Q 

2 c 
S ^ 

1 « 




SEX. 


PARENTAGE. 




STATE DIVISIONS. 






a 

V 



<U 






















YEARS. 




OB 

<D 
H 

a 

Em 


q 

« 

a> 

3 
< 


a 

M 

a) 




o£> 

to S 

H 


M 5 



1* 

p. a 

<v 


0* 
g >> 

5 
1° 





Si 

I s 


a 
. 

2 - 
■So 


1865 


13 


.39 


12 


1 


10 


3 


1 




5 




5 


2 


1866 


16 


.58 


10 


6 


12 


4 


1 


1 


2 


5 


7 




1867 


32 


1.19 


22 


10 


23 


9 


2 


1 


3 


7 


17 


2 


1868 


24 


.80 


18 


6 


15 


9 


1 




5 


3 


12 


3 


1869 


32 


.95 


21 


11 


20 


12 | 


1 


2 


4 


8 


16 


1 




117 


.76 


83 


34 


80 


37 


6 


4 


19 


23 


57 


8 


1870 


31 
43 


.96 
1.39 


53 
27 


8 
16 


21 
31 


10 
12 


1 
2 


3 
3 


6 
3 


5 
10 


14 
21 


2 


1871 


4 


1872 


55 


1.42 


30 


25 


39 


26 


4 


2 


2 


11 


34 


2 


1873 


66 


1.57 


38 


28 


40 


26 




3 


5 


19 


31 


8 


1874 


66 
261 


1.62 


36 


30 


41 


25 


4 


3 


3 


11 


44 


1 




1.34 


154 


107 


162 


99 


11 


14 


19 


56 


144 


17 


1875 


65 


1.58 


36 


29 


46 


19 


1 




4 


16 


42 


2 


1876 


50 
67 
80 
79 


1.28 
1.57 
1.89 

1.88 


' 22 

40 
50 
51 


28 
27 
30 
28 


32 
35 
49 
44 


18 
32 
31 
35 


1 
2 
4 

1 


1 
1 
3 
3 


7 

8 

1 


10 
14 
21 
23 


28 
49 
47 
43 


3 


1877 


1 


1878 


2 


1879 


8 








341 


1.56 


199 


142 


206 


135 


9 


8 


15 


84 


209 


16 


1880 


91 


2.02 


52 


39 


51 


40 


1 


5 


10 


27 


46 


2 


1881 


79 


1.69 


40 


39 


47 


32 


7 


5 


4 


14 


48 


1 


1882 


86 


1.79 


50 


36 


45 


41 


2 


5 


10 


15 


52 


2 


1883 * 


129 

118 


243 
2.29 


72 
53 


57 
65 


74 
66 


55 
52 


5 
5 


2 
11 


17 
12 


37 

28 


60 
54 


8 


1884 


8 








503 


1.98 


267 


236 


283 


220 


20 


28 


53 


121 


260 


21 


1885 


159 
155 
169 
213 


2.97 
2.49 
2.66 
3.23 


92 
85 
92 
102 


67 
70 

77 
111 


86 
93 
90 
122 


73 
62 
79 
91 


8 
3 
5 
10 


10 
10 
6 
10 


17 
22 
16 
24 


31 
37 
43 
46 


88 
71 
92 
115 


5 


1886 


12 


1887 


7 


1888 


8 


Total 


1,918 


1.80 


1,074 


844 


1,122 


796 


72 


90 


185 


441 


1,036 


94 







* Providence city not included. 



1888.] 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



181 



Table LXXXI. 

Percentage to Whole Number of Deaths, Sex, Parentage and Loral if g 
of Drnilrnts from Diseases of the Liver. 



YEARS. 



1865 
1866. 
1867 
1868. 
1869. 

1870. 
1871 
1872 
1873. 
1874. 

1875. 
1876 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 

1880. 

1881 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 



1885.. 
1886.. 
1887.. 

1SSS 

Total. 



27 

50 
38 
31 
37 

183 

45 
35 
35 
45 
40 



SOU 

47 
45 
52 
49 
52 



245 

58 
46 
62 
51 
48 
2ii5 

61 
54 
86 
68 



1.162 



.79 
1.68 
1.31 
1.06 
1.09 
1.19 

1.23 
1.13 

.82 
1.02 

.95 
1.03 

1.09 
1.09 
1.17 
1.10 
1.24 
1.14 

1.27 
.92 

1.22 
.94 



1.06 

1.13 
.92 
1.35 
1.03 
1.09 



19 

27 
18 
20 
19 
108 

17 
18 
18 
20 
21 
M 

26 
26 
23 
86 

27 



127 



106 

21 
19 
29 
24 
25 



118 



29 
BO 
84 
27 
22 I 26 



26 



117 

19 
27 
31 
32 
31 



142 


123 


24 


87 j 


29 


25 


40 


46 


86 


30 


597 


565 



40 
21 
36 
20 
23 
140 



FAKE! 


1TAGE 


a 




fl 


C 




M 


ii 


<u 


£ 


o 


< 


* 


21 


Ii 


38 


12 


20 


18 


20 


" 


23 


14 


122 


61 


29 


16 


19 


16 


17 


18 


26 


19 



DIVISIONS OP TUB STATE. 



«5 



14 II 



140 105 



18 
25 
26 
31 
25 
125 



n 

u 

88 | 48 
89 

, 511 



75 



Wo 
O 



s = 



- ■■ - . 

9 S ■ >. 

~> = '>■ 

o o o 

p* a. 



124 



320 



10S 

25 
24 
21 
18 
81 



122 

21 
28 
39 



4-vs 






3 
4 
S 

9 

2 

14 



* Providence city not included. 



182 



THiItTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION" REPORT. 



[1888. 



Table LXXXII. 

Comparative Mortality between Kidney and Liver Diseases and Dropsy 
for thirty -six years — 1858 to 1888. 





DEATHS PROM j 
KIDNEY DISEASES 


DEATHS FROM 
LIVER DISEASES 


TOTAL DEATHS 

PROM KIDNEY AND 

LIVER DISEASES. 


DEATHS PROM 
DROPSY. 


Excess or Diminution 
of Dropsy in refer- 
ence to Kidney and 
Liver Diseases. 


Id 

3 05 

QS 


YEARS. 


O 
EH 


3 


CO 

<D 
3 

a 

fa 


3 
O 
EH 


a 
"3 

3 


3 

a 

CD 
fa 


3 
O 
Eh 


8 


CD 

"3 

a 

fa 


3 

O 
Eh 


V 

3 
8 


V 

3 

a 
fa 


. o 

go 

£*" 


1853-1857. 


26 


20 


6 


51 


28 


23 


77 


48 


29 


208 


89 


119 


4-131 


2.21 


1858-1863. 


71 


38 


33, 


168 


87 


81 


239 


125 


114 


270 


113 


157 1 


+31 


2.07 


1863-1867. 
1868 


99 
24 


69 
18 


30 
6 


191 
31 


104 

20 


87 
11 


290 
55 


173 
38 


117 
17 


371 
49 


169 
23 


202 
26 


+811 
Deere 

6 


2.10 

ase 
1.68 


1869 


32 


21 


11 


37 


19 


18 


69 


40 


29 


53 


23 


30 


16 


1.57 


1870 


31 


23 


8 


45 


17 


28 


76 


40 


36 


61 


32 


29 


15 


1 88 


1871 


43 


27 


16 


35 


18 


17 


78 


45 


33 


56 


25 


31 


22 


1.67 


1872 


55 


30 


25 

66 


35 


18 


17 


90 


48 


42 


55 


23 


32 


25 
94 


1 29 


1868-1872. 


185 


119 


183 


92 


91 


368 


211 


157 


274 


126 


148 


1 62 


1873 


66 


38 


28 


45 


20 


25 


111 


58 


53 


60 


32 


28 


51 


1.36 


1874 


66 


36 


30 


40 


21 


19 


106 


57 


49 


39 


18 


21 


67 


.92 


1875 


65 


36 


29 


47 


26 


21 


112 


62 


50 


56 


18 


38 


56 


1.29 


1876 


50 


22 


28 


45 


26 


19 


95 


48 


47 


66 


32 


34 


29 


1.61 


1877 


67 


40 


27 


52 


23 


29 


119 


63 


56 


63 


25 


38 


56 
259 


1.42 


1873-1877. 


314 


172 


142 


229 


116 


113 


543 


288 


255 


284 


125 


159 


1 32 


1878 


81 


51 


30 


49 


25 


24 


130 


76 


54 


38 


21 


17 


92 


.86 


1879 


81 


52 


29 


52 


27 


25 


183 


79 


54 


50 


26 


24 


83 


1 12 


1880 


91 


52 


39 


58 


29 


29 


149 


81 


68 


37 


15 


22 


112 


.77 


1881 


79 


40 


39 


46 


30 


16 


125 


70 


55 


47 


23 


24 


78 


.94 


1882 


88 


47 


41 

178 


62 


34 
145 


28 
122 


' 150 


81 


69 


50 


22 


28 


100 
465 


.99 


1878-1882. 


420 


242 


267 


687 


387 


300 


222 


107 


115 


.94 


1883 


117 


67 


50 


51 


27 


24 


168 


94 


74 


47 


21 


26 


121 


.89 


1884 


133 


58 


75 


52 


24 


28 


185 


82 


103 


40 


20 


20 


145 


.78 


1885 


168 


95 


73 


61 


24 


37 


229 


119 


110 


44 


30 


14 


185 


.82 


1886 


163 


91 


72 


71 


38 


33 


234 


129 


105 


49 


20 


29 


185 


.84 


1887 


169 


92 


77 


86 


40 


46 


255 


132 


123 


35 


14 


21 


220 

856 


.55 


1883-1887. 


750 


403 


347 


321 


153 


168 


1,071 


556 


515 


215 


105 


110 


.78 


1888 


213 


102 


in 


68 


38 


30 


281 


140 


141 


48 


18 


30 


233 


.73 


Totals . . . 


2,078 


1,165 


913 


1,478 


763 


715 


3,556 


1,928 


1,628 


1,892 


852 


1,040 


1,664 


,1.55 



1888.] 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



183 



Table LXXXIII. 

Mortality in the State from Old Age, with the Percentage of the Whole 

Number of Deaths, Sex, Parentage and Locality, for 

twenty-four years, from 1865 to 1888, inclusive. 





la 

u 

= 


a 

V 



q> 


SEX. 


PARENTAGE 




division- or 


THE 


STATE. 




\ BARS. 


00 

a 


■ 

Is 
S 

V 

in 


6 

a 
'£ 

V 

= 
< 


E 
O 


§6 

If 

- _ 


= s 

-- - 

Xz 

O 


%6 

Z, z 
SCO 


-_ » 

S 3 

s§ 


a 
o 

a 

F 


d 
o . 

~L > > 

.EH 

A 3 
x O 

-- a 


1865 


152 

178 
193 
206 
217 


4.74 
6.36 
668 
7.85 
7.04 


80 

64 

80 
00 
79 


92 

114 
107 
140 
138 


119 
140 
145 
157 
107 


33 
38 
48 
49 
50 


4 

9 
18 

11 


13 
20 
23 
19 
10 


24 
30 
30 
39 
34 


38 
43 
57 
52 
72 


53 
56 

48 
02 
50 


20 


1866 


20 


1867 


17 


1868 


27 


1869 


34 






1870 


946 

204 
232 
233 
254 
223 


6.53 

0.58 
7.44 
6.02 
0.07 
5.46 


349 

77 
94 
93 
107 
80 


597 

127 
138 
140 
147 
143 


! 728 

155 
173 
173 
177 
160 


218 

49 
59 
00 
77 
03 


49 

10 
14 
10 
14 
14 


91 

24 
24 
14 
22 

20 


157 

24 
34 
88 

39 
29 


262 

59 
56 
75 
71 
01 


269 

51 
70 
69 
79 
71 


118 
36 


1871 


34 


1872 

1873 


39 
29 


187-1 


28 






1875 


1,146 

216 
Ml 
213 
889 

220 


6.32 

5.25 
6.18 
5.00 
5.25 
5.22 


451 

93 
107 
96 
84 
82 


095 

123 
134 
117 
138 
138, 


838 

150 
177 
145 
172 
152 


308 

00 
04 
08 
50 
08 
310 

87 
80 
93 
91 
97 


02 

9 
12 
12 
15 
14 
62 

12 
12 
20 

17 
10 


104 

23 
14 
23 
8 
19 


152 

33 
38 
29 
32 
20 


322 

09 
05 
57 
70 
69 


340 

59 
71 
63 
61 
67 


160 
28 


1876 


41 


1877 


29 


1878 


30 


1879 


25 


1880 


1,112 

273 
247 
283 
275 

293 


5.38 

5.95 
5.29 
5.89 
5.22 
5.68 


462 

121 
101 
110 
105 
101 


050 

152 
140 
173 
170 
192 


796 

186 
107 
190 
184 
190 


87 

20 
24 

25 
18 
20 


158 

31 
36 
40 
44 

39 


336 

90 
93 

106 
91 

100 


321 

73 
72 
79 
84 
M 


148 
44 


1881 


10 


1882 


13 


1883 


21 


1884 


20 


1885 


1,371 

2C7 
276 
278 
290 


5.60 

4.95 
4.69 
4.38 
4.35 


538 

86 
101 
103 
108 
2,198 


833 

181 
175 
175 
182 
3,488 


923 

183 
181 
107 
198 


448 

84 

111 

'.10 


77 

9 
10 
17 
16 


107 

32 
M 
19 
M 


193 

47 
36 
29 

25 


480 

87 
100 
109 
124 


394 

70 
73 
76 
64 


114 
22 


1886 


27 


1887 


28 


1888 


35 


Total 


5,686 


5.34 


4,014 


1,072 


308 


490 


797 


1,826 


1,607 


658 



* Providence city not Included. 



184 THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1888. 

PNEUMONIA. 

There were 508 decedents from pneumonia, in 1888. The number 
is 20 more than in 1887. 

The proportion to whole number of deaths was 7.7 per hundred, 
the same as in 1887. In 1885 it was 8.6 in every 100 ; and in 1886 
8.2 in every 100. 

Sex. — Of the 508 decedents from pneumonia, and including conges- 
tion of the lungs, 274 were males and 234 were females ; or about 120 
males to each 100 females. 

Parentage. — By parentage there were 227 of American and 281 of 
foreign parentage. The proportion of decedents from pneumonia was 
about 81 of American to each 100 of foreign parentage. 

Season. — There were 313, or over one-half, of the deaths that oc- 
curred during the first four months of the year. The largest mortality 
by months was 98 in March, and 76 in April. 

The following Table shows, for each of the last twenty-four years, 
the number and the percentage, with the sex and the parentage of the 
decedents from pneumonia ; and the number in each year, in each 
division of the State : 



188*.] 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 

Table LXXXIV. 



185 





PNEUMONIA. 


YE SRS 


Zi 

XI 

2 
a 

y. 

■- 

c 
£ 


a 

o 
5 

s 

- 




PABKHTASX. 




MVISloN- "I 


THE 


-TATE 






CD 

9 

"3 


= 
Be, 


a 
a 

'u 

O 
= 
< 




o5> 

7 

- _ 


Ha 

- a 

_ 


c 5> 
p/2 

1) 


o _ 

~Z z 

li 


O 

o 

a 

I S 
Ph 


a 
o 

r, >• 
- q 


1865 


17:. 
193 
172 
191 
190 
182 
218 
229 
234 
250 
400 
339 
226 
.317 
311 

327 
344 
400 
863 
4G5 
481 
488 
508 


5.1 
6.5 
59 
6.6 
5.6 
5.C 
6.5 
5.4 
53 
5.9 

8.2 
5.1 
7.1 
7.4 
7.9 
6.5 
7.2 
7.8 
7.1 
8.6 
8.2 
7.7 
7.7 


80 
94 
68 
99 
104 
102 
104 
119 
127 
118 
199 
164 
104 
143 
148 
180 
177 
178 
192 
Hi7 
214 
232 
200 
274 


95 

99 

104 

92 

80 

80 

114 

110 

107 

189 

201 

175 

122 

174 

168 

184 

150 

166 

196 
251 
MS 


110 
127 
103 
120 
110 
96 
129 
125 
143 
143 
243 
162 
127 
176 
163 
177 
190 
163 
198 
192 
271 
234 
827 
227 


65 

66 

69 

71 

80 

86 

89 

104 

91 

107 

157 

177 

90 

141 
148 
187 
137 
181 
202 
171 
194 
217 
861 
281 


13 

8 

9 

7 

6 

12 

11 

11 

6 

14 

13 

10 

10 

7 

26 

10 

10 

10 

10 

15 

17 

13 

16 


11 
17 
12 
5 
10 
12 
21 
1 
9 
13 
27 
88 
7 
11 
15 
16 
28 
22 
21 
13 
80 
29 
87 
37 


21 
13 
12 
16 
10 
15 
11 

9 
10 

7 
25 
16 
11 
18 
15 
18 
17 
21 
31 
17 
88 
37 
39 
IB 


49 

59 

56 

54 

03 

55 

68 

74 

65 

73 

105 

97 

81 

110 

103 

92 

81 

91 

108 

125 

151 

161 

142 

171 


:i 

81 

68 

92 

B8 

78 

85 

120 

123 

136 

198 

163 

88 

140 

156 

192 

174 

170 

204 

172 

209 

227 
219 


12 


1866 


10 


1807 


16 


1808 


15 


1869 


12 


1870 


16 


1871 

1872 

1873 


21 
14 
16 


1874 


15 


1875 


31 


1876 

1877 


27 
16 




28 




1879 

1S80 

1881 


15 
20 
88 




21 




1883 

1884 


14 
26 




19 




1886 


H 


1887 


40 





36 


Total. 84 


7,367 


0.9 


3.047 


3,720 


3.956 , 


8,411 


281 




460 


8,284 


3,500 


490 



Sex. — Of the 7,367 decedents from pneumonia, in kwenty-f our years, 
1865 to 1888, inclusive, :5.<i4T were males and 3,720 were females; a 
proportion of 102 females to every LOO males. 

Parentage. — In relation to parentage, there were of thi lece- 

dents, 3,956 of American and ;>,4l] of foreign; or 116 of American 
parentage to every 100 of foreign. 

* Providence city not included. 



186 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 

Table LXXXV. 



[1888. 



Exhibiting the Number of Decedents from Pneumonia, in each of the 

several Periods of Life, during each of the last twenty four 

years, from 1865 to 1888, inclusive. 



YEARS. 


■a 


© 
o 

in 


o 
o 


o 
o 


o 

CO 

o 

o 
ex 


© 
o 

o 

CO 


o 
o 
o 

o 


o 

SO 

o 

o 
o 


o 
t- 

o 

© 

SO 


© 

00 

o 
o 


CD 

> 
o 

a 
« 


•d 
S 

S 

o 


1865 


65 
57 
57 
70 
64 
84 
71 
83 
105 
76 
120 
116 
79 
115 
102 
95 
102 
71 
88 
103 
121 
111 
132 
103 


4 
4 
9 
4 
11 
6 
7 
5 
4 
9 
9 
5 
o 

9 
8 
18 
4 
3 
15 
14 
9 
10 
15 
20 


2 
4 
2 
3 
1 
5 
2 
1 
8 
4 
3 
4 

4 
1 
3 
2 
4 
2 
5 
10 
7 
7 
5 


5 
3 
3 
2 
4 
7 
7 
3 
6 
8 
3 
7 

10 
3 

16 
5 

14 

13 

11 
8 

19 
7 

15 


14 
12 
10 
15 
11 
6 
10 
17 
10 
17 
22 
20 
15 
14 
14 
14 
15 
22 
32 
23 
23 
32 
32 
49 


11 

10 

11 

8 
12 

7 
17 
20 
14 
17 
30 
20 
15 
17 
27 
33 
22 
36 
33 
34 
29 
35 
43 
48 


15 
14 
13 
16 
9 
8 
16 
19 
16 
25 
35 
32 
24 
28 
26 
37 
26 
49 
40 
24 
50 
50 
51 
61 


17 
21 
16 
13 
28 
14 
16 
22 
17 
21 
39 
35 
27 
20 
35 
46 
45 
33 
53 
82 
49 
58 
56 
62 


21 
25 
25 
19 
25 
20 
35 
24 
24 
40 
61 
48 
22 
42 
38 
47 
48 
41 
49 
53 
76 
74 
64 
70 


21 
32 
18 
27 
16 
19 
17 
19 
23 
27 
43 
39 
24 
45 
38 
48 
31 
46 
46 
37 
59 
55 
53 
54 


5 
9 
12 
13 
11 
8 
19 
11 
10 
8 
28 
17 
9 
13 
9 
12 
26 
21 
27 
23 
29 
30 
28 
21 




1866 




1867 


1 


1868 




1869 




1870 


1 


1871 


1 


1872 


1 






1874 

1875 


2 


1876 




1877 


9, 


1878 




1879 




1880 

1881 


1 


1882 


4 


1883 


2 


1884 


4 


1885 


2 


1886 




1887 




1888 








Total 


2,190 


204 


89 


179 


453 


549 


684 


775 


991 


827 


409 


21 







Age. — Of the 7,367 decedents from pneumonia, during the period 
of twenty-four years, 2,190, or nearly one-third, were under five years 
of age. During the periods of life of over fifty years of age the num- 
ber of decedents was 3,022., or about 40 per cent, of the whole number. 



1888.] CAUSES OF DEATH. 187 

The following summary will present the percentages in round num- 
bers : 

Under Ave year* of age 30 per cent . 

Five yearn and under twenty 6 per cent. 

Twenty years and under fifty 24 per cent. 

Fifty years and over 40 per cent. 

8CARLATINA. 

The number of deaths returned as having been caused by scarlatina, 
in 1888, was 207. The number is 59 less than in 1887. 

Sex. — Of the 207 decedents from scarlatina 101 were males and 106 
were females ; or 105 females to every 100 males. 

Parentage. — There were 91 of American parentage, and 116 of for- 
eign ; a proportion of about 128 of foreign parentage to every 100 of 
American. 

During a period of twenty-four years there were 1,705 decedents 
from scarlatina of American parentage, and 2,072 decedents of foreign ; 
or a proportion of 121 of foreign to each 100 of American parentage. 

The following Table will present the statistics of scarlatina for the 
last thirty-four years, from 1855 to 1888, inclusive, the number and 
percentage and sex of the decedents from scarlatina, and the number 
from scarlatina in each division of the State. It also shows, from 
1865 to 1888, inclusive, the parentage of the decedents from scarlatina : 



188 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



Table LXXXVI. 





SCARLATINA. 




a 

,2 

a 
5 

0) 

o 
5 

% 


"3 

o 
u 
a 


SEX. 


PARENTAGE. 


DIVISIONS OP 


THE 1 


STATE. 




YEARS. 




"3 
E 
lb 



aj 
o 

"C 

a 
< 


d 

bo 
'8 

h 
O 
ft 


a 9 
«6 


go 

Wo 
o 


is 

6*9 

V o 


Ph 


a> 
a 

a . 

-§* 


a 

o . 

c a 

II 

aU 


10 yre., 1855-1864. 
1865 


1,256 

255 

28 

14 

93 

286 

75 

66 

54 

287 

462 

185 

80 

62 

86 

311 

468 

138 

45 

34 

97 

91 

88 

266 

207 


4.9 
7.5 
0.9 
0.5 
3.2 
8.4 
2.3 
1.9 
1.2 
6.5 

10.9 
4.3 
1.9 
1.4 
1.9 
7.4 

10.0 
3.0 
0.9 
0.6 
1.8 
1.7 
1.5 
4.2 
3.1 


611 

130 

15 

6 

47 

126 

37 

41 

22 

124 

231 

85 

34 

26 

41 

164 

815 

79 

24 

17 

39 

36 

46 

120 

101 


655 

125 

13 

8 

46 

160 

38 

25 

31 

163 

231 

100 

46 

36 

45 

147 

253 

59 

21 

17 

58 

55 

42 

146 

106 







46 
33 
5 
1 
2 
17 
1 
1 

4 
27 
8 
3 
14 
3 
3 
22 
11 

1 


62 

17 

3 

23 

6 

3 

1 

2 

17 

30 

2 

4 

5 

6 

30 

25 

3 

1 


189 

3 

8 

1 

3 

12 

3 

1 

4 

42 

1 

3 

7 

3 

3 

4 

11 

12 

16 

5 

8 

6 

2 

4 

10 


334 
86 
12 
2 
34 
72 
22 
37 
27 
80 

133 
35 
21 
21 
14 
37 

143 
41 
7 
9 
28 
24 
41 
80 
87 


568 

108 

3 

10 

50 

138 

35 

21 

19 

132 

268 

94 

35 

12 

57 

255 

243 

45 

18 

16 

57 

38 

30 

154 

80 


57 


134 

12 

10 

32 

128 

28 

31 

22 

163 

176 

121 

42 

29 

35 

130 

216 

62 

16 

14 

41 

48 

29 

95 

91 


121 
16 
4 

61 

158 

47 

35 

31 

124 

296 

56 

88 

33 

51 

181 

252 

76 

29 

20 

56 

43 

59 

171 

116 


8 


1866 




1867 




1868 


1 


1869 


34 


1870 

1871 

1872 


8 
13 
2 


1873 


27 


1874 


16 


1875 

1876 


15 
12 


1877 


8 


1878 


4 


1879 

1880 


6 
19 


1881 


4 


1882 


1 


1883 


2 


1884 


4 


1885 




9 

1 


3 
13 
16 
29 


20 


1886 

1887 


2 
3 


1888 








Total 


5,043 


4.8 


2,417 


2,916 


1,705 


2,072 


212 


301 


361 


1,427 


2,486 


256 



* Not including Providence city. 



1888.] 



CAUSES OP DEATH. 



189 



CROUP, DIPHTHERIA AND SCARLATINA. — Sea80fl ami Mortality. 

The following Table will show the influence of season in regard to 
the mortality from croup and scarlatina for thirty-five years, and diph- 
theria for thirty years; and in which these diseases may be compared. 
The Table will give the average monthly and quarterly percentages of 
deaths from each cause : 

Table LXXXVII. 



MONTHS. 


CRODP. 
1853-1887. 


DIPHTHERIA. 

1858-1887. 


SCARLATINA. 
1853-1887. 


Number 
of deaths. 


Per cent. 


Number 
of deaths. 


Per cent. 


;Nnmber 
of deaths. 


Per cent. 




328 
268 
220 


12.66 
10.84 J 
8.48 


365 
260 
270 


9.68 
6.88 
7.15 


646 
579 
530 


11.85 




10.63 
9.73 








816 

184 
128 
116 


31.4S 

7.09 
4.93 

4.47 


895 

226 
242 
227 


23.71 

5.90 
6.40 
6.00 


1,755 

441 
481 
418 


32.21 


April 


8.10 


May 


8.83 




7.69 








428 

86 
72 
162 


16.49 

3.32 
2.77 
6.25 


695 

208 
245 
272 


1830 

5.48 
6 38 
7.45 


1,340 

314 
261 
269 


24.62 


July 


6.76 




4.79 




4.94 






Third Quarter 


320 

272 
376 
881 


12.34 

10.49 
14.61 

14.69 


825 

502 
505 
454 


19.31 

13.29 
13.37 
12.02 


844 

384 
493 
632 


15.49 




7.04 




9.04 




11.60 








1,029 
2,593 


39.69 
100.00 


1,461 
3.776 


SB 68 

[00.00 


1,509 
5,448 


27.68 


Totals 


100.00 







190 



THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



Table LXXXV1II. 

Mortality in the State from Suicide, with the Percentage of the Whole 

Number of Deaths, Sex, Parentage and Locality for 

twenty -four years, from 1865 to 1888, inclusive. 





•5 
55 


f 

a ■ 

O 
M 
O 


SEX. 


PARENTAGE. 




STATE DIVISIONS. 




YEARS. 


* 

"3 

M 


"3 

a 


1 

a 


a 

.2" 
"5 

o 


o5 

£ a 

«(3 


Wo 
o 


Is 

o o 


o 

2c 
o 3 
a, 


o 

a 

■Sf? 


a 

. 

.5 a 

1 1 


1865 


12 
11 
15 
18 
15 


.37 
.40 
.55 
.69 
.49 


10 
7 
8 
15 
14 


2 
4 
7 
3 
8 


8 
10 
12 
14 
12 


4 
1 
3 
4 
3 


i 


1 


1 
1 
1 
2 


3 

4 
8 
4 

4 


5 
4 

4 
7 
9 


1 


1866 


2 


1867 


i 
i 


3 
2 


1 


1869 


1 






1870 


71 

27 
19 
18 
8 
18 


.50 

.89 
.62 
.47 
.19 
.44 


54 

28 
14 
10 
6 
14 


17 

4 

5 
8 
2 
4 


56 

18 
13 
12 
7 
11 


15 

9 
6 
6 
1 

7 


3 

1 

1 


6 

2 
3 
3 

1 
1 


5 

2 
1 
4 

1 


23 

11 
5 
3 
3 
3 


29 

10 
9 

4 
10 


5 
2 


1871 




1872 


1 


1873 




1874 


2 


1875 


90 

26 
18 
22 
21 
13 


.52 

.63 
.46 
.52 
.50 
.31 


67 

17 
15 
16 
16 
10 


23 

9 
3 
6 
5 
3 


61 

14 
6 
15 
12 
5 


29 

12 
12 
7 
9 
8 


2 

1 


10 
1 


8 

1 
1 


25 

6 
5 
5 
5 

5 


40 

13 
10 
12 

7 
7 


5 
5 


1876 


2 


1878 


3 


2 

2 


2 

4 


1879 


1 












1880 


100 

10 
23 
31 
35 
22 


.48 

.20 
.49 
.64 

.47 
.43 


74 

5 
19 
23 
18 
20 


26 

5 
4 

8 
7 
2 


52 

8 
15 
23 
11 
13 


48 

2 
8 
8 
14 
9 


4 
1 


5 

1 
5 

4 


2 

1 
3 
S 
2 
1 


26 
6 

8 
8 
6 


49 

2 
14 
12 
15 
11 


14 


1881 


1 


1882 


3 


1883 




1884 




1 


3 






1886 


111 

20 
17 
16 

21 


.45 

.37 
.29 
.25 
.42 


85 

16 
16 
13 
20 


26 

4 
1 
3 
1 


70 

11 

12 
8 
15 


41 

9 
5 

8 
6 


1 

1 
1 
2 


11 

1 
3 

1 


10 

6 
2 
2 
3 


28 

3 

4 
5 
6 


64 

6 

7 

9 


7 
3 


1886 




1887 




1888 


2 






Total 


446 


.42 


345 


101 


285 


161 


14 


37 


38 


120 


201 


36 







* Providence city not included. 



1888.] 



CAUSES 01 HEATH. 



191 



The following Table shows the percentages comparatively of several 
prominent causes of death, in the aggregate of total mortality from 
specified causes in Rhode Island, during a period of eleven years, from 
187? to 1887, inclusive: 

Tablk LXXXIX. 



CAUSES OF DEATH 



Accidents (all kinds) ... 
Apoplexy and Paralysis. 

Brain, Diseases of 

Bronchitis 

Cancer 

Cholera Infantum 

Consumption 

Convulsions 

Croup 

Debility* 

Diarrhoea 

Diphtheria 

Dysentery 

n 

Heart, Diseases of 

Hooping Cough 

tcephaloi 

Kidneys, Diseases of 

Liver, Diseases of 

Marasmus 

Old Age 

Pneumonia 

Scarlatina 

•Not infantile. 



1887. 


1886. 


3.25 




4.17 


5.09 


8.80 


8.11 


2.77 


2.96 



1886. 



2.50 
5.60 
11.19 
2.51 
1.79 
1.18 
2.09 
4.53 
1.04 
2.00 
6.46 
.88 
.41 
2.66 
1.34 
1.57 
4.38 
7.70 
4.20 



8.09 

5.38 
8.61 

3.0'J 
2.77 3.5!) 
6.27 5.16 
14.12 14.15 
2.00 2.06 



1.55 
2.91 
1.59 
3.90 
1.13 
2.87 
6.20 
.88 
.41 
2.64 
1.08 
.22 
4.69 
8.18 
1.50 



1.74 
2. V. 
1.55 
1.83 

.68 
2.93 
6.48 

.79 

.31 
3.14 

.87 
2.15 
4.95 
8.65 
1.70 



1884. 


1883. 


1882. 


1881. 


1880. 


3.80 


2 84 


.{.11 


3.04 


3.51 


5.78 


5.39 


5.52 


5.23 


4.67 


2.97 


3.50 


3.60 


8.84 


::.ll 


2.29 


204 


2.08 


1.80 


1.98 


3.03 


3.30 


■:.',:, 


3.11 


8.78 


0.31 


4.73 


0.77 


5.15 


5.43 


14.34 


15.01 


15.33 


15.12 


14.02 


2.70 


2.47 


2.29 


2.18 


2.88 


1.55 


1.40 


1.60 


2.16 


1.45 


2.87 


1.14 


2 69 


2.01 


3.09 


2.20 


2.55 


1.87 


1.65 


1.52 


2.81 


1.88 


2.10 


4.63 




.78 


1.06 


1.42 


.90 


.61 




5.12 


4.60 


3.05 


.! :)7 


5.60 


6.35 


5.31 


568 


G 08 


.83 


.17 


1.48 


1.46 


.11 


.81 


.87 


1.02 


1.20 


1.01 






1.79 


1.69 


8.09 


.ss 


.83 


1.21 


.82 


1.20 


1.62 


2.02 


1.02 


1.11 


1.87 


5.68 


5.22 


5.89 




5.95 


7 11 


7.84 


7.16 


7.01 


7.90 


1.88 


.64 


.94 







1879. 



5.21 
3.73 
1.17 
2.06 
3.81 
15.09 
2.47 
2.28 
2.35 
1.86 
6.14 
1.04 
2.70 
4.78 
1.02 
1.30 
1.88 
1.17 
1.16 

7.37 
7.37 



1878. 



4.45 
3.28 
1.89 
2.82 
3.97 
15.98 
2.65 
2.20 
1.91 
1.25 



1877. 



3.10 
4.25 
3.68 
1.6S 

3.17 
6.08 
15.52 
1.95 
2.23 
2.65 
2.11 



10.28 11.56 



.86 



1.22 



.91 3.55 



3.92 
1.28 
1.65 
1.89 
1.06 
1.30 
5.25 
7.49 
2.03 



4.28 
.75 
1.29 
1.57 
1.06 
.99 
5.00 
5.31 
1.46 



192 



O 

X 



5*> 



-53 



S^ 



00 



&5 



"-o 



5 



s 






•Si 









q s 






THIRTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1888. 



•apionig 



5< o* so ■ n 



•aestosid ipmuojs 



•uisjitiiiiiiaqy 






« « » « 



•eSuwj 
jo noijsoSuoo ptre Binonmanj 



ijin-TCOnilinCO 



•* c- o 5* I- 5» 



•Xwuuoid I 



"Bisiqwd 



O OO 00 T1" 
5J SO — ■ « 



Tf SO CO CO 7* -* 
i-t C* n C* -i 



51 ■* « — 00 J) CI 



o « n 



•SI1IU05I.I3J 



•dSV PIO 



•88SU051Q J3AI1 



•sasBasid jCaupiH 



lO 5* CO CO 



tO (3 lO H 



■A^itresni 



5»mcooo5jcot-nc-n 

H OS ri t-l 



nlOr-JMiMStKn 



•Biiuail | rt 



COnsOtfiCOSOCMCO 



•V • n 



•S8SB331Q; 1J133H 



•o;a 'pioqdAj,, 'sjaAa^ 



OO^aJCIfflHfflllOMiJtOONC) 



CO lO 00 5» ~ il 



■p3U«p3Jfl '9J9A8J | ~ ~ *- 



•SU[.KljSA.ia 



•Xsdajida I 



•XsdojQ; 



SO n CO m 5J T)> CO 



■^ja?uas,C(i puis uaDqjJBia 



■I ei o o» i-i 



•saiaqBia 



•jaauBo 



CO CJ SO i-i 



•sijiqouojg 



•sassasia: uidg 



nnlinn-iiicN 



_,„_,-, o s» —i 



« <?» co co m o n 



n ■ n 5J 5! SO -i CM 



CO £- 5» 5J O iO i C* n -i CO " n n 



•sasuasiQ [OAiog 



CO CO CS il 



i-i . CO il 



•sDSBasiQ iappt?[g : : : : : 


. — i -5* • n 51 


—• « • 


•BUiqisy | n i •-< « ; 


. n n 51 


Tl n 


•si8jCp3iBj pn« Axaidody 


OJ OO TP n SO 


■ 00 "^ — SO n O 
O 5» 


n TT CM 


•ni8![oqoo[V 


CO 5* -CO 


n n in 00 • 5J 






AO SO 5» n ■» 


• co 5» io at 5* co 


n CO 



•siaappoy 



\iaqnni£i ajoqAV 



occoocsoooocooooaoocscs »ft 



— | T CO n O i3" 



iO £- O CM ST. i 






■£ " S .* = S 



O C3 — 



^aS^ooasasaa.S-Hooji 
pap5«MWP30O00O0O0« 



1888.] 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



193 

































































CO 




* rt -2 


































































DO 


m 


• CI O .- 


01 


■ o •» 


0) « Ol « 


— • T 


N 


CI 












9 


































































~ *■ 


M 


oi 


CO y 




• CO 


01 T- 




et 


" CC 


— 
































































• 


•a 






























































: 


~ 






■ - 








01 - 




-.i 




■ IO 


CI 










































































































































10 te. 






1- 




> CO ti I 




OI CO -r T *T T ■". ■ 


•H C 


CO 
























































































































































































a 










• < 
















01 - 












































































m ei 


— 


:n 


D O 1 






- / d te <o a 


co cr. 


<- 
















,w g" 


~ 


GN 


- « /. s 




Cl o* 


CO w - SC 






-.' 


36 


CO CO « 
















































1 
















OS 






• - 






-' 


-I - 












?> 




CO - 




















































































to •- 




CO 


— - 


CO - 


• eo 




• o» »n o 




CO — 












& 




































rt 










3 
































































"■■ 




• OJ IT 






.- .-- -7 1- — 






CO 


•& 




ic — 7- 




o — 






























































































































CO 










X 


T 


— -J _ 




ca - 


. 


■ci 


^ -i 


























































































































' 




" 5 






— c so 


co — »c o 


IS 






Ol L-. 


CO 




" 


•"• " 


, « 


~ 
































































" 






so 














o •- 






















































■ c- 


































_co_ 


i- - / -. 




tO 




- 1 77 '.I r- 


e 


• to - 


- t 




O c 








r 










































































































et 


































































A in £ 




cc 




- m - 


- -- — 


CO 01. CC 


! ■<>. C 


^ --2 r 


^- t- 


— 






1 






a | 


































































o n 






























































































or 




c> 






•-: - 


— ~. 




cc oj 


























































































































































" 












o* — 








■■' 
































































































■<«• 


-l <c 




















































































































































































ri 


CO 


.- 






-» 


CO ri 


CO 


o t 




IO i- 














































































































































: 








8 : 




- 


CO 


BP CO 






uO — 


00 








e» - 


- 














: 


— 7' / 

1 




:- 


-.1 


O »■* O 1- .-i 
~> CI 


T — 


— OJ « 

CO — 


•0 




" 


CI 




T» « ^3< 


** 


I- CI 


■W 




00 


z 


»-. GN 


^ 








a> 


GO O 


cc 




e* 


r 


— 




o 










































































■fl" 
































































rt 






— 


- BC 


e* v 


Tf CO i- 




— 


c 


CI 




O CO TJ 


— 


UCJ 


































































*■■ 
























































SO 


-r re 










— --. i- 




o» - 




m ^- 










































































; 




















r. 






























































































■a 






































































« 






OI 
















































































































— 


— 


CO CO t- 

TJ. — {- -T 


~z, ~ 


S ,', - 




J 


— 


Cl 


— so 
■<j> 


T 




5 


cc 


i- 


■a 






i_- 




































































— t — 

CO 


-» 


94 


— — co o .-• 


-1 - 


00 0)0 


co 


: 


■ 




— CI — 








c 




co 


3? 






















































| 










- 


T co co 




■o 




O OC 


— m - 

-■ 


- - 


"7 




T 


-1 — — 


CO 


: - 




cc 


" 


S 






























































- 
















5 




- 


I 






— 


















- 










co 


DO 


i- 




>' 






T 


i- 




c- 






EC 






- ■ . 








5 <- 




















— GO 


























-. 












s 






T 


























































CO 






















































































































































































































































M 
































































































tfi 



































































P 




































? 






























— 






































































































— 








■f 






















/. 












































: 






















— 
- 


















N 


















~ 






E 

S 


£ 
■ 












> 


B 

I 
> 

- 

■1 


r | 

- 




- 

s 
a 


8 


fl 

_1 


- 
B 


fl 

1 

i 

. — 

| 

-' 


- 




fl 

J 

< 




• 
• 


« 

i 

- i 


i 
« 




i 
I 




- 
M 

a 
K 


i 

i 


l- 

'- 
1 
c 
- 
i 


1 


3 

R 


1 


i 


C 
-r 

t 

- 




1 

1 

c 
: 

— 


i 

— 

' is 


i 
C 

i- 





1888.] 



CAUSES OF DB.VTH. 



195 



^ 



s 

v. 

a. 



< 



I S 



v. 
a, 



t- 















Mil 



i 



a § s °. 

a v o a 

o c ja o 

O £ ^ ffi 



a * a 



ii sj a iu — ^ 

C C -J- £ 9 



"3 O "3 



o. 2 E 
< C = 



& n M 



! 5 

X Q 



1888.] 



I A.TJ8E8 OF DEATH. 



197 









a 



rs 



p 

-3 



s 



W 



09 



CO 
X 

T^~ 

X 

oa 

S 
— < 

i-H 

-r 
»— » 

T- 
1-1 

— 

o 



o> 






^ -2 £ 



oS ^ 



£ .3 

s ^ 



P. ^5 



CD "3 



«« 1-3 

o a 



3 1 

j-j fcfl 

A .5 

a 



a: 



APPENDIX 



NOMENCLATURE OF DISEASES, 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



NAMES OF CAUSES OF DEATH. 



Jt should be stated that the nomenclature of diseases in the noso- 
logical arrangement on the following pages is not intended to include 
the names of the whole list of morbid phenomena affecting the human 
organism, but the names of such only as are directly the cause of 
death, or such as ordinarily predispose to or set in motion the morbid 
processes that end in deal b. 

In the construction of the classification now adopted, use has been 
made of the results and conclusions of a committee of the Royal Col- 
lege of Physicians of England, and from such other sources as were 
acc< Bsible, and from examination of the classifications in use in differ- 
ent countries in Europe and America. It has been the design to have 
all these classifications based on observed facts and most advanced 
conclusions in relation to pathological processes and morbid condi- 
tions, inductive, causative, progressive and ultimate. 

The statistical nosology will consist of two lists of causes of death, 

A TABULAR LIST AND SUPPLEMENTAL LIST. 

The Tabular List comprises the chief or primary causes of death 
which will be used in Table IX, on Classification and Percentage, in 
the preparation of the Registrar's annual reports, and will, therefore, 
include all those named in the Supplemental List, when the final 
arrangement is completed. 

The Supplemental List is subordinate to the Tabular List, and 
contains synonyms, or names of related diseases, which may lie actu- 
ally, or are supposed to be, causes of death, and which are in addition 
to those in the Tabular List, and which are often found in Physi- 
cian's certificates of death, as reported to the State Registrar. 
These will have a place, in alphabetical order, in Tables VII and V 1 1 1 
of the reports, and will be variously grouped under different heads 
in Table IX, as the figure which precedes each Cause in the SUPPLE- 
MENTAL List will correspond with the figure of the head, in the TAB- 
ULAE List, under which that cause is placed. 



NOMENCLATURE OF CAUSES OF DEATH. 



CLASSES 



I. General Diseases. — A. specific and febrile. (Zymotic.') 

II. General Diseases. — B. cachectic. (Constitutional.') 

III. Special Diseases. — A. functional or organic. (Local.) 

IV. Special Diseases. — B. developmental. (Develoj)mental .) 
V. Violent Deaths. — from injuries. ( Violence.) 

SUB GROUPS OR ORDERS. 

CLASS I. — Zymotic Diseases. 

Order one, Miasmatic. Order two, Enthetic. Order three, 
Dietic. Order four, Parasitic. 

CLASS II. — Constitutional Diseases. 

Order one, Diathetic. Order two, Tubercular. 

CLASS III.— Local Diseases. 

Order one, Diseases of the Nervous System. Order two, 
Organs of Circulation. Order three, Organs of Respiration. 
Order four, Organs of Digestion. Order five, Urinary Or- 
gans. Order six, Reproductive Organs. Order seven, Osse- 
ous and Locomotory Organs. Order eight, Integumentary 
System. 

CLASS IV. — Developmental Diseases. 

Order one, Of Children. Order two, Of Women. Order 
three, Of Old Age. Order four, Of Nutrition. 

CLASS V.— Violent Deaths. 

Order one, Accidents and Negligence. Order two, Homi- 
cide. Order three, Suicide. 



APPEMMW 



203 



STATISTICAL NOSOLOGY. 



(L.\ss I.— Zymotic Diseases. 





TABULAR LIST. 


SUPPLEMENTAL LIST. 


For / '"'ii Report. 


Synonyms or Related Diseases. 


Order <>nc— Miasmatic. 


Order One.— Miasmatic. 


I. One— 1. 


Carbuncle .... 


I. One.— l. Anthrax. 


2 


Cholera, Asiatic 


Gangrenous Boil. 
1. Eotero Colitis, > Infan- 


:;. 


Cholera, Sporadic . 


" Enteritis, l" tile. 


4 


( Iholera Infantum . 


in. Hospital Gangrene. 


5 
6. 


Cholera Morbus 

Croup (Pseudo Membranous) . 


Pyemia. 
Phlegmon. 


7. 


Diphtheria .... 


15. Infantile Fever. 


8. 


Diarrhoea 


Typhus Fever. 
20. Rotbeln. 


!). 


Dysentery .... 


21. Parotitis. 


10. 


Erysipelas .... 


■J-:. Child-bed Fever. 


11. 


Fever, Bilious .... 


88. Hooping Cough. 


12 


Fever, Cerebro Spinal . 


24. Quinsy. 

25. Bcarlel Fever. 


13. 


. Intermittent. 


Angina Maligna, 


14. 


Fever, Malarial 


•2*i. Varioloid. 


15. 


Fever, Typhoid 


hicken Pox. 
Miliaria. 


10. 


Fever, Typho-Malarial . 




17. 


Fever, Unspecified . 




18. 


Fellow. 




19. 


Influenza (Epidemic) 




20. 


Measles 




21. 


Mumps 




22. 


ia (Puerperal Fever). 




23. 


Pertussis 




24. 


Tonsillitis .... 




25. 


Tina .... 




26, 


Small Pox . . , . 




27. 


Varicella 




Order Two.— Enthetic. 


Order Two.— Enthetic. 


I. Two.— 1. 


Glanders ..... 


I. Two.— 2. Stricture of the Urethra. 


'_>. 


Gonorrhoea .... 


rheal Opthalmia. 
5. N( 


3. 


Hydrophobia .... 




4. 


Malignant Pustule . 




5. 


Bepticsemia .... 




6. 


Syphilis 




Order Three.— Dietic. 


Thi.c— Dietic. 


I. Three.— 1. 


Alcoholism .... 


I. Three.— 1. Intemperance. 
3. Privation. 


2. 


Delirium Tremens . 


Starvation. 


:i. 


Inanition 


ect 


1. 


Purpura and Scurvy 




Order Four —Parasitic. 


< Irdeb F-'ir.— Parasitic. 


1. Four.— 1. 




1. Four. — 1. Thru-li. 

•j. Tape Worm. 


•> 


Worms ..... 


Ti Ichian 


3.' 


Other Parasites 


Hydatids. 
Porrleo, Farus, ■ 



■:;. 



204 



APPENDIX. 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



CLASS II. — Constitutional Diseases. 



TABULAR LIST. 



Order One.— Diathetic. 

II. One. — 1. Gout 

2. Dropsy . 

3. Anaemia . , 

4. Cancer, Various 

5. Cancer of Breast 
(!. Cancer of Stomach 

7. Cancer of Uterus 

8. Noma (Canker) 
!). Mortification . 

10. Rheumatism . 



Order Two.— Tubercular 

II. Two.— 1. Scrofula . 

2. Tabes Mesenterica . 
8. Phthisis (Pulmonary 

4. Hydrocephalus 

5. Tubercular Meningitis 



SUPPLEMENTAL LIST. 



II. One— 2. Anasarca. 

3. Leucocythcemia. 
Chlorosis. 

4. Soft Cancer. 
Epithelioma. 
Melanosis. 
Lupus. 

Other kinds of Cancer. 
9. Bed Sore. 
Dry Gangrene. 
Rheumatic Carditis. 
Rheumatic Synovitis. 
Rheumatic Meningitis. 



10. 



II. Two.— 1. Psoas (Lumbar) Abscess. 
White Swelling. 
Cretinism (Goitre). 
Adenitis. 
Morons Coxarius. 
' Pott's Disease. 

2. Tubercular Peritonitis. 

3. H;emopty6i8. 



CLASS III.- Local Diseases. 



Order One.— Nervous System. 




III. One. — 1. Cephalitis 


III. One.— 1. Phrenitis. 


2. Cerebri t is 








Meningitis. 

Cerebro Spinal Meningi- 


3. Apoplexy 








tis. (Sporadic.) 


4. Paralysis 








5. Monomania. 


5. Insanity . 








Fright. 
Grief. 


6. Chorea . 








Melancholia. 


7. Epilepsy. 








Dementia. 


8. Tetanus . 








Rage. 


9. Convulsions 








6. Hysteria. 

8. Laryngismus. 


10. Brain Diseases* 






Lockjaw. 




Trismus Nascentium. 




10. Neuralgia, Cerebral. 




Neurasthenia. 




Disease of Spinal Cord. 




Necrencephalus (Ramol- 




lissement). 


Order Two.— Circulatory System 




III. Two.— 1. Pericarditis . 


H III. Two.— 1. Carditis. 


2. Aneurism 


Endocarditis. 


3. Heart Diseases* 


3. Hypertrophia. 




Atrophia. 




Angina Pectoris. 




Syncope. 




Arteritis. 




Ossification of Arteries. 




Phlebitis 




Hydropericardium. 




Embolus. 










Thrombosis. 



* Not otherwise placed. 



APPENDIX. 

STATISTICAL NOSOLOGY. 
CLASS III.— Local Diseases.— Continued. 



TABULAR LIST. 



Order Three.— Respiratory System. 

III. Three.— 1. Epistaxis 

8. Laryngitis . 

S, Bronchitis, Acute 

4. Bronchitis, Curonic 

5. Pleurisy 

6. Pneumonia . 

7. Asthma 

8. Lung Diseases* 



Order Four.— Digestive System. 

III. Four.— 1. Gastritis 

2. Enteritis 

3. Peritonitis . 
i. Ascites. 

5. Ulceration of Intestines 

6. Hernia .... 

7. Ileus .... 

8. Intussusception . 

9. Stricture of Intestines . 

10. Fistula .... 

1 1 . Stomach Diseases* . 
13. Pancreas Diseases* 

13. Hepatitis 

14. Jaundice 

15. / • r Diseases* 

16. Spleen Diseaxes* .■ 

17. Dowel Diseases* . 



Order Five.— Urinary System. 
III. Five.— 1. Nephritis 
'J. Ischuria 

3. Nephria (Bright's Disease) 

4. Diabetes 

5. Calculus (Gravel, &c.) . 
Cystitis. 

7. Prostate, Disease of 

8. Kidney Diseases* . 

9. Bladder, 1 >ise tses of . 
10. Testicles, Disease of 



Ordbb Six— Generative System. 

II. M M !'.. 

1 1 1 Six. — 1. < tvariau I Iropsy . 

•j. Diseases qf Uh nts* 



SUPPLEMENTAL LIST. 



ill. 



Three.— 2 (Edema Glottidis. 

5. Empyema. 

bragmitis. 
Pneumothorax. 
ii \ drothorax. 

6. Pulmonary Apoplexy. 
Htemoptysis f 

( 'ongestfon of Lungs. 

7. Grinders' Asthma. 
Miners' Asthma. 
Kmpysema. 



III. Four— 1. Glossitis. 
Stomatitis. 
Pharyngitis. 
(Bsophagitts. 

stro Enteritis 
Entero Colitis. 
5. Perforation of — 
ti. Congenital. 
Femoral. 
Inguinal. 

ital. 
Umbilical. 
Ventral. 
', . Constipation, 
pation. 
Perityphlitis. 
Typhlitis. 
9. Strict (Esophagus. 
It. Dyspepsia. 
Pyrosis. 

dgia. 
Qasmaten 
Melsna. 
1 1. Gall-stones. 



Not 

In- 
fan- 
tile. 



15. 
III. Five— 3. 


Cirrhosis. 
Albuminuria. 


6. 


Cystiri 


8. 


Diuresis. 




Hematuria, 




t rsemia. 


0. 


Drethritls. 


10. 


Orchitis. 


Ill - 


Ovarian Tumor. 


■„•. 


ilysteritie Metritis. 




Uterine I leer. 




.-. Tumor. 




Ovaritis. 




Pelvic Cellulitis. 



♦Not otherwise placed. 



- . is i ; 1 1 t Two— a, a , 



206 



APPENDIX. 

CAUSES OF DEATH. 



CLASS III. — Local Diseases. — Continued. 



TABULAR LIST. 


SUPPLEMENTAL LIST. 


Order Seven.— Osseous and Locomo- 






tory System. 




III. Seven. — 1. Bones, Diseases of 


III. Seven.— 1. Ostitis. 


2. Joint Diseases* 


Periostitis. 


3. Vertebrae, Diseases of . 


Fragilitas Ossiom, 

Mollifies Ossium. 




Rickets. 




Caries, Necrosis. 




Exostosis. 




2. Synovitis. 




Hip Diseases. 




3. Spine Diseases. 




Spine, Canes and Nec- 




rosis. 


Order Eight.— Integumentary Sys- 




tem. 




III. Eight.— 1. Phlegmon} .... 


III. Eight.— 1. Abscess, part not stated. 


2. Ulcer 


Boil. 


3. Skin Diseases . 


Wliitlow. 
3. Roseola. 




Urticaria. 




Eczema. 




Herpes. 




Pemphigus. 




Ecthyma. 




Impetigo. 




Psoriasis, &c. 


Order Nine.— Organs of Special 


Dermatitis (from burns, 
&c). 


Sense. 




ETE AND EAR. 




III. Nine— 1. Maliguus Oculi . 




2. Opthalmitis .... 




3. Ossis Petrosis 




4. Otitis 





CLASS IV.— Developmental Diseases. 



Order One— Developmental Dis- 
eases of Children. 

IV. One.— 1. Still born . 

2. Debility, Infantile 

3. Debility, Premature Birth 

4. Cyanosis 

5. Spina Bifida. 

6. Other Malformations . 

7. Teething 

8. Innutrition . 



IV. One.— 2. Asthenia. 

4. Atelectasis Pulmonnm. 
6. Anus Imperforatus. 
Cleft Palate. 
Idiocy. 
8. Malnutrition. 



* Not otherwise placed. + See Class II, Order Two— 1 , Sup. % See Class I, Order one— 10, Sup. 



APPENDIX. 20? 

STATISTICAL NOSOLOGY. 
class I V— Developmental Diseases.— Continued. 



TABULAR LIST. 




SUP 


PLEMENTAL LIST. 






Order Two— Developmental Dis- 




eases of Women. 








IV. Two. — 1. Paramenia .... 


IV. 


Two. 


— 1. Atncnorrhoea. 


2. Childbirth* .... 






<'hl. ii i 

Climacteria. 
Menorrhagia. 
8. Mlscart 
Abortion. 
Puerperal Mania. 
Puerperal Convulsions. 
Phlegmasia Dolens. 
I -;inaii Operation. 

Uterine [Testation. 
Flooding. 
Retention of Placenta. 


Order Three.— Developmental Dis- 
eases of Old People. 






Presentation of Placenta. 
med Pelvis, 

Manimai . 


IV. Three.— 1. Old Age .... 








Order Four.— Diseases of Nutrition. 








Adolescent and Adult. 








IV. Four.— 1. Atrophy .... 


IV. 


Four. 


— 1. Marasmus. 


2. Debility .... 






Malnutrition. 
■,'. Asthenia. 
Exhaustion. 



CLASS V.— Violent Deaths. 



Order One 




Accident or Negligence. 


V. 


One.- 


-1. 

a 

•6. 
4. 
5. 
6. 

7. 


Fractures an< 
Wounds, In 
Burns and B< 
Poison . 
Drowning 
Buffocation 
Various 


1 Coi 
speci 

aids 


ilusions 
tied . 





order Two— Homicide. 

Okoeb Three.— Suicide. 

V. Three. — 1. Wounds, Unspecified . 

Wounds, Pistol or Gunshot 
Wounds, Knife . 
'J. Poison . 
:;. Drowning 
4. Hanging 
r>. Otherwise 



V. One.— 1. Railroad and other Acci- 
dents. 
3. Lost at E 
0. Asphyxia. 

Strangulation. 
7. Exposure. 

Cold Water. 

Frozen. 

Beat. 

Lightning. 

Surgical Operation. 



V. Two.-l. 



Infanticide. 

Patricide. 
de. 
Fratricide. 
Filicid 



ass I, Order One— S3, Tab. List. 



: Order one— 3, Sup. 



208 APPENDIX. 



SUGGESTIONS 



CONCERNING 

PHYSICIANS' CERTIFICATES OF DEATH. 



It should be the endeavor to specify the causes of death as definitely 
and correctly as possible. It is not unusual to find a return of death 
with the physician's certificate naming the cause of death "Paraly- 
sis," "Paraplegia/' "Fits," "Convulsions," "Dropsy," &c, which 
are merely secondary or consecutive causes, singly symptoms only, or 
results of some organic lesion or pathological derangement. Some- 
times the alleged cause is really the final cause, as in a case of ter- 
mination of life by paralysis, but the cause given as paralysis is not 
the determining cause. Apoplexy, or some lesion of the nervous 
centres, must be the original and determining cause of paralysis, para- 
plegia, hemiplegia, &c, and the determining cause should be stated 
as the primary in the return or certificate. 

Convulsions are the symptoms or results of some antece- 
dent or concurrent disease. They follow meningitis and other 
structural lesions of the nervous centres : they also occur from reflex 
derangement or disturbance of the nervous centres, as, in children, 
from intestinal irritation, or from inflammation, as in gastritis, enter- 
itis, nephritis, &c. In such cases they may be contributory to death, 
and perhaps, in rare instances, a final cause, by inducing or taking the 
form of tonic or tetanic spasm. But as contributory, or as a final cause, 
they are simply concomitant. They should find place as secondary 
causes only in certificates of death. 

"Fits" is too unmeaning a term to be uscMn any case. 

The word in a medical sense literally means an attack, an occurrence, 
or succession of attacks of some physical or mental disturbance, as 
" fits of sickness," "fits of melancholy," &c, and is not properly used 
as synonymous with convulsions from any cause. It would be just as 
sensible to attribute a death to an " occurrence" or an "attack" as 
a cause, as to "fits," without other qualifications. 

"Dropsy" and "Ascites" have been allowed to stand as 

determining causes of death because of extended use, and because of 
the obscurity with which their causes in rare instances are involved. 
We can scarcely conceive of a dropsical accumulation without antece- 



\ APPENDIX. 209 

dent organic or functional disorder, derangement of tlic absorbent or 
secretory system, or depravation of the blood. They are left in the 
tabular list with not a little reluctance. Paralysis is also left in the 
tabular list for a like reason, and with the same doubt, of propriety. 

It may be suggested that it is sometimes difficult, and occasion- 
ally impossible, to ascertain positively the chief or leading cause of 
death. The physician last in attendance may find several functional 
or structural diseases, the morbid conditions multiple and complex, and 
not only the initial derangement, hut the succession of morbid proceE 
proximate, consecutive and ultimate, inextricably entangled and lost 
to discovery. 

The careful diagnostician will, however, even then he able to con- 
ceive the probable leading cause, but, whether or not, he will he able at 
least to ascertain the most prominent and controlling lesion or 
functional derangement then existing, and which may reasonably 
be accepted as the primary cause of death. 

The preceding remark applies very properly to cases of adventitious 
diseases which prove fatal, when occurring in individuals already suf- 
fering from some chronic disease of slower progress, as when fatal 
dysentery attacks a consumptive person, or one having chronic nephritis 
dies from pneumonia. The acute disease occurring independently 
of the chronic disease is the chief cause of death, although the fatal 
event may have been made more sure by the existence of the antecedent 
disease, and although the antecedent disease would have ultimately 
caused death. 

In attributing death to scrofula, tuberculosis, tumor, cancer and other 
generic terms, as causes, the organic structure or locality where 
the disease is developed should always be given, otherwise such 
terms are very indefinite, and discredit the acquirements of the certi- 
fying physician. 

The objects desired in presenting the preceding nomencla- 
ture of causes of death, and the suggestions following, are to sub- 
serve the purpose oi greater uniformity in the use of nosological terms, 
and to promote the accomplishment of entire definiteness, accuracy and 
completeness in the physicians' certificates of causes of death. 

The State of Rhode Island has a leading reputation for the com- 
pleteness of its vital statistics. It is not excelled by any State in the 
Union. With the exception of two or three, there are no States that 
have approximate completeness of numbers of decedents, and full 
of statements of fact connected therewith. It is hoped that the physi- 
cians of Rhode Island will feel a professional and patriotic interest in 
the further elevation of tin 1 reputation of the State as a collector of 
accurate and complete vital statists 



The Laws of Rhode Island 



IN RELATION TO T1IE REGISTRATION OF 

BIRTHS, MARRIAGES AND DEATHS, 

AND OF DIVORCE. 



PUBLIC STATUTES, CHAPTER 85, AND PUBLIC LAWS, CHAPTER 717. 



OF THE REGISTRATION OF BIRTHS, DEATHS AND MARRIAGES. 

Section 1. The town clerks of the several towns, or any person whom the 
board of aldermen of any city, or the town council of any town, may appoint 
for that purpose, shall obtain, chronologically record and index, as required by 
the forms prescribed by section three of this chapter, all information concerning 
births, marriages and deaths occurring among the inhabitants of their respective 
towns; and on or before the first Monday in March, annually, shall make duly 
certified returns thereof to the secretary of the state board of health for the year 
ending on the thirty -first day of December next preceding, accompanying the 
same with a list of the persons required by law to make returns to them, who 
have neglected to do so, and with such remarks relating to the object of this 
chapter as they may deem important to communicate. 

Sec. 2. The secretary of the state board of health shall receive the returns 
made in pursuance of the preceding section, and annually make a general abstract 
and report thereof, in form as prescribed by section three of this chapter, and 
publish nut exceeding one thousand copies thereof, and tor preparing, tabulating 
and publishing said annual report the sum of live hundred dollars shall be paid to 
the state registrar. Said returns, after such report is prepared, shall be deposited 
in the office of the secretary of state, who shall cause the same to be ana' 
full alphabetical indices of all the names to be mule, and the whole to be bound 
in volumes of convenient size and carefully preserved in his office. 

Sec. 3. The blank tonus required to cany out the provisions of this chapter 

shall, on application, be furnished by the secretary of the state board of health 

to clergymen, physicians, undertakers, town clerks, clerks of meetings of the 
M 



212 APPENDIX. 

Society of Friends, and other persons requiring them, substantially as follows: 
The record of a birth shall state the date and place of birth, name and sex of the 
child, whether born alive or still-born, the name and surname, color, occupation, 
residence and birthplace of the parents, and the time of recording, so far as the 
same can be ascertained. The record of a marriage shall state the date of the 
marriage, place, name, residence and official station of the person by whom mar- 
ried, names and surnames of the parties, age, color, occupation and residence of 
each, condition, that is whether single, widowed or divorced, what marriage, 
that is whether first, second, third or other marriage, the occupation, birthplace 
and name of their parents, and the time of recording, so far as the same can be 
ascertained. The record of deaths shall state the date of death, name and sur- 
name of the deceased, the sex, color and condition, whether single or married, 
age, occupation, place of death, place of birth, names and birthplace of parents, 
disease or cause of death, and the time of recording, so far as can be ascertained. 

Sec. 4. Every meeting of the Society of Friends, clergyman, and all others 
authorized to join persons in marriage, shall make a faithful record of every such 
rite performed by them, in manner and form aforesaid, and return the same for 
the last precediug mouth, on or before the second Monday of every month, to 
the town clerk of the town in which such rite shall have been performed ; and 
no marriage shall be solemnized until the parties shall have signed and delivered 
to the person about to solemnize it, or to the clerk of a meeting of the Society of 
Friends, a certificate containing the information required for the record of a 
marriage, as prescribed by this chapter. 

Sec. 5. The town clerk of every town shall annually, in the month of Janu- 
ary, collect the information required by this chapter, in relation to all children 
born in the town during the year ending on the thirty-first day of December next 
preceding. 

Sec. 6. Whenever any person shall die, or any still born child shall be brought 
forth in this state, the physician attending at such bringing forth or last sickness, 
if any physician so attended, shall, within forty-eight hours after such death or 
bringing forth, leave with the family, if any, or person having the care of the 
deceased, or the person bringing forth such still born child, or give to the under- 
taker or person who conducts the funeral a certificate stating, in case of a death, 
the name of the deceased, the date of the death, and the disease or cause of the 
death, and in case of the bringing forth of a still born child, the date and the 
cause of such child being brought forth still born. Provided, however, if the 
physician last in attendance shall not have knowledge of such death, or is other- 
wise reasonably prevented from leaving with the family or giving the undertaker 
such certificate within the time hereinbefore specified, or before the funeral or 
disposal of the remains of the deceased, he shall, within five days after having 
knowledge of such death by notification or otherwise, send to the town or city 
clerk or registrar of the town or city in which such death occurred a certificate, 
stating the name, date and disease or cause of death of such decedent. 



APPENDIX. 213 

Sec. 7. Every town council may appoint a sufficient number of persons to 
act as undertakers, removable at the pleasure of such council. 

Sec 8. No undertaker or other person shall conduct a funeral, or bury or de- 
posit in a tomb, or remove from this state, or otherwise dispose of the remain- of 
any deceased person or still born child unless he shall first obtain the physician's 
certificate required by section six of this chapter, if a physician was in attendance 
upon such person who has deceased, or the person bringing forth such still-horn 
child, and shall return the same, together with his own certificate of the infor- 
mation required by section three of this chapter, to the town clerk of the town 
where such death or bringing forth took place. Provided, however, that in such 
towns as allow the burial or removal of the bodies of deceased persons without 
a permit from the town clerk, and the undertaker or other person who has charge 
of the disposal of the remains of the deceased person is unable to obtain the said 
physician's certificate, after reasonable attempts therefor before the burial or re- 
moval of the said remains, then the said undertaker or other person shall make 
his return as required by section three of this chapter, including the cause of death 
and the name of the physician last in attendance upon the deceased, immediately 
to the town or city clerk or registrar of the town or city in which the death 
occurred, lie shall, also, within two days thereafter, notify the physician last in 
attendance upon the deceased person of the name and date of death of the same. 

Sec 9. Any town may make ordinances more effectually to attain the objects 
herein contemplated. 

Bkc. 10. The town clerks, or persons appointed as aforesaid, shall receive for 
each record of a death made and returned as required by law, and for each record 
of a marriage made and returned as required by law, twenty cents, to be paid to 
them out of their respective town treasuries : Provided, that the yearly compen- 
sation to be paid out of the town treasury as aforesaid, to any one town clerk or 
person appointed as aforesaid, who shall perform the duties prescribed by this 
chapter shall not be less than five dollars. Undertakers and others making re 
turns of death as required by sections six and eight of this chapter, shall receive 
for each full report of a death made to the town clerk live cents in the cities ,,t 
Providence and Newport, and ten ceuts in the other towns of the state. 

Sec 11. Every clergyman, physician, undertaker, town clerk, clerk of any 
meeting of the Society of Friends, or other person who shall wilfully or unreason- 
ably neglect or refuse to perform any of the duties imposed on or required of 
him by this chapter, shall he lined not exceeding twenty dollars i.or less than two 
dollars for each offence, one half thereof to the use of the town in which the 
offence shall occur, and one half thereof to the use of the person who shall com- 
plain of the same. 

Sec 12. Every clergyman, physician, coroner, undertaker, medical examiner, 
or clerk of any meeting of the Society of Friends, shall cause his name, residency 
and post office address to be recorded in the town clerk's office of the town where 
he resides. 



214 APPENDIX. 

Sec. 13. No letters of administration or letters testamentary shall be granted 
by any court of probate, upon the estate of any person, until the death of such 
person, or the facts from which the same is presumed, shall be duly certified, as 
near as may be, to the town clerk, in order that the same may be duly registered 
according to the provisions of this chapter. 

Sec. 14. The town clerks of the several towns, the city clerk of the city of 
Newport, and the city registrar of the city of Providence, shall have the custody 
of all records of births, deaths and marriages of their respective towns, whether 
made under the statutes now in force or any former statute, and a certificate signed 
by them, certifying that any written or printed statement of any marriage, birth 
or death is a true copy of the record in their custody, shall be admitted as evi- 
dence of such marriage, birth or death. 

Sec. 15. Births, marriages and deaths of non-residents shall be distinguished 
from those of residents, in the returns, by being arranged separately. 

Sec 16. The secretary of the state board of health may, from time to time, 
vary the forms of returns, and require such additional information as he may 
consider necessary to accomplish the object of this chapter. 

Sec 17. The town clerks or other officers appointed under this chapter to col- 
lect, record and return the births in the several towns, shall receive fees therefor 
as follows : For making record and return of these facts as required by law, 
twenty cents each for the first fifty entries in each calendar year, and ten cents 
each for each subsequent entry and return ; to be paid by the town in which the 
birth is recorded. 

Sec 18. The town clerks of the several towns, or other persons appointed 
under this chapter to collect the births in the several towns, shall annually in the 
month of January collect the facts concerning the births within their respective 
towns, required by this chapter ; and shall, so far as practicable, at the same time 
collect the names of all persons liable to be enrolled in the militia, as required by 
title thirty-four ; and the census of all persons between the ages of five and fif- 
teen years inclusive, as provided by chapter fifty ; and shall receive therefor such 
compensation as the town council or the board of aldermen of their respective 
towns or cities shall determine : Provided, that the city of Providence shall be 
exempt from so much of the provisions of this section as relates to the collection 
of the statistics of births. 

Sec 19. Blanks for the foregoing purposes shall be furnished, on application 
therefor, on or before the first day of December in the year preceding, by the state 
board of health for the collection of births, by the adjutant-general for the taking 
of the enrolled militia, and by the commissioner of public schools for the census 
aforesaid . 

Sec 20. The person or persons who shall discharge the duties required by 
section eighteen of this chapter, if other than the town clerk, shall make full 
return thereof to the town clerk of his or their town, on or before the tenth day 
of February next following. 



APPEKDIX. 215 

Sec. 21. The returns required to be made by clerks of the supreme court, in 
relation to divorces, to the secretary of the state board of health, or a prepared 
abstract thereof, shall be published in the annual report on the births, marriages 
and deaths in the state. 



SYNOPSIS OF TIIK LAW OF MAERIAGE. 



CHAPTER 163, PUBLIC STATUTES. 

Sections 1, 2 and 3 show what kindred persons cannot marry, and declare 
marriages within prohibited degrees null and void. 

Section 4 makes an exception in favor of Jews, within the degrees of affinity 
or consanguinity allowed by their religion. 

Section 5 declares the marriage of persons having a husband or wife living, 
and of idiots and of lunatics, absolutely void. 

Sec. 0. "Any ordained minister or elder of any religious denomination, who 
shall be domiciled in this stale, and either justice of the supreme court, may join 
persons in marriage in any town in the state." (It will be seen that clergymen 
from other states cannot lawfully solemnize marriage* in Rhode Island.) 

Sec. 8. Wardens in the town of New Shoreham may join persons in marriage 
in said town. 

Section 9 provides that no minister, elder, magistrate or warden shall join per- 
sons in marriage, unless such person, •// residents of this state, shall first 
present (to the clergyman or other person officiating) a certificate properly exe- 
cuted and signed by the town or city clerk or city registrar of the town or city 
in which EACH of such jyersons shall RESFECTIVELY reside, 
and •*/ not residents of this state, then from the town or city clerk or reg- 
istrar of the town or city in which tlic marriage shall be solemnited, lo the effeel that 
the said town or city clerk or registrar has duly recorded the intention of 
marriage between the parties named in the certificate, the Baid certificate also 
setting forth the names and surnames of the parties, the age, color, occupation, 
birthplace and residence of each, whether either or both have been before mar- 
ried, and, if before married, whether the marriage intended ia the Bret, BOCOnd, 
third or other marriage, and also whether the condition of either or both pi I 
previously married is that of a divorced person, and the names, occupation and 
birthplace of each of their parents ; and no town or city clerk or city registrar 
shall issue such certificate to any minor person under guardianship, unless the 
consent in writing of the parent or guardian shall have been tir.-t obtained thereto; 



216 APPENDIX. 

provided, however, such certificate may be issued to a female over eighteen years 
of age, who has no parent or guardian living in the United States. (The legal 
minority of both sexes terminates at the age of twenty-one.) 

Section 10 provides that every Society of Friends, and every person authorized 
to join persons in marriage, shall certify upon the certificate required in section 
nine of this chapter the time when and the place where the marriage shall have 
been solemnized by him, and shall on or before the second Monday of every month, 
return the certificate of every marriage solemnized by him during the last pre- 
ceding month, to the clerk or registrar of the town or city in which such rite 
shall have been performed. 

Section 11 forbids the solemnization of the marriage ceremony, by any per- 
son, when lawful objection is made thereto in writing, until such lawful objection 
be removed. 

Sections 12 and 13 provide that any person who shall join persons in marriage 
without first receiving the certificate required in section nine of this chapter, or 
otherwise contrary to or in violation of chapter 163 of the Public Statutes, shall 
be imprisoned not exceeding six months, or fined not exceeding one thousand 
dollars. 

Section 14 provides that all persons married without duly proceeding as re- 
quired by chapter 163, shall be fined not exceeding fifty dollars. 

Sec. 15. The solemnization of marriage shall be in the presence of two wit- 
nesses at least, besides the minister, elder or magistrate officiating. 

Section 16 relates to marriage among Quakers or Friends, and among Jews, 
making them valid if in accordance with the forms, rites and ceremonies of the 
same respectively. 

Section 17 provides that at least one of the parties to any marriage solemnized 
according to the manner and form of the Society of Friends, or rites and cere- 
monies of the Jewish religion shall, before the celebration thereof, sign and de- 
liver to the town or city clerk or city registrar of the town or city in which such 
marriage is solemnized, the certificate required in section nine. 



CHAPTER 167. 
OF DIVORCE. 



Section 1. Divorces from the bond of marriage shall be decreed in case of 
any marriage originally void or voidable by law, and in case either party is for 
crime deemed to be or treated as if civilly dead, or, from absence or other cir- 
cumstances, may be presumed to be naturally dead. 

Sec. 2. Divorces shall be 'decreed for impotency, adultery, extreme cruelty, 
wilful desertion for five years of either of the parties, or for such desertion for a 
shorter period of time in the discretion of the court, for continued drunkenness, 



APPENDIX. 217 

for neglect or refusal on the part of tbe husband, being of sufficient ability, to 
provide necessaries for tbe subsistence of his wife ; and for any other gross mis- 
behavior and wickedness in either of the parties, repugnant to and in violation 
of the marriage covenant. 

Sec. 3. Whenever it shall appear that the absence, adultery, cruelty, desertion 
or other cause of complaint, as aforesaid, was committed or occasioned by the 
collusion of the parties, and done and contrived with an intention to procure a 
divorce, in such case no divorce shall be decreed. 

Skc 4. Whenever a divorce shall be had for the causes of affinity, consan- 
guinity, impotency, idiocy, lunacy, or crime of either of the parties, the wife Bball 
have restored to her all her lands, tenements and hereditaments; and a judgment 
may be passed for a restoration to her of all ur such part of the personal i 
specifically, or the value thereof, which has come to the husband's bands by virtue 
of the marriage, as the court from the circumstances of the case shall deem 
equitable. 

BBC 5. Whenever the divorce shall be occasioned by adultery, or other of tbe 
causes aforesaid, done or committed on the part of the wife, the husband shall 
bold the personal estate not secured to her by law, forever, and her real estate not 
-'■I ned to her by law during his natural life, in case they have bad issue born 
alive of her body during the marriage, otherwise during her natural life only, if 
be -hall survive her. 

Six. G. The court may, in such case, allow the wife for her subsistence so 
much of her real and personal estate as they shall deem necessary or proper. 

Skc. 7. Whenever a divorce is granted for adultery or crime on the part of 
the husband, the wife Bhall be entitled to dower in the same manner as if he were 
dead, unless the court shall decree alimony, chargeable upon the estate of the 
husband, instead of such dower. 

Sec. 8. Whenever a divorce shall be had for adultery, or for an}- of the causes 
aforesaid, done or committed on the part of the husband, the wife shall continue 
to hold all her property, real and personal, secured to her by law, free from any 
right in or control over her disposition of the same, either during her life or at 
her death ; and, if there be fto issue living, shall be restored to all other her lands, 
tenements and hereditaments, if any there be. 

Sec. 9. In such case the wife shall also be allowed out of the real or personal 
te of the husband, or out of both, such alimony as the court shall think rea- 
sonable, not exceeding the use of one moiety of bis real estate, during the life of 
the wife, and the property of one half of his personal estate, having regard to the 
personal property that came to the husband by the marriage, and his ability. 

. 10. If there be issue living at the time of the divorce, the court, with 
regard to ordering restoration to the wife of such of her lands, tenements or here- 
ditaments, if any, as may QOt be secured to her by law, and in regard to the amount 
Of alimony to be allowed to her out of the property of the husband, may do as 
they shall judge the circumstances of the case may require. 



218 APPENDIX. 

Sec 11. Divorces from bed, board, and future cobabitation, until tbe parties 
be reconciled, may be granted for any of the causes for which by law a divorce 
from the bond of marriage may be decreed, and for such other causes as may seem 
to require the same. 

Sec 12. In case of such divorce, the court may assign to the petitioner a sep- 
arate maintenance out of the estate or property of the husband or wife, as the 
case may be, in such manner, and of such amount as they may think necessary 
or proper. 

Sec. 13. Every petition shall be signed by the petitioner, if of sound mind 
and of legal age to consent to marriage, otherwise upon application to the court, 
and after notice to the party in whose name the petition shall be filed, the court 
may allow such petition to be signed by a guardian or next friend. 

Sec. 14. All jurisdiction over divorce, alimony, separate maintenance, or the 
custody, education, and support of the children of persons divorced or petition- 
ing for a divorce, is vested in the supreme court. 

Sec 15. Said court shall have no cognizance of or jurisdiction over any peti- 
tion for the same, or either of the same, unless the petitioner shall, at the time of 
preferring such petition, be a domiciled inhabitant of this state, and have resided 
therein for the period of one year, next before the preferring of such petition. 

Sec 16. All such petitions shall be filed, heard and tried in the county in 
which the petitioner shall reside. 

Sec 17. The said court may, by general rule or otherwise, prescribe the notice 
to be given, within or without the state, on such petitions, and may issue such 
process as may be necessary to carry into effect all powers conferred upon them 
in relation to the same. 

Sections 18, 19 and 20 contain provisions in relation to citations to adverse 
party residing without the state, or in parts unknown. 

Sec 21. Whenever any citation, issued under the provisions of this chapter, 
shall be served by a disinterested person, such person shall return the same, hav- 
ing made oath thereon of the place where, the time when, and the manner in 
which he shall have made service of the said citations. 

Section 22 provides for giving and ensuring proper and sufficient notice to 
the adverse party. 

Sec 23. The said court is empowered to regulate the custody, and provide 
for the education, maintenance and support of the children of all persons by 
them divorced or petitioning for a divorce, and of all persons to whom a separate 
maintenance may be granted, or who may petition for the same ; to make such 
allowance to the wife, out of the estate of her husband, for the purpose of en- 
abling her to prosecute or defend against any such petition for divorce or separate 
maintenance, in case she has no property of her own available for such purpose, 
as they may think reasonable and proper ; and to make all necessary orders and 
decrees concerning the same, and the same at any time to alter, amend and annul 
for sufficient cause, after notice to the parties interested therein. 



APPENDIX. 219 

Sec. 24. Tbe said court may authorize a married woman to whom a divorce 
from the bund of marriage is decreed to change her name, with the same rights 
and liabilities as if her name had not been changed. 

Sec 25. After the filing and during tbe pendency of any petition under this 
chapter, the supreme court may, as in equity, make such interlocutory decrees, 
or grant such temporary injunctions as may be necessary, until a hearing can be 
bad before tbe court. 



ClIAITEIi 198. 
OP DIVORCES. 



Section 5. The clerks of the supreme court in the several counties shall make 
returns to the secretary of the state board of health, on or before the first day of 
March, in each and every year, for the year ending on tbe thirty-first day of 
December preceding, of all the applications for divorce, showing the number, 
tbe number granted, and tbe causes which are given for the application, but 
Without the names of the parties, in accordance with the blanks which shall be 
furnished them by tbe secretary of the state board of health. 



INDEX. 

See, also, Contents, pc 



Accidents 10,146 

Ages at time of death 128 

Apoplexy. Tables 16, 150 

Births, plural 6, 93 

thirty-five yeara 70-99 

" diagram of ... 80 

illegitimate. Table 99 

still horn. Table 96 

" sex, season, parentage, color, etc. - 96-99 

Brain, diseases of. Table 159 

Bronchitis. Table IT, 155 

17,156 

< lauses of death, alphabetically arranged 10 

Child birth. Table 18, 159 

Cholera infantum. Table 18,161 

Consumption. Tables .162 166 

Croup. Tables 167, is!) 

Deaths, causes of . Tables 189-196 

" alphabetical order, months If) 

" ages 96 

" classification and Percentage. Tables 86 

" Diagram of 186 

" rates of, in various counties, etc 121 

Decedents, Bex, Beason, parentage, age, color, etc. Tables 120 188 

" occupation and age. Tables M 

" " " causes of death. Tables 

Diarrhoea and Dysentery. Table 169 

Diagram I. Births 

" II. Deaths 186 

" III. Deaths, comparison of causes of 195 



222 APPENDIX. 

Diphtheria. Tables 170, 199 

Divorces. Tables 114 

" ratio of to marriages, different Slates. Table. 118 

Fevers, malarial 172 

typhoid, etc. Tables . . .173-175 

" percentage in different States. Table 175 

Heart, diseases of. Tables 175-178 

Hydrocephalus 31 

Illegitimates. Table 99 

Insanity. Table 178 

Intemperance and alcoholism. Table 149 

Kidney, diseases of. Table 180 

' ' Bright's disease of 32 

Laryngitis '. 22 

Laws in relation to registration of births, marriages and deaths 211 

•' " " divorce 21 G 

" of marriage 214 

Liver, diseases of. Table. 181 

Malarial diseases, fevers ; 172 

Marriages, 1888. Tables 100-112 

nativity of. Tables , 103 

" ages of persons married. Tables 104-110 

" colored Ill 

" of the divorced 112 

Measles 22 

Nomenclature of diseases 198-201 

Occupations and ages at death 44 

" " causes of death 51 

Old age. Table 183 

Paralysis. Table 150 

Physicians' certificates concerning death 208 

Pneumonia. Tables , 184-i86 

Results, comparative, eleven years. Table 191 

Rheumatism 23 

Scarlatina. Tables 187-189 

Still born children. Table 95 

Suicide. Table 190 

Whooping cough 24 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 

This book is due on the date indicated below, or at the 
expiration of a definite period after the date of borrowing, as 
provided by the library rules or by special arrangement with 
the Librarian in charge. 


DATE BORROWED 


DATE DUE 


DATE BORROWED 


DATE DUE 


































































































































C28 i 842 i MSO